- Sovereign Base Areas
The Sovereign Base Areas are military bases located on territory in which the
United Kingdomis sovereign [p.73, Woodliffe] , but which are separated from the ordinary British territory.
The two current Sovereign Base Areas are located adjacent to the
Republic of Cypruswhich was formerly ruled by the United Kingdom.
Akrotiri and Dhekeliaare UK Sovereign Base Areas (SBAs) in Cyprus, a former British Crown Colony. British Forces Cyprusare stationed there to defend them, and they contain a British listening post, and the only fully fledged RAF station in the Mediterranean (since Gibraltardoes not have any aircraft permanently based there), RAF Akrotiri. In addition to the garrison, the UK makes a contribution to the United Nationsforce in Cyprus. In total, some 3,500 British personnel are based in Cyprus.
Civilian laws are enacted by the British civilian authorities, but are patterned on those of the
Republic of Cyprus. Many Cypriots work in the SBAs, mainly for the British authorities or as farmers, or for a few local businesses. But only those Cypriots with a local connection are permitted to live there, such as those who live in Akrotiri village or in the outskirts of villages neighbouring the bases. Also the villages of Xylotymvouand Ormidhiaare exclaves of the Republic of Cyprussurrounded by Dhekelia SBA.
The Sovereign Bases in Cyprus are an overseas territoryFact|date=July 2008, but instead of having a Governor, like other such territories, it has an Administrator, who, while appointed by the Queen, is responsible to the Ministry of Defence, not to the
Foreign and Commonwealth Office. The Administrator is concurrently Commander British Forces Cyprus. There is a Sovereign Base Area call signradio prefix, ZC4, which is completely distinct from that of Cyprus, which typically uses 5B. For amateur radiopurposes they are considered to be one separate entity.The SBA covers an area of convert|98|sqmi|km2 of Cyprus (47.5 at Akrotiri and 50.5 at Dhekelia), however, the UK government does not own it all. The Ministry of Defence, owns only 20% with 60% privately owned and intensively farmed and the remaining 20% being SBA crown land (including forests, roads, rivers and Akrotiri Salt Lake).
Three former Sovereign Base Areas were located adjacent to the Irish Free State which was formerly part of the
United Kingdom. These ports are now located inside the Republic of Ireland. After the independence of the Irish Free Statein 1922, three deep-water "Treaty Ports", at Berehaven, Queenstown (modern Cobh) and Lough Swilly, were retained by the United Kingdom, a condition of the Anglo-Irish Treatyof 1921. The ports remained under the control of the UK until Anglo-Irish Free Trade Agreementin 1938, when they were returned to Irish sovereignty.
Some in Britain (including Sir Winston Churchill) considered the handover a short-sighted decision, since the supply lines at the Battle of the Atlantic were stretched until the
Alliesestablished bases in Icelandfollowing the British occupation in 1940. However, the ports had been neglected by the Admiraltyand would not have been ready for war without considerable expenditure of time and money. [ [http://home.iprimus.com.au/waldingr/ireland.htm Indicator Loop Stations around the world ] ]
Citations and notes
* Woodliffe, John, The Peacetime Use of Foreign Military Installations Under Modern International Law, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1992
British overseas territories
Sovereign Base Areas Customs
Sovereign Base Areas Police
* Cyprus Joint Police Unit (CJPU) RMP/RAF Police
* [http://www.sba.mod.uk/ Sovereign Base Areas Administration websites]
* [http://home.iprimus.com.au/waldingr/ireland.htm On British Anti-submarine Defence Plans in Ireland]
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