- Khanate of Kazan
Infobox Former Country
native_name = قازان خانليغى
conventional_long_name = Khanate of Kazan
common_name = Kazan|
continent = Europe
region = Eastern Europe
government_type = Monarchy
year_start = 1438
year_end = 1552|
event_end = Annexed to Muscovy
p1 = Golden Horde
flag_p1 = Flag of the Golden Horde.svg
s1 = Tsardom of Russia
flag_s1 = Flag of Russia.svg
image_map_caption = Map of the Kazan Khanate,
capital = Kazan
common_languages = Tatar, Chuvash, Mari
title_leader = Kazan Khan
Yadegar Moxammat(last)The Kazan Khanate ( _tt. Казан ханлыгы|Qazan xanlığı|قازان خانليغى; Russian: Казанское ханство, tr: "Kazanskoe khanstvo") was a medieval Tatarstate which occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgariabetween 1438and 1552. The khanate covered contemporary Tatarstan, Mari El, Chuvashia, Mordovia, parts of Udmurtiaand Bashkortostan; its capital was the city of Kazan.
Khanate's geography and population
The territory of the khanate comprised the Muslim Bolgar-populated lands of Bolğar, Cükätäw, Kazan, Qaşan duchies and other regions that originally belonged to
Volga Bulgaria. The Volga, Kama and Vyatkawere the main rivers of the khanate, as well as the major trade ways. The majority of the population were Kazan Tatars(i.e. Muslim Bolgars that adopted the Tatar language). Their self-identity was not restricted to Tatars; many identified themselves as simple Muslims or "the people of Kazan." Islamwas the state religion.
The local feudal nobility consisted of ethnic Bolgars, but the Kazan khans' court and body guard were composed of steppe Tatars (
Kipchaks, and later of Nogais) that lived in Kazan. According to the Ginghizide tradition, the local Turkic tribes were also called "Tatars" by the steppe nobility and, later, by the Russian elite. Part of the higher nobility hailed from the Golden Horde. It included members of four leading noble families: Arghin, Barin, Qipchaq, and Shirin.
Peoples subject to the khan included the
Chuvash, Mari, Mordva, Tatar-Mishar, Udmurt, and Bashkir. The Permians and some of the Komi tribes were also incorporated into the Khanate. The Mishars had arrived during the period of the Golden Hordeand gradually assimilated the resident Finnic Mordvins and Burtas. Their territory was governed by former steppe Tatars. Some of the Mishar duchies were never controlled from Kazan and instead gravitated towards the Qasim Khanateor Muscovite Russia.
Most of the khanate territory was covered by forests, and only the southern part adjoined the
steppe. The main population of the steppes were the nomadic Manghites, also known as Nogais, who sometimes recognized the rule of the Kazan khan, but more often raided agricultural Tatarsand Chuvash, as they had done in the Golden Hordeperiod. Later, Nogais were transplanted and replaced with Kalmyks. More recently, this area was settled by Tatars, Chuvash and Russians, who erected defensive walls to guard the southern border. Since the khanate was established, Tatar Cossack troops defended the khanate from the Nogais.
Russian sources indicate that at least five languages were used in the Kazan khanate. The first and foremost was the
Tatar language, including the Middle dialect of the Kazan Tatars (formerly Muslim Bolgars) and the Western dialect of the Mishars (formerly steppe Tatars who had spoken Kipchak). Its written form ( Old Tatar language) was the favoured language of the state. The Chuvash languagewas a descendant of the Bolgar language, spoken by the pagan Chuvashpeople. The Bolgar languagealso strongly influenced the Middle dialect of Tatar language. The other three were probably the Mari language, the Mordvin languages and the Bashkir language, likewise developed from the Bolgar and Kipchak languages.
The Khanate's urban population produced clay ware, wood and metal handiworks, leather, armor, ploughs and jewels. The major cities were Qazan,
Arça, Cükätaw, Qaşan, Çallı, Alat and Cöri. The urban populattion also traded with the people of Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Russia. In the 16th century, Russia became the main trading partner of Kazan, and the khanate shared the economic system of Moscow. The major markets were the Taşayaq Bazaar in Kazan and the Markiz Isle fair on the Volga River. Agricultural landownership was based on the söyurğaland hereditary estates.
The state was governed by the khan. His actions were based on decisions and consultations of a cabinet council, or
Diwan. The nobility comprised the ranks of "bäk" ( beg), "ämir" ( emir), and " morza". Military estates consisted of the "uğlan" ( ulan), " bahadir", "içki" ( ichki). Muslim clergy also played a major role. They were divided into "säyet" ( seid), "şäyex" ( sheikh), "qazí" ( qazi), and " imams". The " ulema" or clergy played a judicial role, and maintained the madrassas and maktabs (schools).
