- General transcription factor
General transcription factors (GTF's) or basal transcription factors are
protein transcription factors that have been shown to be important in the transcription of class II genes to mRNAtemplates cite journal | author = Lee TI, Young RA | title = Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes | journal = Annu. Rev. Genet. | volume = 34 | issue = | pages = 77–137 | year = 2000 | pmid = 11092823 | doi = 10.1146/annurev.genet.34.1.77] . Many of them are involved in the formation of a preinitiation complex, which, together with RNA polymerase II, bind to and read the single-stranded DNA gene template.cite journal | author = Orphanides G, Lagrange T, Reinberg D | title = The general transcription factors of RNA polymerase II | journal = Genes Dev. | volume = 10 | issue = 21 | pages = 2657–83 | year = 1996 | pmid = 8946909 | doi = 10.1101/gad.10.21.2657 ]
GTFs are intimately involved in the process of gene regulation, and most are required for life.
TATA binding protein, (TBP) is a GTF that binds to the TATAA box (T= Thymine, A= Adenine) the motif of nucleic acids that is directly upstream from the coding region in all genes. TBP is responsible for the recruitment of the RNA Pol IIholoenzyme, the final event in transcription initiation. These proteins are ubiquitous and interact with the core promoter region of DNA, which contains the transcription start site(s) of all class II genes.
Not all GTFs play a role in transcriptional initiation; some are required for the second general step in transcription,
elongation. For example, members of the FACT complex (Spt16/Pob3 in "S. cerevisiae", SUPT16H/SSRP1 in humans) facilitate the rapid movement of RNA Pol II over the encoding region of genes. This is accomplished by moving the histoneoctamer out of the way of an active polymerase and thereby decondensing the chromatin.
The general transcription factors that are required for transcription by RNA polymerase II in a test tube arecite journal | author = Lee TI, Young RA | title = Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes | journal = Annu. Rev. Genet. | volume = 34 | issue = | pages = 77–137 | year = 2000 | pmid = 11092823 | doi = 10.1146/annurev.genet.34.1.77] :
* [http://tfiib.med.harvard.edu/transcription/tfiia.html TFIIA] (see
TFIIA; TFIIA is not a real basal transcription factor.)
* [http://tfiib.med.harvard.edu/transcription/tfiib.html TFIIB] (see
* [http://tfiib.med.harvard.edu/transcription/tfiid.html TFIID] (see
TFIIDand TATA binding protein)
* [http://tfiib.med.harvard.edu/transcription/tfiie.html TFIIE] (see
* [http://tfiib.med.harvard.edu/transcription/tfiif.html TFIIF] (see
* [http://tfiib.med.harvard.edu/transcription/tfiih.html TFIIH] (see
Note: Basal transcription in test tubes has been achieved using only highly-purified recombinant TFIIB and TFIIF.
RNA polymerase IIfor simpler explanation on transcription factors
Nuclear receptor, an important class of transcription factors
* http://www.yeastgenome.org has highly detailed information on most known GTF's and is an excellent resource for students and researchers alike
*Descriptive images of GTF assembly
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Look at other dictionaries:
Transcription Factor II B — (TFIIB) is one of several general transcription factors that make up the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex.cite book | author = Lewin, Benjamin | title = Genes VIII | publisher = Pearson Prentice Hall | location = Upper Saddle River, NJ |… … Wikipedia
Transcription Factor II D — (TFIID) is one of several general transcription factors that make up the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex.cite book | author = Lewin, Benjamin | title = Genes VIII | publisher = Pearson Prentice Hall | location = Upper Saddle River, NJ |… … Wikipedia
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Transcription Factor II F — protein Name = general transcription factor IIF, polypeptide 1, 74kDa caption = width = HGNCid = 4652 Symbol = GTF2F1 AltSymbols = TFIIF, BTF4, RAP74 EntrezGene = 2962 OMIM = 189968 RefSeq = NM 002096 UniProt = P35269 PDB = ECnumber = Chromosome … Wikipedia
Transcription Factor II E — protein Name = general transcription factor IIE, polypeptide 1, alpha 56kDa caption = width = HGNCid = 4650 Symbol = GTF2E1 AltSymbols = TF2E1 EntrezGene = 2960 OMIM = 189962 RefSeq = NM 005513 UniProt = P29083 PDB = ECnumber = Chromosome = 3 Arm … Wikipedia
Transcription Factor II A — protein Name = general transcription factor IIA, 1, 19/37kDa caption = width = HGNCid = 4646 Symbol = GTF2A1 AltSymbols = EntrezGene = 2957 OMIM = 600520 RefSeq = NM 201595 UniProt = P52655 PDB = ECnumber = Chromosome = 14 Arm = q Band = 31… … Wikipedia
Transcription Factor II H — protein Name= general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 1, 62kDa caption= width= HGNCid=4655 Symbol=GTF2H1 AltSymbols= BTF2 EntrezGene=2965 OMIM=189972 RefSeq=NM 005316 UniProt=P32780 PDB= ECnumber= Chromosome=11 Arm=p Band=15.1… … Wikipedia
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