STAT1 is a member of the Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription family of transcription factors. STAT1 is involved in upregulating genes due to a signal by either type I or type II interferons. In response to IFN-γ stimulation, STAT1 forms homodimers or heterodimers with STAT3 that bind to the GAS (Interferon-Gamma Activated Sequence) promoter element; in response to either IFN-α or IFN-β stimulation, STAT1 forms a heterodimer with STAT2 that can bind the ISRE (Interferon Stimulated Response Element) promoter element. [cite journal |author=Michael G. Katze, Yupeng He & Michael Gale, "et al" |title=Viruses and interferon: a fight for supremacy. |journal=Nature Reviews Immunology |volume=2 |number=9 |pages=675–87 |year=2002 |pmid=12209136 |doi=10.1038/nri888] In either case, binding of the promoter element leads to an increased expression of ISG (Interferon Stimulated Genes).

Expression of STAT1 can be induced with diallyl disulfide, a compound in garlic. [cite journal | author=Lu HF, Yang JS, Lin YT, Tan TW, Ip SW, Li YC, Tsou MF, Chung JG. |title=Diallyl disulfide induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 expression in human colon cancer colo 205 cells using differential display RT-PCR.|journal=Cancer Genomics Proteomics. |volume=4 |issue= 2 |pages= 93–97 |year= 2007 |pmid= 17804871 |doi= ]


Further reading

citations =
*cite journal | author=Cebulla CM, Miller DM, Sedmak DD |title=Viral inhibition of interferon signal transduction. |journal=Intervirology |volume=42 |issue= 5-6 |pages= 325–30 |year= 2000 |pmid= 10702714 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Kisseleva T, Bhattacharya S, Braunstein J, Schindler CW |title=Signaling through the JAK/STAT pathway, recent advances and future challenges. |journal=Gene |volume=285 |issue= 1-2 |pages= 1–24 |year= 2002 |pmid= 12039028 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Joseph AM, Kumar M, Mitra D |title=Nef: "necessary and enforcing factor" in HIV infection. |journal=Curr. HIV Res. |volume=3 |issue= 1 |pages= 87–94 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15638726 |doi=

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