Tatarstan


Tatarstan
Republic of Tatarstan
Республика Татарстан (Russian)
Татарстан Республикасы (Tatar)
—  Republic  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of Tatarstan[1]
Coordinates: 55°33′N 50°56′E / 55.55°N 50.933°E / 55.55; 50.933Coordinates: 55°33′N 50°56′E / 55.55°N 50.933°E / 55.55; 50.933
Political status
Country Russia
Federal district Volga[2]
Economic region Volga[3]
Established May 27, 1920
Capital Kazan
Government (as of August 2010)
 - President[4] Rustam Minnikhanov[5]
 - Legislature State Council[4]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[6]
 - Total 68,000 km2 (26,254.9 sq mi)
Area rank 44th
Population (2010 Census)[7]
 - Total 3,786,358
 - Rank 8th
 - Density 55.68 /km2 (144.2 /sq mi)
 - Urban 75.4%
 - Rural 24.6%
Population (2002 Census)[8]
 - Total 3,779,265
 - Rank 8th
 - Density 55.58 /km2 (144.0 /sq mi)
 - Urban 73.8%
 - Rural 26.2%
Time zone(s) MSD (UTC+04:00)[9]
ISO 3166-2 RU-TA
License plates 16, 116
Official languages Russian;[10] Tatar[11][12]
http://tatarstan.ru

The Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: Респу́блика Татарста́н, Respublika Tatarstan; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in the Volga Federal District. Its capital is the city of Kazan, which is one of Russia's largest and most prosperous cities. The republic borders with Kirov, Ulyanovsk, Samara, and Orenburg Oblasts, and with the Mari El, Udmurt, and Chuvash Republics, as well as with the Republic of Bashkortostan. The unofficial Tatarstan motto is: Bez Buldırabız! (We can!).[13] Population: 3,786,358 (2010 Census preliminary results);[14]

Contents

Terminology

"Tatarstan" derives from the name of the Tatar ethnic group and the Persian suffix -stan (an ending common to many Central Asian countries). Another version of the Russian name is "Тата́рия" (Tatariya), which was official along with "Tatar ASSR" during the Soviet rule.

Inhabitants of Tatarstan regardless of ethnicity are usually called Tatarstaners (Tatar Cyrillic: татарстанлы, Latin: Tatarstanlı, татарстанцы).

History

Middle Ages

History of Tatarstan
Coat of Arms of Tatarstan
This article is part of a series
Great Bulgaria
Khazars
Volga Bulgaria
Kipchaks
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Khanate of Kazan
Muscovy
Kazan Governorate
Idel-Ural State
Tatar ASSR
Republic of Tatarstan

Tatarstan Portal
v · d · e
Black chamber

The earliest known organized state within the boundaries of Tatarstan was Volga Bulgaria (c. 700–1238 CE). The Volga Bulgars had an advanced mercantile state with trade contacts throughout Inner Eurasia, the Middle East and the Baltic, which maintained its independence despite pressure by such nations as the Khazars, the Kievan Rus and the Cuman-Kipchaks. Islam was introduced by missionaries from Baghdad around the time of ibn Fadlan's journey in 922.

Volga Bulgaria finally fell to the armies of the Mongol prince Batu Khan in the late 1230s (see Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria.) The inhabitants, mixing with the Golden Horde's Turco-Mongolian, Kipchak-speaking troops and settlers, became known as the "Volga Tatars." Another theory postulates that there were no ethnic changes in that period, and Bulgars simply switched to the Kipchak-based Tatar language. In the 1430s, the region again became independent as the base of the Khanate of Kazan, a capital having been established in Kazan, 170 km up the Volga from the ruined capital of the Bulgars.

The Khanate of Kazan was conquered by the troops of Tsar Ivan the Terrible in the 1550s, with Kazan being taken in 1552. Some Tatars were forcibly converted to Christianity and cathedrals were built in Kazan; by 1593 all mosques in the area were destroyed. The Russian government forbade the construction of mosques, a prohibition that was not lifted until the 18th century by Catherine the Great. The first mosque to be rebuilt under Catherine's auspices was constructed in 1766-1770.

