Thyroid hormone receptor

Thyroid hormone receptor

Name=thyroid hormone receptor, alpha (erythroblastic leukemia viral (v-erb-a) oncogene homolog, avian)

AltSymbols=THRA1, THRA2, ERBA1
Name=thyroid hormone receptor, beta (erythroblastic leukemia viral (v-erb-a) oncogene homolog 2, avian)

The thyroid hormone receptorcite journal | author = Spurr NK, Solomon E, Jansson M, Sheer D, Goodfellow PN, Bodmer WF, Vennstrom B | title = Chromosomal localisation of the human homologues to the oncogenes erbA and B | journal = EMBO J. | volume = 3 | issue = 1 | pages = 159–63 | year = 1984 | pmid = 6323162 | doi = | issn = | url =] is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding thyroid hormone.cite journal |author=Flamant F, Baxter JD, Forrest D, Refetoff S, Samuels H, Scanlan TS, Vennstrom B, Samarut J|title=International Union of Pharmacology. LIX. The pharmacology and classification of the nuclear receptor superfamily: thyroid hormone receptors|journal= Pharmacol Rev |volume= 58 |issue= 4 |pages= 705–11 |year= 2006| doi = 10.1124/pr.58.4.3 |pmid= 17132849]


Amongst the most important functions of thyroid hormone receptors are regulation of metabolism and heart rate.cite journal |author=Yen PM|title=Physiological and molecular basis of thyroid hormone action|journal= Physiol Rev |volume= 81 |issue= 3 |pages= 1097–142 |year= 2001| doi = |pmid= 11427693 | url =] cite journal |author=Harvey CB, Williams GR|title=Mechanism of thyroid hormone action|journal= Thyroid |volume= 12 |issue= 6 |pages= 441–6 |year= 2002| doi = 10.1089/105072502760143791 |pmid= 12165104] In addition, they play critical roles in the development of organisms.cite journal | author = Brent GA | title = Tissue-specific actions of thyroid hormone: insights from animal models | journal = Rev Endocr Metab Disord | volume = 1 | issue = 1-2 | pages = 27–33 | year = 2000 | pmid = 11704989 | doi = 10.1023/A:1010056202122 | issn = ]


There are three forms of the thyroid hormone receptor designated alpha-1, beta-1 and beta-2 that are able to bind thyroid hormone. There are two TR-alpha receptor splice variants encoded by the gene|THRA gene and two TR-beta isoform splice variants encoded by the gene|THRB gene:

* TR-α1 (widely expressed and especially high expression in cardiac and skeletal muscles)
* TR-α2 (homologous with viral oncogen c-erb-A, also widely expressed but unable to bind hormone)
* TR-β1 (predominately expressed in brain, liver and kidney)
* TR-β2 (expression primarily limited to the hypothalamus and pituitary)

Disease linkage

Certain mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor are associated with thyroid hormone resistance.cite journal |author=Olateju TO, Vanderpump MP|title=Thyroid hormone resistance|journal= Ann Clin Biochem |volume= 43 |issue= Pt 6 |pages= 431–40 |year= 2006| doi = 10.1258/000456306778904678 |pmid= 17132274]


External links

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