- Pan-European identity
Pan-European identity refers to the sense of personal identification with Europe. The most concrete example of pan-europeanism is the
European Union(EU). 'Europe' is widely used as a synonym for the EU, as almost 500 million Europeans are EU citizens. The prefix "pan" implies that the identity applies throughout Europe, and especially in an EU context, 'pan-European' is often contrasted with national.
Historically, European culture has not led to a geopolitical unit, in the way that national cultures influenced the creation of
nation-states. At present, European integrationco-exists with national loyalties and national patriotism["The supranational prospect held out by the EU appears to be threatened.... by a deficiency of European identity, in striking contrast to the continuing vigour of national identities, ...." Anne-Marie Thiesse. "Inventing national identity." [http://mondediplo.com/1999/06/05thiesse] ]
A sense of European identity traditionally derives from the idea of a common European historical narrative. In turn, that is assumed to be the source of the most fundamental European values. Typically the 'common history' includes a combination of
Ancient Greeceand Ancient Rome, the feudalismof the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Age of Enlightenment, 19th Century Liberalism, Christianity, secularismand (sometimes) negative elements such as colonialismand the World Wars. Although supporters of European integrationoften appeal to the 'common heritage', notably in discussions on the European Constitution, its exact nature is disputed. It does not create a uniform perspective on politics and current affairs: Europeans continue to disagree with each other, as they have done for thousands of years.
Note that the European heritage and values, in this typical form, is very similar to the supposed common history and heritage of the
The common cultural heritage is commonly seen in terms of
high culture. Examples of a "contemporary" pan-European culture are limited to some forms of popular culture:
Eurovision Song Contestis one of the oldest identifiably 'pan-European' elements in popular culture. ["Eurovision is something of a cultural rite in Europe." [http://www.boheme-magazine.net/php/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=630] ] The contest is not run by the EU, but by European Broadcasting Union, and in fact it pre-dates the European Economic Community. It is also open to some non-European countries which are members of the EBU. Although it attracts a huge audience (hundreds of millions) and extensive media coverage, it is widely regarded as kitsch, ["From National Pride to Global Kitsch : the Eurovision Song Contest" [http://wjfms.ncl.ac.uk/leguWJ.htm] , "an exercise in kitsch" [http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2005/05/d140fcd5-8980-4e46-8904-fe05aaad5a2f.html] , "annual kitsch extravaganza" [http://www.smh.com.au/news/tv--radio/eurovision-winners-prove-one-hell-of-an-act-to-follow/2006/05/21/1148150125974.html] , "an expression of post-modern kitsch" [http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/9/2/1.html] , "50 years of kitsch" [http://news.scotsman.com/topics.cfm?tid=853&id=225272005] , "annual festival of kitsch pop" [http://www.finnish-institute.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=142&Itemid=39&lang=en] , "showcase of good-spirited kitsch" [http://www.boheme-magazine.net/php/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=630] ] . Some eastern European politicians occasionally take the contest more seriously, seeing the participation of their country as a sign of 'belonging to Europe', and some even going so far to say to consider it a preliminary step to accession to the EU. ["We are no longer knocking at Europe’s door," declared the Estonian Prime Minister after his country’s victory in 2001. "We are walking through it singing... The Turks saw their win in 2003 as a harbinger of entry into the EU, and after the Orange Revolution in Ukraine, tonight’s competition is a powerful symbol of Viktor Yushchenko’s pro-European inclinations." "Oj, oj, oj! It's Europe in harmony." The Times, May 21, 2005. ""This contest is a serious step for Ukraine towards the EU," Deputy Prime Minister Mykola Tomenko said at the official opening of the competition." BBC, "Ukrainian hosts' high hopes for Eurovision" [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/4561275.stm] ]
Deliberate attempts to use popular culture to promote identification with the EU have been controversial. In 1997, the European Commission distributed a comic strip titled [http://europa.eu.int/comm/publications/young/index_en.htm The Raspberry Ice Cream War] , aimed at children in schools. The EU office in London declined to distribute this in the UK, due to an expected unsympathetic reception for such views. [http://www.thirdway.org/files/reviews/eurorasp.html] [http://www.theyesmen.org/articles/captaineuroarticlewashpost.html]
Almost all sport in Europe is organised on either a national or sub-national basis. 'European teams' are rare, one example being the
Ryder Cup, a Europe vs. United States golf tournament. There have been proposals to create a European Olympic Team, which would break with the existing organisation through National Olympic Committees. [cite web|title=European Olympic Team|accessdate=2006-02-07|url=http://www.europe2020.org/en/section_democrat/100205.htm] Former European CommissionPresident Romano Prodisuggested that EU teams should carry the EU flag, alongside the national flag, at the 2008 Summer Olympics— a proposal which angered eurosceptics.Fact|date=February 2008 According to Eurobarometer surveys, only 5% of respondents think that a European Olympic team would make them feel more of a 'European citizen'. [Eurobarometer 251, p 45, [http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_251_en.pdf] .]
National teams participate in international competitions, organised by international sport federations, which often have a European section. That results in a hierarchic system of sporting events: national, European, and global. In some cases, the competition has a more 'pan-European' character. Football - Europe's most popular sport - is organised globally by the
FIFA, and in Europe by the UEFA. Alongside the traditional national/international organisation, direct competition between major teams at pan-European level has become more important. (High national ranking is necessary to enter the UEFA Champions Leagueand the UEFA Cup). Super-clubs such as Liverpool FC, Manchester United, FC Barcelona, Arsenal FC, FC Bayern, AC Milanand Real Madridare known all over Europe, and are seen as each others competitors, in UEFA's European tournaments. (Major clubs are now large businesses in themselves, and have expanded beyond the national sponsoring market).
The European continent does not have any universally recognized pan-European symbols, yet the
European Unionand the Council of Europeprovides Europe as such with the basic symbols that most nation-states bear.Such symbols are:
*A flag, the
European flag- a symbol for most of Europe, being sponsored by the Council of Europe (and subsequently adopted by the EU),
Ode to Joy- as for the flag, this is a symbol for all Council of Europe members and also all EU member states,
*A "national day", Europe day (9th May) - as for the flag and the anthem,
*A single currency, the
euro- the euro has been adopted by some countries outside of the EU, but not by all EU member states in the bloc. Currently, 15 of 27 member states have adopted the Euro as their official currency.
.eudomain name extension was introduced in 2005 as a new symbol of European Union identity on the world wide web. The .eu domain's introduction campaign specifically uses the tagline "Your European Identity" ". Registrants must be located within the European Union.
Pre-1945 ideas on European unity
Pan-EuropeanismCompare: Britishness, Canadian identity
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