Modern times

Минарет.jpg

In the 19th century Tatarstan became a center of Jadidism, an Islamic movement that preached tolerance of other religions. Under the influence of local Jadidist theologians, the Tatars were renowned for their friendly relations with other peoples of the Russian Empire. However, after the October Revolution religion was largely outlawed and all theologians were repressed.

During the Civil War of 1918-1920 Tatar nationalists attempted to establish an independent republic (the Idel-Ural State). They were, however, put down by the Bolsheviks and the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was established on 27 May 1920. There was a famine in the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1921 to 1922 as a result of war communist policy. The boundaries of the republic did not include majority of the Volga Tatars. The Tatar Union of the Godless were persecuted in Stalin's 1928 purges.

Tatarstan today

On August 30, 1990, Tatarstan announced its sovereignty with Declaration on the State Sovereignty of the Tatar Soviet Socialist Republic[15] and in 1992 Tatarstan held a referendum on the new constitution,[16] and 62 percent of those who took part voted in favor of the constitution. Articles 1 and 3 of the constitution, as introduced in 2002[16] define Tatarstan as a part of Russian Federation.

On February 15, 1994, the Treaty On Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Mutual Delegation of Authority between the State Bodies of the Russian Federation and the State Bodies of the Republic of Tatarstan[17] and Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Tatarstan (On Delimitation of Authority in the Sphere of Foreign Economic Relations) were signed.

Demographics

Tatarstan population.PNG
Population density
Urban-rural population dynamics (Tatarstan).PNG
Births Deaths Birth rate Death rate
1970 47,817 25,622 15.2 8.1
1975 55,095 29,686 16.6 9.0
1980 54,272 32,758 15.7 9.5
1985 64,067 34,622 18.1 9.8
1990 56,277 36,219 15.4 9.9
1991 50,160 37,266 13.6 10.1
1992 44,990 39,148 12.1 10.6
1993 41,144 44,291 11.0 11.9
1994 41,811 48,613 11.2 13.0
1995 39,070 48,592 10.4 12.9
1996 38,080 45,731 10.1 12.1
1997 37,268 46,270 9.9 12.3
1998 37,182 45,153 9.8 11.9
1999 35,073 46,679 9.3 12.3
2000 35,446 49,723 9.4 13.1
2001 35,877 50,119 9.5 13.2
2002 38,178 51,685 10.1 13.7
2003 38,461 52,263 10.2 13.8
2004 38,661 51,322 10.3 13.6
2005 36,967 51,841 9.8 13.8
2006 37,303 49,218 9.9 13.1
2007 40,892 48,962 10.9 13.0
2008 44,290 48,952 11.8 13.0
2009 46,605 47,892 12.4 12.7
2010 48,935 49,907 12.9 13.4

Ethnic groups

census 1926 census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Russians 1,118,834 (43.1%) 1,250,667 (42.9%) 1,252,413 (43.9%) 1,382,738 (42.4%) 1,516,023 (44.0%) 1,575,361 (43.3%) 1,492,602 (39,5 %)
Tatars 1,263,383 (48.7%) 1,421,514 (48.8%) 1,345,195 (47.2%) 1,536,430 (49.1%) 1,641,603 (47.6%) 1,765,404 (48.5%) 2,000,116 (52.9%)
Chuvash 127,330 (4.9%) 138,935 (4.8%) 143,552 (5.0%) 153,496 (4.9%) 147,088 (4.3%) 134,221 (3.7%) 126,532 (3.3%)
Others 84,485 (3.3%) 104,161 (3.6%) 109,257 (3.8%) 112,574 (3.6%) 140,698 (4.1%) 166,756 (4.6%) 160,015 (4.2%)

