SOX genes


SOX genes

"SOX" genes encode a family of transcription factors that bind to the minor groove in DNA, and belong to a super-family of genes characterized by a homologous sequence called the HMG (high mobility group) box. This HMG box is a DNA binding domain that is highly conserved throughout eukaryotic species. Homologues have been identified in insects, nematodes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and a range of mammals. However, HMG boxes can be very diverse in nature, with only a few amino acids being conserved between species.

Sox genes are defined as containing the HMG box of a gene involved in sex determination called "SRY", which resides on the Y-chromosome (Sox stands for Sry-related HMG box). Around 30 SOX genes have been identified. There are 20 present in humans and mice, and 8 present in Drosophila. Almost all Sox genes show at least 50% amino acid similarity with the HMG box in Sry. The family is divided into subgroups according to homology within the HMG domain and other structural motifs, as well as according to functional assays.

The developmentally important Sox family has no singular function, and many members possess the ability to regulate several different aspects of development. While many Sox genes are involved in sex determination, some are also important in processes such as neuronal development. For example, Sox2 and Sox3 are involved in the transition between epithelial granule cells in the cerebellum to their migratory state. Granule cells then differentiate to granule neurons, with Sox11 being involved in this process. It is thought that some Sox genes may be useful in the early diagnosis of childhood brain tumours due to this sequential expression in the cerebellum, making them a target for significant research.

Sox4 is a transcription factor in lymphocytes (B and T) and is required for B lymphocyte development.cite journal |author=Smith E, Sigvardsson M |title=The roles of transcription factors in B lymphocyte commitment, development, and transformation |journal=J. Leukoc. Biol. |volume=75 |issue=6 |pages=973–81 |year=2004 |pmid=14982952 |doi=10.1189/jlb.1103554]

Genes

* SOX1 (Gene|SOX1), SOX2 (Gene|SOX2), SOX3 (Gene|SOX3), SOX4 (Gene|SOX4), SOX5 (Gene|SOX5), SOX6 (Gene|SOX6), SOX7 (Gene|SOX7), SOX8 (Gene|SOX8), SOX9 (Gene|SOX9), SOX10 (Gene|SOX10), SOX11 (Gene|SOX11), SOX12 (Gene|SOX12), SOX13 (Gene|SOX13), SOX14 (Gene|SOX14), SOX15 (Gene|SOX15), SOX17 (Gene|SOX17), SOX18 (Gene|SOX18), SOX21 (Gene|SOX21), SOX30 (Gene|SOX30)

ee also

*Homeobox
*Pax genes
*Evolutionary developmental biology
*Body plan

References

*cite journal
last=Rex
first=M
title=Granule cell development in the cerebellum is punctuated by changes in Sox gene expression
journal=Brain research. Molecular Brain Research.
volume=55
issue=1
year=1998
month=Mar
pages=28–34
pmid=9645957|
doi=10.1016/S0169-328X(97)00354-9

*cite journal
last=Wegner
first=M
title=From head to toes: the multiple facets of Sox proteins
journal= Nucleic Acids Res.
volume=27
issue=6
year=1999
month=Mar
pages=1409–1420
pmid=10037800|
doi=10.1093/nar/27.6.1409

*cite journal
last=Wright
first=EM
coauthors= Snopek B; Koopman P.
title=Seven new members of the Sox gene family expressed during mouse development.
journal= Nucleic Acids Res.
volume=21
issue=3
year=1993
month=Feb
pmid=8441686|
doi=10.1093/nar/21.3.744

*cite journal
last=Bowles
first=J
coauthors= Schepers G; Koopman P.
title=Phylogeny of the SOX family of developmental transcription factors based on sequence and structural indicators.
journal= Dev Biol.
volume=227
issue=2
year=2000
month=Nov
pmid=11071752 |
doi=10.1006/dbio.2000.9883


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • SOX15 — SRY (sex determining region Y) box 15, also known as SOX15, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: SOX15 SRY (sex determining region Y) box 15| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene Cmd=ShowDetailView TermToSearch=6665|… …   Wikipedia

  • SOX3 — SRY (sex determining region Y) box 3, also known as SOX3, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: SOX3 SRY (sex determining region Y) box 3| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene Cmd=ShowDetailView TermToSearch=6658|… …   Wikipedia

  • SOX21 — SRY (sex determining region Y) box 21, also known as SOX21, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: SOX21 SRY (sex determining region Y) box 21| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene Cmd=ShowDetailView TermToSearch=11166| …   Wikipedia

  • SOX4 — SRY (sex determining region Y) box 4, also known as SOX4, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: SOX4 SRY (sex determining region Y) box 4| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene Cmd=ShowDetailView TermToSearch=6659|… …   Wikipedia


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