- Party-list proportional representation
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of
voting systems used in multiple-winner elections (e.g. elections to parliament), emphasizing proportional representation(PR). They can also be used as part of mixed additional member systems.
In these systems, parties make lists of candidates to be elected, and seats get allocated to each party in proportion to the number of votes the party receives. Voters may vote directly for the party, as in
Hong Kongand Israel, or they may vote for candidates and that vote will pool to the party, as in Turkeyand Finland.
There are two major and important variations of Party List systems, usually defined as
closed listand open listelections: i.e. the order in which the party's list candidates get elected may be pre-determined by some method internal to the party (a closed listsystem) or they may be determined by the voters at large (an open listsystem).
There are many variations on seat allocation within party-list proportional representation. The three most common are:
D'Hondt method(or Jefferson's method), used in Spain, Portugal, Israel, Austria, Finlandand Poland, among other places;
Sainte-Laguë method(or Webster's method), used in many Scandinavian countries, New Zealand, and the German Federal State Bremen;
largest remainder methods, or LR (including the Hamilton method).List PR may also be combined in various hybrids (e.g. using the Additional member system).
The unmodified Sainte-Laguë method and the LR-Hare method rank as the most proportionalFact|date=March 2008 followed by LR-Droop;
single transferable vote; modified Sainte-Laguë, D'Hondt and largest remainder Imperiali. While the allocation formula is important, equally important is the district magnitude (number of seats in a constituency). The higher the district magnitude, the more proportional an electoral system becomes.
List of democracy and elections-related topics
Ley de lemas
Legislative Council of Hong Kong
* [http://www.aceproject.org/ace-en/topics/es/esd/esd02/esd02c/esd02c01/ Advantages and disadvantages of List PR] - from the [http://www.aceproject.org ACE Project]
* [http://www.aceproject.org/ace-en/topics/es/esd/esd02/esd02e/esd02e03 Open, Closed and Free Lists] - from the [http://www.aceproject.org ACE Project]
* [http://www.barnsdle.demon.co.uk/vote/vote.html#LPR Mike Ossipoff's site on List Proportional representation]
* [http://www.prcommission.org Site of the Independent Commission reviewing the effects of PR in the UK]
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