There are about two million ethnic Tatars and a million and a half ethnic Russians, along with significant numbers of Chuvash, Mari, and Udmurts, many of whom are Tatar-speaking. The Ukrainian, Mordvin, and Bashkir minorities are also significant. Most Tatars are Sunni Muslims, but a small minority known as Keräşen Tatars are Orthodox and some of them regard themselves as being different from other Tatars even though most Keräşen dialects differ only slightly from the Central Dialect of the Tatar language.[18] There is a fair degree of speculation as to the early origins of the different groups of Tatars, but most Tatars no longer view religious identity as being as important as it once was, and the religious and linguistic subgroups have intermingled considerably. Nevertheless, despite many decades of assimilation and intermingling, some Keräşen demanded, and were awarded, the option of being specifically enumerated in 2002. This has provoked great controversy however, as many intellectuals have sought to portray the Tatars as homogeneous and indivisible.[19] Although listed separately below, the Keräşen are still included in the grand total for the Tatars. Another unique ethnic group, living in Tatarstan only are the Qaratay Mordvins.

The official languages are Tatar and Russian. According to the 2002 Russian Federal Law (On Languages of Peoples of the Russian Federation), the official script is Cyrillic.

Geography

Map of the Republic of Tatarstan

The republic is located in the center of the East European Plain, approximately 800 kilometers (500 mi) east of Moscow. It lies between the Volga River and the Kama River (a tributary of the Volga), and extends east to the Ural mountains.

Rivers

Major rivers include (Tatar names are given in parentheses):

Lakes

Major reservoirs of the republic include (Tatar names are given in parentheses):

The biggest lake is Qaban. The biggest swamp is Kulyagash.

Hills

Natural resources

View of the Volga River in the confluence with the Kama River
View on the Taima River from Devil's Tower in Yelabuga

Major natural resources of Tatarstan include oil, natural gas, gypsum, and more. It is estimated that the Republic has over one billion tons of oil deposits.[20]

Climate

  • Average January temperature: −16 °C (3 °F)
  • Average July temperature: +19 °C (66 °F)
  • Average annual precipitation: up to 500 mm (20 in)

Administrative divisions

State languages

In accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan the two state languages of the republic are Tatar and Russian.

Politics

The head of the government in Tatarstan is the President. As of 2011, the President is Rustam Minnikhanov. Tatarstan's unicameral State Council has 100 seats: fifty are for representatives of the parties, other fifty are for deputies from the republic's localities. The Chairman of the State Council is Farit Mukhametshin from May 27, 1998.

According to the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan, the President can be elected only by the people of Tatarstan, but due to Russian federal law this law was suspended for an indefinite term. The Russian law about election of governors says they should be elected by local parliaments and that the candidate can be presented only by the president.

On March 25, 2005 Shaymiyev was re-elected for his fourth term by the State Council. This election was held after changes in electoral law and does not contradict the Constitutions of Tatarstan and Russia.

Political status

The Republic of Tatarstan is a constituent republic of the Russian Federation. Most of the Russian federal subjects are tied with the Russian federal government by the uniform Federal Treaty, but relations between the government of Tatarstan and the Russian federal government are more complex, and are precisely defined in the Constitution. The following passage from the Constitution defines the republic's status without contradicting the Constitution of the Russian Federation:

The Republic of Tatarstan is a democratic constitutional State associated with the Russian Federation by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan and the Treaty between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan On Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Mutual Delegation of Powers between the State Bodies of the Russian Federation and the State Bodies of the Republic of Tatarstan, and a subject of the Russian Federation. The sovereignty of the Republic of Tatarstan shall consist in full possession of the State authority (legislative, executive and judicial) beyond the competence of the Russian Federation and powers of the Russian Federation in the sphere of shared competence of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan and shall be an inalienable qualitative status of the Republic of Tatarstan.[cite this quote]

