- Member state of the European Union
Member states of the European Union Category Sovereign states Location European Union Created 1952/1958 Number 27 (as of 1 January 2007) Possible types Republics (20) Monarchies (7) Populations 501,064,211 Areas 4,324,782 km2 Government Parliamentary representative democracy (23) Presidential representative democracy (1) Semi-presidential representative democracy (3)
A member state of the European Union is a state that is party to treaties of the European Union (EU) and has thereby undertaken the privileges and obligations that EU membership entails. Unlike membership of an international organisation, being an EU member state places a country under binding laws in exchange for representation in the EU's legislative and judicial institutions. On the other hand, unlike being a member of a federation (such as a U.S. state) EU states maintain a great deal of autonomy, including maintaining their national military and foreign policy (where they have not agreed to European action in that area).
Since 2007 there have been twenty-seven EU member states. Six core states founded the EU's predecessor, the European Economic Community, in 1957 and the remaining states joined in subsequent enlargements. Before being allowed to join the EU, a state must fulfil the economic and political conditions generally known as the Copenhagen criteria. These basically require a candidate to have a democratic, free market government together with the corresponding freedoms and institutions, and respect the rule of law. Enlargement of the Union is conditional upon the agreement of each existing member and the candidate's adoption of all pre-existing EU law.
There is a wide disparity in the size, wealth and political system of member states, but all have equal rights. While in some areas majority voting takes place where larger states have more votes than smaller ones, smaller states have disproportional representation compared to their population. As of 2011 no member state has withdrawn or been suspended from the EU, though some dependent territories or semi-autonomous areas have left and Norway declined to join (after a referendum) after successfully applying to join (see below).
Flag State Joined Population km² GDP per cap.
Currency Gini HDI Council
Languages Territories Austria 1995 8,372,930 83,871 38,838 euro 29.1 0,955 10 17 German – Belgium Founder 10,827,519 30,528 35,421 euro 33.0 0,953 12 22 Dutch
– Bulgaria 2007 7,576,751 110,910 11,900 lev 29.2 0,840 10 17 Bulgarian – Cyprus 2004 801,851 9,251 28,544 euro 31.2 0,914 4 6 Greek
2004 10,512,397 78,866 24,093 koruna 25.8 0,903 12 22 Czech – Denmark 1973 5,547,088 43,094 35,757 krone 24.7 0,955 7 13 Danish Estonia 2004 1,340,274 45,226 17,908 euro 36.0 0,883 4 6 Estonian – Finland 1995 5,350,475 338,145 33,555 euro 26.9 0,959 7 13 Finnish
France Founder 64,709,480 674,843 33,678 euro 32.7 0,961 29 72 French Germany [t 5]Founder 81,757,595 357,050 34,212 euro 28.3 0,947 29 99 German – Greece 1981 11,125,179 131,990 29,881 euro 34.3 0,942 12 22 Greek – Hungary 2004 10,013,628 93,030 18,566 forint 30.0 0,879 12 22 Hungarian – Ireland 1973 4,467,854 70,273 39,468 euro 34.3 0,965 7 12 Irish
– Italy Founder 60,397,353 301,318 29,109 euro 36.0 0,951 29 72 Italian – Latvia 2004 2,248,961 64,589 14,254 lats 35.7 0,866 4 8 Latvian – Lithuania 2004 3,329,227 65,303 16,542 litas 35.8 0,870 7 12 Lithuanian – Luxembourg Founder 502,207 2,586 78,395 euro 30.8 0,960 4 6 French
– Malta 2004 416,333 316 23,583 euro 25.8 0,902 3 5 Maltese
– Netherlands Founder 16,576,800 41,526 39,937 euro 30.9 0,964 13 25 Dutch
Poland 2004 38,163,895 312,683 18,072 złoty 34.9 0,880 27 50 Polish – Portugal 1986 11,317,192 92,391 21,858 euro 38.5 0,909 12 22 Portuguese Romania 2007 21,466,174 238,391 11,917 leu 31.5 0,837 14 33 Romanian – Slovakia 2004 5,424,057 49,037 21,244 euro 25.8 0,880 7 13 Slovak – Slovenia 2004 2,054,119 20,273 27,654 euro 31.2 0,929 4 7 Slovenian – Spain 1986 47,150,819 506,030 31,963 euro 32.0 0,955 27 50 Spanish[t 6] Sweden 1995 9,347,899 449,964 35,964 krona 25.0 0,963 10 18 Swedish – United
1973 62,041,708 244,820 34,618 pound 36.0 0,947 29 72 English[t 7]
- ^ Northern Cyprus is not recognised by the EU, so it is de jure part of the Republic of Cyprus and the EU, but de facto is outside the control of both entities and operates as an independent state recognised only by Turkey. See Cyprus dispute.
