Early growth response 1

Cartoon representation of Zif268 (blue) containing three zinc fingers in complex with DNA (orange). The coordinating amino acid residues of the middle zinc ion (green) are highlighted.
Symbols EGR1; AT225; G0S30; KROX-24; NGFI-A; TIS8; ZIF-268; ZNF225
External IDs OMIM128990 MGI95295 HomoloGene56394 GeneCards: EGR1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE EGR1 201694 s at tn.png
PBB GE EGR1 201693 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 1958 13653
Ensembl ENSG00000120738 ENSMUSG00000038418
UniProt P18146 Q3UM09
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001964.2 NM_007913.5
RefSeq (protein) NP_001955.1 NP_031939.1
Location (UCSC) Chr 5:
137.8 – 137.81 Mb
Chr 18:
35.02 – 35.02 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

EGR-1 (Early growth response protein 1) also known as Zif268 (zinc finger protein 225) or NGFI-A (nerve growth factor-induced protein A) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EGR1 gene.

EGR-1 is a mammalian transcription factor. It was also named Krox-24, TIS8, and ZENK. It was originally discovered in mice.



The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the EGR family of C2H2-type zinc-finger proteins. It is a nuclear protein and functions as a transcriptional regulator. The products of target genes it activates are required for differentiation and mitogenesis. Studies suggest this is a tumor suppressor gene.[1]


The DNA-binding domain of Zif268 consists of three zinc finger domains of the Cys2His2 type. The amino acid structure of the Zif268 zinc finger domain is given in this table, using the single letter amino acid code. The fingers 1 to 3 are indicated by f1 - f3. The numbers are in reference to the residues (amino acids) of alpha helix (there is no '0'). The residues marked 'x' are not part of the zinc fingers, but rather serve to connect them all together.

-1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 x x x x x
f1 M A E E R P Y A C P V E S C D R R F S R S D E L T R H I R I H T G Q K P
f2 F O C A I  ?  ? C M R N F S R S D H L T T H I A T H T G E K P
f3 F A C D I  ?  ? C G R K F A R S D E R K R H T K I H L R Q K D

The crystal structure of DNA bound by the zinc finger domain of Zif268 was solved in 1991, which greatly aided early research in zinc finger DNA-binding domains.[2]

The human Zif268/EGR1 protein contains (in its unprocessed form) 543 amino acids with a molecular weight of 57.5 kDa, and the gene is located on the chromosome 5.


Zif268 binds the DNA sequence 5'-GCG[G/T]GGGCG-3'.[3][4]

It has a distinct pattern of expression in the brain, and its induction has been shown to be associated with neuronal activity. Several studies suggest it has a role in neuronal plasticity.[5]

Zif268 has also been found to regulate the expression of synaptobrevin II (a protein important for synaptic exocytosis).[6]


Zif268 has been shown to interact with NAB1,[7] CEBPB,[8] EP300,[9] CREB-binding protein,[9] PSMA3[10] and P53.[11]

See also


  1. ^ "Entrez Gene: EGR1 early growth response 1". 
  2. ^ Pavletich, N. P. and C. O. Pabo (1991). "Zinc finger-DNA recognition: crystal structure of a Zif268-DNA complex at 2.1 A." Science 252(5007): 809-17.
  3. ^ Christy B, Nathans D (1989). "DNA binding site of the growth factor-inducible protein Zif268". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86 (22): 8737–41. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.22.8737. PMC 298363. PMID 2510170. 
  4. ^ Swirnoff AH, Milbrandt J (1995). "DNA-binding specificity of NGFI-A and related zinc finger transcription factors". Mol. Cell. Biol. 15 (4): 2275–87. PMC 230455. PMID 7891721. 
  5. ^ Knapska, E and Kaczmarek, L (2004) "A gene for Neuronal Plasticity in the Mammalian Brain: Zif286/Egr1/NGFI-A/Krox-24/TIS-8/ZENK?" Progress in Neurobiology 74, 2004
  6. ^ Petersohn,D and Thiel. G (1996)"Role of zinc-finger proteins Sp1 and zif268/egr-1 in transcriptional regulation of the human synaptobrevin II gene" European Journal of Biochemistry, 239, 1996
  7. ^ Russo, M W; Sevetson B R, Milbrandt J (Jul. 1995). "Identification of NAB1, a repressor of NGFI-A- and Krox20-mediated transcription". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 92 (15): 6873–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.15.6873. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 41432. PMID 7624335. 
  8. ^ Zhang, Fang; Lin Meihong, Abidi Parveen, Thiel Gerald, Liu Jingwen (Nov. 2003). "Specific interaction of Egr1 and c/EBPbeta leads to the transcriptional activation of the human low density lipoprotein receptor gene". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (45): 44246–54. doi:10.1074/jbc.M305564200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12947119. 
  9. ^ a b Silverman, E S; Du J, Williams A J, Wadgaonkar R, Drazen J M, Collins T (Nov. 1998). "cAMP-response-element-binding-protein-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are transcriptional co-activators of early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1)". Biochem. J. (ENGLAND) 336 ( Pt 1): 183–9. ISSN 0264-6021. PMC 1219856. PMID 9806899. 
  10. ^ Bae, Myung-Ho; Jeong Chul-Ho, Kim Se-Hee, Bae Moon-Kyoung, Jeong Joo-Won, Ahn Mee-Young, Bae Soo-Kyung, Kim Nam Deuk, Kim Chul Woo, Kim Kwang-Rok, Kim Kyu-Won (Oct. 2002). "Regulation of Egr-1 by association with the proteasome component C8". Biochim. Biophys. Acta (Netherlands) 1592 (2): 163–7. ISSN 0006-3002. PMID 12379479. 
  11. ^ Liu, J; Grogan L, Nau M M, Allegra C J, Chu E, Wright J J (Apr. 2001). "Physical interaction between p53 and primary response gene Egr-1". Int. J. Oncol. (Greece) 18 (4): 863–70. ISSN 1019-6439. PMID 11251186. 

Further reading

External links

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