Infobox European Union agency
name = Europol
image size = 203px
x = 82
y = 129
The Hague, Netherlands
pillar = PCJ
instrument = [http://europa.eu/eur-lex/en/treaties/dat/C_2002325EN.000501.html Treaty on EU Title VI]
[http://www.europol.europa.eu/index.asp?page=legalconv The Europol Convention]
signdate = 1998
establish = 1 July 1999
website = [http://www.europol.europa.eu/ europol.europa.eu]
Europol (contraction of European Police Office) is the
European Union's criminal intelligenceagency. It became fully operational on 1 July 1999.
The establishment of Europol was agreed to in the 1992
Maastricht Treaty, officially known as the Treaty on European Union (TEU) that came into effect in November 1993. The agency started limited operations on 3 January 1994, as the Europol Drugs Unit (EDU). In 1998 the Europol Convention was ratified by all the member states and came into force in October. Europol commenced its full activities on 1 July 1999.
Europol allocates its resources (600 staff, of these, approximately 120 Europol liaison officers (ELOs)) from its headquarters in
The Hague. The size of Europol belies the fact that they are in constant liaison with hundreds of different law enforcement organisations, each with their own individual or group seconded to assist Europol's activities.
As of 2007, Europol covers all 27 member states of the European Union. In order to fight international organised crime effectively, Europol cooperates with a number of third countries and organisations as follows (in alphabetical order):
Albania, Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, CEPOL ( European Police College), Colombia, Croatia, Eurojust, European Central Bank, European Commission, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Republic of Macedonia, Frontex, Iceland, Interpol, Moldova, Norway, OLAF(European Anti-Fraud Office), Russian Federation, Switzerland, SITCEN (EU Joint Situation Centre), Turkey, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, USA, World Customs Organisation.This is done on the basis of cooperation agreements concluded in accordance with the Europol Convention. The Europol External Strategy defines the framework within which Europol is to develop its activities with regard to third partners.
It has been decided that Europol will be converted to a full EU agency on 1 January 2010, thus simplifying the procedure to reform it; until then, reforms have to be made through an amendment to the
Europol Convention. [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-04/18/content_8005299.htm Europol to become EU agency in 2010] at China View, retrieved on April 18, 2008] [http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/90856/6395492.html Europol to become EU agency in 2010] at People's Daily Online, retrieved on April 19, 2008]
Europol's aim is to improve the effectiveness and co-operation between the competent authorities of the member states primarily by sharing and pooling intelligence to prevent and combat serious international organised crime. Its mission is to make a significant contribution to the
European Union's law enforcement efforts targeting organised crime.
Europol has no executive powers. It is a support service for the law enforcement agencies of the EU member states. This means that Europol officials are not entitled to conduct investigations in the member states or to
arrestsuspects. In providing support, Europol with its toolsndash information exchange, intelligence analysis, expertise and trainingndash can contribute to the executive measures carried out by the relevant national authorities.
Europol is a multi-disciplinary agency, comprising not only regular
police officers but staff members from the member states' various law enforcement agencies: customs, immigration services, border and financial police, etc. Secondly, Europol helps to overcome the language barriers in international police co-operation. Any law enforcement officer from a member state can address a request to their Europol National Unit (ENU) in her/his mother tongue and receive the answer back in this language.
Three different levels of co-operation are possible: The first one is technical co-operation or to provide training. The next step is strategic co-operation aimed at exchanging general trends in organised crime and how to fight it and the exchange of threat assessments. The top level of co-operation includes the exchange of personal data and requires the fulfilment of Europol's standards in the field of data protection and
Europol has it origins in
TREVI, a forum for internal security cooperation amongst EEC/ ECinterior and justice ministers created in 1975 and active until the Maastricht Treatycame into effect in 1993.
Germany, with its federal organisation of police forces, had long been in favour of a supranational police organisation at EC level. It tabled a surprise proposal to establish a European Police Office to the European Council meeting in Luxembourg in June 1991. By that December, the Intergovernmental Conference was coming to an end and the member states had pledged themselves to establishing Europol through Article K.1(9) of the
Maastricht Treaty. Europol was given the modest role of establishing ‘a Union-wide system for exchanging information’ amongst EU police forces.