- ^ De jure part of the Republic of Cyprus and the EU, but de facto is outside of the control of both due to the ongoing Cyprus dispute. It is administered by the United Nations.
- ^ Greenland left the then-EEC in 1985.
- ^ a b See Article 355(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. 
- ^ On 3 October 1990, the constituent states of the former German Democratic Republic acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany, automatically becoming part of the EU.
- ^ Recognised regional languages are Basque, Catalan/Valencian and Galician. Unlike other regional languages, an agreement between Spain and the Council of the European Union means these are allowed to be use in EU institutions.
- ^ English is the de facto national language of the UK. Recognized regional languages are Irish, Ulster Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Scots, Welsh and Cornish.
Enlargement has been a principal feature of the Union's political landscape. The EU's predecessors were founded by the "Inner Six", those countries willing to forge ahead with the Community while others remained sceptical. It was only a decade before the first countries changed their policy and attempted to join the Union, which led to the first scepticism of enlargement. French President Charles de Gaulle feared British membership would be an American Trojan horse and vetoed its application. It was only after de Gaulle left office and a 12-hour talk by British Prime Minister Edward Heath and French President George Pompidou took place that Britain's third application succeeded, in 1970.
Applying in 1969 were Britain, Ireland, Denmark and Norway. Norway, however, declined to accept the invitation to become a member, with the electorate voting against it leaving just the UK, Ireland and Denmark to join. But despite the setbacks, and the withdrawal of Greenland from Denmark's membership in 1985, three more countries joined the Communities before the end of the Cold War. In 1987, the geographical extent of the project was tested when Morocco applied, and was rejected as it was not considered a European country.
1990 saw the Cold War drawing to a close, and East Germany was welcomed into the Community as part of a reunited Germany. Shortly after, the previously neutral countries of Austria, Finland and Sweden acceded to the new European Union, though Switzerland, which applied in 2002, froze its application due to opposition from voters while Norway, which had applied once more, had its voters reject membership again. Meanwhile, the members of the former Eastern bloc and Yugoslavia were all starting to move towards EU membership. Ten of these joined in a "big bang" enlargement on 1 May 2004 symbolising the unification of East and Western Europe in the EU.
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2007 saw the latest members, Bulgaria and Romania, accede to the Union, and the EU has prioritised membership for the Western Balkans. Croatia, Iceland, Macedonia, Montenegro and Turkey are all formal, acknowledged candidates. Turkish membership, pending since the 1980s, is a more contentious issue but it entered negotiations in 2004. There are at present no plans to cease enlargement; according to the Copenhagen criteria, membership of the European Union is open to any European country that is a stable, free market liberal democracy that respects the rule of law and human rights. Furthermore, it has to be willing to accept all the obligations of membership such as adopting all previously agreed law (the 170,000 pages of acquis communautaire) and joining the euro. As well as enlargement to new countries, the EU can expand by having territories of member states which are outside the EU integrate more closely (for example in respect to the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles) or a territory of a member state seceded then rejoined (see withdrawal below).
Each state has representation in the institutions of the European Union. Full membership gives the government of a member state a seat in the Council of the European Union and European Council. When decisions are not being taken by consensus, votes are weighted so that a country with a greater population has more votes within the Council than a smaller country (although not exact, smaller countries have more votes than their population would allow relative to the largest countries). The Presidency of the Council of the European Union rotates between each of the member states, allowing each state six months to help direct the agenda of the EU.
Similarly, each state is assigned seats in Parliament according to their population (again, with the smaller countries receiving more seats per inhabitant than the larger ones). The members of the European Parliament have been elected by universal suffrage since 1979 (before that, they were seconded from national parliaments).
The national governments appoint one member each to the European Commission (in accord with its president), the European Court of Justice (in accord with other members) and the Court of Auditors. Historically, larger member states were granted an extra Commissioner. However, as the body grew, this right has been removed and each state is represented equally. The six largest states are also granted an Advocates General in the Court of Justice. Finally, the Governing Council of the European Central Bank includes the governors of the national central banks (who may or may not be government appointed) of each euro area country.