Economy

An area in Kazan with a Mosque in the background

Tatarstan is one of the most economically developed regions of Russia. The republic is highly industrialized, and ranks second only to Samara Oblast in terms of industrial production per km2.[21] Tatarstan's GDP per capita was USD 12,325 in 2004,[22] with GDP in 2008 at about 930 billion rubles.[20]

The region's main source of wealth is oil. Tatarstan produces 32 million tonnes of crude oil per year and has estimated oil reserves of more than 1 billion tons.[20][23] Industrial production constitutes 45% of the Republic's gross regional domestic product. The most developed manufacturing industries are petrochemical industry and machine building. The truck-maker KamAZ is the region's largest enterprise and employs about 1/5 of Tatarstan's work force.[23] Kazanorgsintez, based in Kazan, is one of Russia's largest chemical companies.[24] Tatarstan's aviation industry produces Tu-214 passenger airplanes and helicopters.[20] The Kazan Helicopter Plant is one of the largest helicopter manufacturers in the world.[25] Engineering, textiles, clothing, wood processing, and food industries are also of key significance in Tatarstan.[21]

Tatarstan consists of three distinguished industrial regions. The northwestern part is an old industrial region where engineering, chemical and light industry dominate. In the new industrial Northeast region with its core in the Naberezhnye Chelny-Nizhnekamsk agglomeration, major industries are automobile construction, chemical industry, and power engineering. The Southeast region has oil production with engineering under development. The North, Central, South, and Southwest parts of the Republic are rural regions.[26]

The republic has a highly developed transport network. It mainly comprises highways, railway lines, four navigable rivers — Volga (İdel), Kama (Çulman), Vyatka (Noqrat) and Belaya (Ağidel), and oil pipelines and airlines. The territory of Tatarstan is crossed by the main gas pipelines carrying natural gas from Urengoy and Yamburg to the west and the major oil pipelines supplying oil to various cities in the European part of Russia.

Culture

All Religions Temple. A building and cultural center built by the local artist Ildar Khanov

Major libraries include the Science Library of Kazan State University and the National Library of the Republic of Tatarstan. There are two museums of republican significance, as well as 90 museums of local importance. In the past several years new museums appeared throughout the Republic.

There are twelve theatrical institutions in Tatarstan.[27] The state orchestra is the National Tatarstan Orchestra.

Education

The most important facilities of higher education include Kazan State University, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan State Technological University, World Information Distributed University, Kazan State Technical University, Kazan State Finance and Economics Institute and Russian Islam University, all located in the capital Kazan.

Religion

A Mosque in Mendeleyevsk.
Orthodox Church in the Kazan Kremlin.

Established in 922, the first Muslim state in Russia was Volga Bulgaria from which the Tatars inherited Islam. Islam was introduced by missionaries[28] from Baghdad around the time of Ibn Fadlan's journey in 922. Islam's long presence in Russia also extends at least as far back as the conquest of the Khanate of Kazan in 1552, which brought the Tatars and Bashkirs on the Middle Volga into Russia.

In the 1430s, the region became independent as the base of the Khanate of Kazan, a capital having been established in Kazan, 170 km up the Volga from the ruined capital of the Bulgars. The Khanate of Kazan was conquered by the troops of Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible in the 1550s, with Kazan being taken in 1552. Some Tatars were forcibly converted to Christianity and cathedrals were built in Kazan; by 1593, mosques in the area were destroyed. The Russian government forbade the construction of mosques, a prohibition that was not lifted until the 18th century by Catherine II.