Delays in ratifying the Maastricht Treaty led to
TREVIministers agreeing a "Ministerial Agreement on the Europol Drugs Unit" in June 1993. This intergovernmental agreement, outside of EU law, led to the establishment of a small team headed by Jürgen Storbeck, a senior German police officer who initially operated from some temporary cabins in a Strasbourg suburb (shared with personnel of the Schengen Information System) while more permanent arrangements were made.
Once the Maastricht Treaty had come into effect, the slow process of negotiating and ratifying a Europol Convention began. In the meantime, the
Europol Drugs Unit(EDU) had its powers extended twice, in March 1995 and again in December 1996 to included a range of trafficking offences in its remit. During this period, information amongst officers could only be exchanged bilaterally, with a central database to be established once the Europol Convention was ratified. The Europol Convention finally came into effect in October 1998 after ratification by all 15 EU national parliaments though some outstanding legal issues (primarily data protection supervision and judicial supervision) ensured it could not formally take up duties until July 1999.
The Directorate of Europol is appointed by the
Council of the European Union(Ministers for Justice and Home Affairs). It currently consists of Director Max-Peter Ratzel( Germany) and Deputy Directors Mariano Simancas( Spain), Michel Quillé( France) and Eugenio Orlandi( Italy).
Europol is politically accountable to the Justice and Home Affairs Council via the Europol Management Board. The Council controls the appointment of Europol's Director and Deputy Directors. It also controls Europol's budget, financed from member state contributions, rather than the EU budget and any legislative instruments it deems necessary for Europol. The Europol Management Board is staffed with Interior Ministry officials with one representative from every participating member state. It meets at least twice per year and exercises political control over more routine staffing and budetary matters, amongst other things. The Joint Supervisory Body oversees data protection in Europol and has two representatives from each participating state's data protection supervisory body.
Financial supervision over Europol is aided by a committee of auditors drawn from the membership of the
European Court of Auditorsand known as the Joint Audit Committee. The Joint Audit Committee is not technically part of the European Court of Auditors as the Europol budget is not part of the overall EU budget. This unusual arrangement preserves the intergovernmental character of Europol.
European Court of Justicehas minimal jurisdicion over Europol with its remit extending only to limited interpretation of the Europol Convention.
European Ombudsman, while not given a formal role in the Europol Convention, seems to have gained "de facto" recognition as an arbitrator in Europol matters relating to requests for access to documents and Europol staff disputes.
Europol is formally unaccountable for its actions to the
European Parliament, as well as to MPs from EU member countries, however the Management Board of Europol is legally required to submit an annual report to the Council of the European Union which is also submitted to the European Parliament. cite web | title = Article 28(1) Europol Convention| url = http://www.europol.europa.eu/legal/Europol_Convention_Consolidated_version.pdf | publisher = Europol | year = 2008 | accessdate = 2008-04-08 | format = PDF ] Confidentiality of materials produced by and information held by Europol as well as discretion and confidentiality obligations on the staff employed by Europol are governed by the appropriate provisions of the convention. cite web | title = Articles 31 and 32 Europol Convention| url = http://www.europol.europa.eu/legal/Europol_Convention_Consolidated_version.pdf | publisher = Europol | year = 2008 | accessdate = 2008-04-08 | format = PDF ]
Europol has already been featured in works of fiction.
*In the 2004 film "
Ocean's Twelve", Catherine Zeta-Jonesplays Europol agent Isabel Lahiri.
*Europol has a major role in the Swedish film "The Third Wave" (Den Tredje vågen), directed by
Anders Nilssonin 2003. In its opening sequence, the newly appointed Europol boss addresses the press and describes how organised crime is taking over the European economy.
Japanese manga" Gunslinger Girl", one of the main characters, Hilshire, is an ex-Europol agent, forced to leave after blowing-cover on a child-smuggling operation in the Netherlands.
*Europol has been mentioned in several episodes of the American spy TV series, "Alias".
Visa Information System
* [http://www.europol.europa.eu/ Europol information website]
* [http://www.denhaag.com/default.asp?id=6409&ep= Final Design for new Europol Headquarters The Hague]
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