The larger states traditionally carry more weight in negotiations, however smaller states can be effective impartial mediators and citizens of smaller states are often appointed to sensitive top posts to avoid competition between the larger states. This, together with the disproportionate representation of the smaller states in terms of votes and seats in parliament, gives the smaller EU states a greater clout than normally attributed to a state of their size. However most negotiations are still dominated by the larger states. This has traditionally been largely through the "Franco-German motor" but the Franco-German role influence has diminished slightly following the influx of new members in 2004 (see G6).
The founding treaties state that all member states are indivisibly sovereign and of equal value. However, the EU does follow a supranational system (similar to federalism) in nearly all areas (previously limited to European Community matters). Combined sovereignty is delegated by each member to the institutions in return for representation within those institutions. This practice is often referred to as "pooling of sovereignty". Those institutions are then empowered to make laws and execute them at a European level. If a state fails to comply with the law of the European Union, it may be fined or have funds withdrawn. In extreme cases, there are provisions for the voting rights or membership of a state to be suspended (see Suspension).
In contrast to other organisations, the EU's style of integration has "become a highly developed system for mutual interference in each other's domestic affairs" However on defence and foreign policy issues (and, pre Lisbon Treaty, police and judicial matters) less sovereignty is transferred, with issues being dealt with by unanimity and cooperation. Very early on in the history of the EU, the unique state of its establishment and pooling of sovereignty was emphasised by the Court of Justice;By creating a Community of unlimited duration, having its own institutions, its own personality, its own legal capacity and capacity of representation on the international plane and, more particularly, real powers stemming from a limitation of sovereignty or a transfer of powers from the States to Community, the Member States have limited their sovereign rights and have thus created a body of law which binds both their nationals and themselves ... The transfer by the States from their domestic legal system to the Community legal system of the rights and obligations arising under the Treaty carries with it a permanent limitation of their sovereign rights.
Yet, as sovereignty still originates from the national level, it may be withdrawn by a member state who wishes to leave. Hence, if a law is agreed that is not to the liking of a state, it may withdraw from the EU to avoid it. This however has not happened as the benefits of membership are often seen to outweigh the potentially negative impact of a specific law. Furthermore, in realpolitik, concessions and political pressure may lead to a state accepting something not in their immediate interests in order to improve relations or strengthen their position on other issues.
The question of whether EU law is superior to national law is subject to some debate. The treaties do not give a judgement on the matter but court judgements have established EU's law superiority over national law and it is affirmed in a declaration attached to the Treaty of Lisbon (the European Constitution would have fully enshrined this). Some national legal systems also explicitly accept the Court of Justice's interpretation, such as France and Italy, however in Poland it does not override the national constitution, which it does in Germany. The exact areas where the member states have given legislative competence to the EU are as followed. Every area not mentioned remains with member states;
As outlined in Part I, Title I of the consolidated Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union: Exclusive competence: "The Union has exclusive competence to make directives and conclude international agreements when provided for in a Union legislative act." Shared competence: "Member States cannot exercise competence in areas where the Union has done so." "Union exercise of competence shall not result in Member States being prevented from exercising theirs in:"
- the internal market
- social policy, for the aspects defined in this Treaty
- economic, social and territorial cohesion
- agriculture and fisheries, excluding the conservation of marine biological resources
- consumer protection
- trans-European networks
- the area of freedom, security and justice
- common safety concerns in public health matters, for the aspects defined in this Treaty
- research, technological development and space
- development cooperation, humanitarian aid
"The Union coordinates Member States policies or implements supplemental to theirs common policies, not covered elsewhere" Supporting competence: "The Union can carry out actions to support, coordinate or supplement Member States' actions in:"
- the protection and improvement of human health
- education, youth, sport and vocational training
- civil protection (disaster prevention)
- administrative cooperation
As a result of the European sovereign debt crisis, some eurozone states required a bailout from the EU via the European Financial Stability Facility and European Financial Stability Mechanism (to be replaced by the European Stability Mechanism from 2013). In exchange for their bailout, Greece was required to accept a large austerity plan including privatisations and a sell off of state assets. In order to ensure that Greece complies with the EU's demands, a "large-scale technical assistance" from the European Commission and other member states has been deployed to Greek government ministries. Some, including the President of the Euro Group Jean-Claude Juncker, state that "the sovereignty of Greece will be massively limited." The situation of the bailed out countries (Greece, Portugal and Ireland) has been described this as being a ward or protectorate of the EU with some such as the Netherlands calling for a formalisation of the situation.