In 1990, there were only 100 mosques but the number, as of 2004, rose to well over 1,000. As of January 1, 2008, as many as 1,398 religious organizations were registered in Tatarstan, of which 1,055 were Muslim. Today, Sunni Islam is the most common faith in Tatarstan, as 52% of the estimated 3.8 million population is Muslim.[29] In September 2010, Eid al fitr as well May 21, the day the Volga Bulgars embraced Islam, were made public holidays.[30] Tatarstan also hosted an international Muslim film festival which screened over 70 films from 28 countries including Jordan, Afghanistan and Egypt.[31]

The Russian Orthodox Church is the second largest active religion in Tatarstan, and has been so for more than 150 years[32], with an estimated 1.6 million followers made up of Ethnic Russians, Mordvins, Armenians, Belarusians, Mari people, Georgians, Chuvash and a number of Orthodox Tatars which together comprise of 46% of the 3.8 million population of Tatarstan. On the 23rd of August 2010 the “Orthodox monuments of Tatarstan” exhibition was held in Kazan by the Tatarstan Ministry of Culture and the Kazan Eparchy.[33] At all public events an Orthodox Priest is called upon along with an Islamic Mufti.[34]

See also

Further reading

  • Lost Cosmonaut: Observations of an Anti-tourist Daniel Kalder
  • The Model of Tatarstan: Under President Mintimer Shaimiev Ravil Bukharaev
  • The Volga Tatars: A Profile in National Resilience Azadeayse Rorlich

References

  1. ^ http://tatar.ru/?DNSID=803d3f6c2787135e90d3a03b35ed2b10&node_id=788
  2. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000).
  3. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. ^ a b Constitution, Article 9.2
  5. ^ Official website of the President of the Republic of Tatarstan. Rustam Minnikhanov
  6. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_03.htm. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  7. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2011). "Предварительные итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года (Preliminary results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2010). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/results_of_the_census/results-inform.php. Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  8. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  9. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication).
  10. ^ Official the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  11. ^ Constitution, Article 8.1
  12. ^ Kempton, Daniel R. and Terry D. Clark, Unity or separation: center-periphery relations in the former Soviet Union, (Praeger Publishers, 2002), 110.
  13. ^ (Tatar) Президент Татарстанның милли идеясен - "Булдырабыз!" дип билгеләде
  14. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2011). "Предварительные итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года (Preliminary results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2010). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/results_of_the_census/results-inform.php. Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  15. ^ Declaration on the State Sovereignty of the Tatar Soviet Socialist Republic
  16. ^ a b (In Russian)Конституция Республики Татарстан
  17. ^ Treaty on Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Powers between Bodies of Public Authority of the Russian Federation and Bodies of Public Authority of the Republic of Tatarstan
  18. ^ Tatar The language of the largest minority in Russia. American Association of Teachers of Turkic. http://www.princeton.edu/~turkish/aatt/tatar.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  19. ^ (PDF) Tatars as Meso-Nation. Hokkaido University. http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/coe21/publish/no7_ses/chapter04.pdf. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  20. ^ a b c d Economy: The Republic of Dagestan
  21. ^ a b Tatarstan Microsoft Encarta
  22. ^ Human Development Index in the Regions of Russia United Nations
  23. ^ a b Tatarstan Economy
  24. ^ Kazanorgsintez
  25. ^ Kazan Helicopter Plant (KHP)
  26. ^ General information on the Tatarstan Republic
  27. ^ Culture: The Republic of Tatarstan
  28. ^ Tatarstan Parliament Introduces New Islam Holiday
  29. ^ WALKING A TIGHTROPE: FAITH AND IDENTITY IN TATARSTAN
  30. ^ Holiday Commemorating Arrival of Islam in Russia Ratified in Tatarstan
  31. ^ Tatarstan's Muslim filmfest kicks off
  32. ^ http://www.chanceforlove.com/archives/content/full/5870
  33. ^ http://eng.tatar-inform.ru/news/tatarstan/2010/08/23/31280/
  34. ^ http://www.kcn.ru/tat_en/politics/tat_rpbl/brief.htm

Further reading

  • 30 ноября 1992 г. «Конституция Республики Татарстан». (November 30, 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan. ).

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Tatarstan — Ta·tar·stan (täʹtər stăn ) An autonomous republic of west central Russia. The site of a powerful Bulgar state after the 8th century, the region was conquered by Mongols in the 13th century and by Moscow in 1552. The Tatar Autonomous Soviet… …   Universalium

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