Retinoic acid receptor beta

Retinoic acid receptor beta
Retinoic acid receptor, beta

PDB rendering based on 1dsz.
Symbols RARB; HAP; NR1B2; RRB2
External IDs OMIM180220 MGI97857 HomoloGene68100 IUPHAR: NR1B2 GeneCards: RARB Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE RARB 205080 at tn.png
PBB GE RARB 208530 s at tn.png
PBB GE RARB 208412 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 5915 218772
Ensembl ENSG00000077092 ENSMUSG00000017491
UniProt P10826 Q8K1P6
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000965.3 NM_011243.1
RefSeq (protein) NP_000956.2 NP_035373.1
Location (UCSC) Chr 3:
25.22 – 25.64 Mb
Chr 14:
17.26 – 17.65 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-beta), also known as NR1B2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group B, member 2) is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the RARB gene.[1][2]



This gene encodes retinoic acid receptor beta, a member of the thyroid-steroid hormone receptor superfamily of nuclear transcriptional regulators. This receptor localizes to the cytoplasm and to subnuclear compartments. It binds retinoic acid, the biologically active form of vitamin A which mediates cellular signalling in embryonic morphogenesis, cell growth and differentiation. It is thought that this protein limits growth of many cell types by regulating gene expression. The gene was first identified in a hepatocellular carcinoma where it flanks a hepatitis B virus integration site. The gene expresses at least two transcript variants; one additional transcript has been described, but its full length nature has not been determined.[1]


Retinoic acid receptor beta has been shown to interact with NR4A2.[3]

See also


  1. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: RARB retinoic acid receptor, beta". 
  2. ^ Mattei MG, de Thé H, Mattei JF, Marchio A, Tiollais P, Dejean A (October 1988). "Assignment of the human hap retinoic acid receptor RAR beta gene to the p24 band of chromosome 3". Hum. Genet. 80 (2): 189–90. doi:10.1007/BF00702867. PMID 2844650. 
  3. ^ Perlmann T, Jansson L (April 1995). "A novel pathway for vitamin A signaling mediated by RXR heterodimerization with NGFI-B and NURR1". Genes Dev. 9 (7): 769–82. doi:10.1101/gad.9.7.769. PMID 7705655. 

Further reading

  • Dejean A, de Thé H (1990). "Hepatitis B virus as an insertional mutagene in a human hepatocellular carcinoma". Mol. Biol. Med. 7 (3): 213–22. PMID 2170809. 
  • Sun SY (2004). "Retinoic acid receptor beta and colon cancer". Cancer Biol. Ther. 3 (1): 87–8. doi:10.4161/cbt.3.1.686. PMID 14726690. 
  • Saba N, Jain S, Khuri F (2004). "Chemoprevention in lung cancer". Current problems in cancer 28 (5): 287–306. doi:10.1016/j.currproblcancer.2004.05.005. PMID 15375805. 
  • Klein O, Grignon Y, Civit T et al. (2006). "[Methylation status of RARbeta gene promoter in low and high grade cerebral glioma. Comparison with normal tissue. Immuno-histochemical study of nuclear RARbeta expression in low and high grade cerebral glioma cells. Comparison with normal cells. 48 tumors]". Neuro-Chirurgie 51 (3–4 Pt 1): 147–54. PMID 16389900. 
  • Katahira M, Knegtel RM, Boelens R et al. (1992). "Homo- and heteronuclear NMR studies of the human retinoic acid receptor beta DNA-binding domain: sequential assignments and identification of secondary structure elements". Biochemistry 31 (28): 6474–80. doi:10.1021/bi00143a017. PMID 1321662. 
  • Berrodin TJ, Marks MS, Ozato K et al. (1992). "Heterodimerization among thyroid hormone receptor, retinoic acid receptor, retinoid X receptor, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor, and an endogenous liver protein". Mol. Endocrinol. 6 (9): 1468–78. doi:10.1210/me.6.9.1468. PMID 1331778. 
  • van der Leede BJ, Folkers GE, Kruyt FA, van der Saag PT (1992). "Genomic organization of the human retinoic acid receptor beta 2". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 188 (2): 695–702. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(92)91112-4. PMID 1332705. 
  • Prentice A, Matthews CJ, Thomas EJ, Redfern CP (1992). "The expression of retinoic acid receptors in cultured human endometrial stromal cells and effects of retinoic acid". Hum. Reprod. 7 (5): 692–700. PMID 1379266. 
  • Shen S, Kruyt FA, den Hertog J et al. (1992). "Mouse and human retinoic acid receptor beta 2 promoters: sequence comparison and localization of retinoic acid responsiveness". DNA Seq. 2 (2): 111–9. doi:10.3109/10425179109039679. PMID 1663808. 
  • de Thé H, Vivanco-Ruiz MM, Tiollais P et al. (1990). "Identification of a retinoic acid responsive element in the retinoic acid receptor beta gene". Nature 343 (6254): 177–80. doi:10.1038/343177a0. PMID 2153268. 
  • Hoffmann B, Lehmann JM, Zhang XK et al. (1991). "A retinoic acid receptor-specific element controls the retinoic acid receptor-beta promoter". Mol. Endocrinol. 4 (11): 1727–36. doi:10.1210/mend-4-11-1727. PMID 2177841. 
  • de Thé H, Marchio A, Tiollais P, Dejean A (1988). "A novel steroid thyroid hormone receptor-related gene inappropriately expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma". Nature 330 (6149): 667–70. doi:10.1038/330667a0. PMID 2825037. 
  • Brand N, Petkovich M, Krust A et al. (1988). "Identification of a second human retinoic acid receptor". Nature 332 (6167): 850–3. doi:10.1038/332850a0. PMID 2833708. 
  • Benbrook D, Lernhardt E, Pfahl M (1988). "A new retinoic acid receptor identified from a hepatocellular carcinoma". Nature 333 (6174): 669–72. doi:10.1038/333669a0. PMID 2836738. 
  • Dejean A, Bougueleret L, Grzeschik KH, Tiollais P (1986). "Hepatitis B virus DNA integration in a sequence homologous to v-erb-A and steroid receptor genes in a hepatocellular carcinoma". Nature 322 (6074): 70–2. doi:10.1038/322070a0. PMID 3014347. 
  • Si SP, Tsou HC, Lee X, Peacocke M (1995). "Effect of cellular senescence and retinoic acid on the expression of cellular retinoic acid binding proteins in skin fibroblasts". Exp. Cell Res. 219 (1): 243–8. doi:10.1006/excr.1995.1224. PMID 7628539. 
  • Houle B, Pelletier M, Wu J et al. (1994). "Fetal isoform of human retinoic acid receptor beta expressed in small cell lung cancer lines". Cancer Res. 54 (2): 365–9. PMID 8275470. 
  • Knegtel RM, Katahira M, Schilthuis JG et al. (1993). "The solution structure of the human retinoic acid receptor-beta DNA-binding domain". J. Biomol. NMR 3 (1): 1–17. doi:10.1007/BF00242472. PMID 8383553. 

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.

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