A number of states are less integrated into the EU than others. In most cases this is because those states have gained an opt-out from a certain policy area. The most notable is the opt-out from the Economic and Monetary Union, the adoption of the euro as sole legal currency. Most states outside the Eurozone are obliged to adopt the euro when they are ready, but Denmark and the United Kingdom (and Sweden in an informal manner) have obtained the right to retain their own independent currencies.
Ireland and the United Kingdom also do not participate in the Schengen Agreement, which eliminates internal EU border checks. Denmark has an opt out from the Common Security and Defence Policy; Denmark, Ireland and the UK have an opt-out on police and justice matters and Poland and the UK have an opt out from the Charter of Fundamental Rights.
There are a number of overseas member state territories which are legally part of the EU, but have certain exemptions based on their remoteness. These "outermost regions" have partial application of EU law and in some cases are outside of Schengen or the EU VAT area - however they are legally within the EU. They all use the euro as their currency.
Territory Member State Location Area
Population Per capita GDP
EU VAT area Schengen
Azores Portugal Atlantic Ocean 2,333 237,900 66.7 Yes Yes Saint-Barthélemy France Caribbean 25 8,300 111 No No Canary Islands Spain Atlantic Ocean 7447 1,715,700 93.7 No Yes French Guiana France South America 84,000 161,100 50.5 No No Guadeloupe France Caribbean 1,710 425,700 50.5 No No Madeira Portugal Atlantic Ocean 795 244,800 94.9 Yes Yes Saint-Martin France Caribbean 52 25,000 61.9 No No Martinique France Caribbean 1,080 383,300 75.6 No No Réunion France Indian Ocean 2,510 715,900 61.6 No No
The entry criteria for the EU is limited to liberal democracies and Freedom House ranks all EU states are being totally free electoral democracies. All but 4 are ranked at the top 1.0 rating. However, the exact political system of a state is not limited, with each state having its own system based on its historical evolution.
The majority of member states—16 out of 27—are parliamentary republics. However seven states are constitutional monarchies, meaning they have a monarchy although political powers are practised by elected politicians. These seven are Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Of the republics, Cyprus operates a presidential system (the president is head of state and government) and three others—Finland, France and Romania—operate a semi-presidential system (competencies shared between the president and prime minister). All remaining republics and all the monarchies operate a parliamentary system whereby the head of state (president or monarchy) plays only a ceremonial role. That means most power is in the hands of what is called in most of those countries, the prime minister, who is accountable to the national parliament.
The EU is evenly divided between unicameral (single chamber) and bicameral (dual chamber) parliaments, with 14 unicameral national parliaments and 13 bicameral parliaments. The prime minister and government are usually directly accountable to the directly-elected lower house and requires its support to stay in office—the exception being Cyprus with is presidential system. Upper houses are composed differently in different member states: it can be directly elected like the Polish senate, indirectly elected, for example, by regional legislatures like the Federal Council of Austria, unelected, but representing certain interest groups like the National Council of Slovenia, unelected (though by and large appointed by elected officials) as a remnant of a non-democratic political system in earlier times (as in the House of Lords in the United Kingdom). Most (though not all) elections in the EU use some form of proportional representation. The most common type of proportional representation is the party-list system.
There are also differences in the level of self-governance for the sub-regions of a member state. Most states, especially the smaller ones, are unitary states; meaning all major political power is concentrated at the national level. 10 states allocate power to more local levels of government. Austria, Belgium and Germany are full federations, meaning their regions have constitutional autonomies. Denmark, Finland, France, the Netherlands, and Portugal are federacies, meaning some regions have autonomy but most do not. Spain and Italy have system of devolution where regions have autonomy, but the national government retains the right to revoke it. The United Kingdom has a mixture of federacy and devolution as only some of its regions enjoy a system of devolution while others are ruled directly from the national government.
States such as France have a number of overseas territories, retained from their former empires. Some of these territories such as French Guiana are part of the EU (see outermost regions, above) while others are related to the EU or outside it; such as the Falkland Islands.
Withdrawal and suspension
As of 2010 no member state has withdrawn from the EU. However Greenland, as a territory, did so when gaining home rule from a member state (Denmark). The Lisbon Treaty made the first provision of a member state to leave. The procedure for a state to leave is outlined in TEU Article 50 which also makes clear that "Any Member State may decide to withdraw from the Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements." Although it calls for a negotiated withdrawal between the seceding state and the rest of the EU, if no agreement is reached two years after the seceding state announced its intention to leave, it would cease to be subject to the treaties anyway (thus ensuring a right to unilateral withdrawal).
There are a number of independence movements within member states (such as Catalonia, Flanders and Scotland). Were a province of a member state to secede but wish to remain in the EU, it would have to reapply to join as if it were a new country applying from scratch.
TEU Article 7 provides for the suspension of certain rights of a member state. Introduced in the Treaty of Amsterdam, Article 7 outlines that if a member persistently breaches the EU's founding principles (liberty, democracy, human rights and so forth, outlined in TEU Article 2) then the European Council can vote to suspend any rights of membership, such as voting and representation as outlined above. Identifying the breach requires unanimity (excluding the state concerned), but sanctions require only a qualified majority.
The state in question would still be bound by the obligations treaties and the Council acting by majority may alter or lift such sanctions. The Treaty of Nice included a preventative mechanism whereby the Council, acting by majority, may identify a potential breach and make recommendations to the state to rectify it before action is taken against it as outlined above. However the treaties do not provide any mechanism to expel a member state outright.
There are a number of countries with strong links with the EU, similar to elements of membership. Following Norway's decision not to join the EU, it became one of the members of the European Economic Area which also includes Iceland and Liechtenstein (all former members have joined the EU and Switzerland rejected membership). The EEA links these countries into the EU's market, extending the four freedoms to these states. In return, they pay a membership fee and have to adopt most areas of EU law (which they do not have direct impact in shaping). The democratic repercussions of this have been described as "fax democracy" (waiting for new laws to be faxed in from Brussels rather than being involved).
A different example is Bosnia and Herzegovina, which has been under international supervision. The High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina is an international administrator who has wide ranging powers over Bosnia and Herzegovina to ensure the peace agreement is respected. The High Representative is also the EU's representative, and is in practice appointed by the EU. In this role, and since a major ambition of Bosnia and Herzegovina is to join the EU, the country has become a de facto protectorate of the EU. The EU appointed representative has the power to impose legislation and dismiss elected officials and civil servants, meaning the EU has greater direct control over Bosnia and Herzegovina than its own states. Indeed the state's flag was inspired by the EU's flag.
In the same manner as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo is under heavy EU influence, particularly after the de facto transfer from UN to EU authority. In theory Kosovo is supervised by EU missions, with justice and policing personal training and helping to build up the state institutions. However the EU mission does enjoy certain executive powers over the state and has a responsibility to maintain stability and order. Like Bosnia, Kosovo has been termed an "EU protectorate".
However there is also the largely defunct term of associate member. It has occasionally been applied to states which have signed an association agreement with the EU. Associate membership is not a formal classification and does not entitle the state to any of the representation of free movement rights that full membership allows. The term is almost unheard of in the modern context and was primarily used in the earlier days of the EU with countries such as Greece and Turkey. Turkey's association agreement was the 1963 Ankara Agreement, from this it is drawn that Turkey became an associate member on that day. Present association agreements include the Stabilisation and Association Agreements with the western Balkans; these states are no longer termed "associate members".
- Countries bordering the European Union
- Currencies of the European Union
- European Commission Representation in Ireland
- Special Member State territories
Member states of the European Union
- ^ See section on sovereignty for details on the extent to which sovereignty is shared.
- ^ The first states first formed the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952 and then created the parallel European Economic Community in 1958. Although the later was later, it is more often considered the immediate predecessor to the EU. The former has always shared the same membership and since been absorbed by the EU.
- ^ EU foreign policy is agreed case by case where every member state agrees to a common position. Thus a member state can veto a foreign policy it does not agree with and agreed policy tends to be lose and infrequent.
- ^ at purchasing power parity, per capita, in international dollars (rounded)
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "Eurostat Population Estimate". Eurostat. 2010-01-01. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&language=en&pcode=tps00001&tableSelection=1&footnotes=yes&labeling=labels&plugin=1. Retrieved 2010-01-08.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Report for Selected Countries and Subjects IMF
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa UNDP.org
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Human Development Report 2009 - HDI rankings, UNDP, accessed 1 June 2010
- ^ a b c d "Britain shut out". BBC News. 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/uk/2001/uk_and_europe/1958_1969.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
- ^ "1971 Year in Review, UPI.com"
- ^ Ever closer union: joining the Community - BBC
- ^ Telegraph.co.uk
- ^ European Commission (10 November 2005). "The History of the European Union: 1972". http://europa.eu/abc/history/1972/index_en.htm. Retrieved 2006-01-18.
- ^ European Commission (10 November 2005). "1985". The History of the European Union. http://europa.eu/abc/history/1985/index_en.htm. Retrieved 2006-01-18.
- ^ "W. Europe Bloc Bars Morocco as a Member". Los Angeles Times. 21 July 1987. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/58410310.html?dids=58410310:58410310&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Jul+21%2C+1987&author=&pub=Los+Angeles+Times+(pre-1997+Fulltext)&desc=W.+Europe+Bloc+Bars+Morocco+as+a+Member&pqatl=google. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
- ^ British Embassy, Bern (4 July 2006). "EU and Switzerland". The UK & Switzerland. http://www.britishembassy.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1085326325096. Retrieved 2006-07-04.
- ^ European Commission (10 November 2005). "The History of the European Union: 1994". http://europa.eu/abc/history/1994/index_en.htm. Retrieved 2006-01-18.
- ^ "History of the European Union". Europa (web portal). http://europa.eu/abc/history/index_en.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
- ^ "Q&A: Turkey's EU entry talks". BBC News. 11 December 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4107919.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
- ^ "Accession criteria". Europa (web portal). http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/enlargement_process/accession_process/criteria/index_en.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
- ^ Peel, Q et al (26 March 2010) Deal shows Merkel has staked out strong role, Financial Times
- ^ Answers.com
- ^ Cooper, Robert (7 April 2002) Why we still need empires, The Guardian
- ^ ECJ opinion on Costa vs ENEL Eur-Lex
- ^ Kirschbaum, Erik (3 July 2011) Greek sovereignty to be massively limited: Juncker, Reuters
- ^ Mahony, Honor (4 July 2011) Greece faces 'massive' loss of sovereignty, EUobserver
- ^ a b Athens becomes EU 'protectorate' To Ethnos via PressEurop 4 July 2011
- ^ Fitzgerald, Kyran (15 October 2011) Reform agenda’s leading light, Irish Examiner
- ^ Irish meltdown, Financial Times (23 January 2011)
- ^ Coy, Peter (13 January 2011) If Demography Is Destiny, Then India Has the Edge, Bloomberg
- ^ Mahler et al (2 September 2010) How Brussels Is Trying to Prevent a Collapse of the Euro, Spiegel Online
- ^ The Economic Protectorate, Open Europe (4 February 2010)
- ^ Leigh, Phillips (7 September 2011) , EU Observer
- ^ Regional policy & outermost regions, European Commission
- ^ Map of Freedom in the World 2011 Edition - Combined Average Ratings – Independent Countries (PDF) Freedom House 2011, accessed 16 September 2011
- ^ a b Athanassiou, Phoebus (December 2009) Withdrawal and Expulsion from the EU and EMU, Some Reflections (PDF), European Central Bank. Accessed 8 September 2011
- ^ Happold, Matthew (1999) Scotland Europa: independence in Europe?, Centre for European Reform, Accessed 14 June 2010 (PDF)
- ^ a b Suspension clause, Europa glossary, accessed 1 June 2010
- ^ Ekman, Ivar (27 October 2007). "In Norway, EU pros and cons (the cons still win)". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2005/10/26/news/norway.php. Retrieved 2008-08-30.
- ^ Chandler, David (20 April 2006). "Bosnia: whose state is it anyway?". Spiked Politics. http://www.spiked-online.com/Articles/0000000CB02A.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-30.
- ^ Kurti, Albin (2 September 2009). "Comment: Causing damage in Kosovo". EUobserver. http://euobserver.com/9/28602. Retrieved 2009-09-02.
- ^ Judah, Tim (18 February 2008) Kosovo: the era of the EU protectorate dawns, European Union Institute for Security Studies
- ^ 'Kosovo Is not Independent, It Is an EU Protectorate', Spiegel Online (19 February 2008)
- ^ Independence day, The Economist (17 February 2008)
- ^ "EU-Turkey relations". EurActiv. 14 November 2005. http://www.euractiv.com/en/enlargement/eu-turkey-relations/article-129678. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
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