The majority of the population were "qara xalıq" (black people): a free Muslim population, who lived on state land. [The designation "black" in Turkic culture was often used to refer to commoners, and not intended as a racial designation; on this point see also
Khazars] The feudal lands were mostly settled by "çura" (serfs). Prisoners of war were usually sold to Turkeyor Central Asia. Occasionally they were sold within the Khanate as slaves ("qol") and sometimes were settled on feudal lands to become "çura" later. The non-Muslim population of the Khanate were required to pay the yasaq.
Administration and military
The Khanate was divided into 5
daruğa: Alat, Arça, Gäreç, Cöri and Nuğay. The term daruğa translates as "direction". They replaced the "duchies" that the khanate originated from. Some feudal lords sporadically asserted independence from Kazan, but such attempts would be promptly suppressed.
The military of the khanate consisted of armament and men from the darughas and subject lands, khan guards, and the troops of the nobility. The number of soldiers was never constant, ranging from 20,000 to 60,000 in number. Often, troops from
Nogay, the Crimea and Russiaalso served the Kazan khans. Fire-arms (arquebuse) were used for defending the walls of Kazan.
In general, the culture of the Kazan Khanate descended from that of
Volga Bulgaria. Cultural elements of the Golden Hordewere also present in noble circles.
A large part of the urban population were literate. Large libraries were present in
mosques and madrassahs. Kazanbecame a center of science and theology.
Although Islamic influence predominated, lay literature also developed. The most prominent
Old Tatar languagepoets were Möxämmädyar, Ömmi Kamal, Möxämmädämin, Ğärifbäk, and Qolşärif. Möxämmädyar renovated the traditions of Kazan poetry, and his verses were very popular.
The city of
Bolgharretained its position as a sacred place, but had this function only, due to the emergence of Kazan as a major economic and political center in the 1430s.
The architecture of the khanate is characterized by white-stone architecture and wood carvings.
The former territories of
Volga Bulgaria(Kazan Ulus or Kazan Duchy) may have regained a degree of independence within the disintegrating Golden Hordeby the turn of the 15th century. The principality was self-governed and maintained a dynasty of Bolgarrulers. Whatever the status of this proto-state, the founder of the khanate was Olug Moxammat. It was in 1437or 1438that he assumed the title of khan and usurped the throne of Kazan with some help from local nobility. It has been suggested that the transfer of power from the local Bolgar dynasty to Moxammat was finalized by his son Maxmud in 1445.
Throughout its history, the khanate was prone to civil turmoil and struggles for the throne. The khans were replaced 19 times in 115 years. There were a total of fifteen reigning khans, some ascending the throne multiple times. The Khan was often elected from the Gengizides by vernacular nobility and even by the citizens themselves.
During the reign of Olug Moxammat and his son Maxmud, Kazan forces raided
Muscovyand its subject lands several times. Vasily II of Moscow, engaged in the Great Feudal Waragainst his cousins, was defeated in a battle near Suzdal, and was forced to pay ransom to the Kazan khan.
1487, Grand Duke Ivan IIIof Moscow occupied Kazan and seated a puppet leader, Möxämmädämin, on the Kazan throne. After that, the Kazan Khanate became a protectorate of Moscow and Russian merchants were allowed to trade freely throughout its territory. The supporters of a union with the Ottoman Empireand the Crimean Khanatetried to exploit the population's grievances to provoke revolts (in 1496, 1500, and 1505), but with negligible results.
1521, Kazan emerged from the dominance of Moscow, concluding a mutual aid treaty with the Astrakhan Khanate, the Crimean Khanateand the Nogay Horde. The combined forces of khan Muhamed Giray and his Crimean allies then attacked Muscovy and captured more than 150,000 slaves. Russian chronicles record about forty attacks of Kazan khans on the Russian territories (mainly the regions of Nizhniy Novgorod, Murom, Vyatka, Vladimir, Kostroma, Galich) in the first half of the 16th century.
The final decade
The reinforcement of
Crimeadispleased the pro-Moscow elements of the Kazan Khanate, and some of these noblemen provoked a revolt in 1545. The result was the deposition of Safa Giray. A Moscow supporter, Şahğäli, occupied the throne. Following that year, Moscow organized several campaigns to impose control over Kazan, but the attempts were unsuccessful. [ flagis still unclear. Nevertheless, the Dutchman Carlus (Carel) Allard noted that "Caesar of Tataria" used two flags, and Zilantwas pictured on the first. It is also unclear whether "Caesar of Tataria" meant Khan of Kazan.]
With the help of the
Nogays, Safa Giray returned to the throne. He executed 75 noblemen, and the rest of his opposition escaped to Russia. In 1549he died, and his 3-year old son Ütämeşgäräywas recognized as khan. His regent and the de-facto ruler of the khanate was his mother Söyembikä. The administration of the ulan Qoşçaqgained a degree of independence under her rule.
At that time Safa Giray's relatives (including
Devlet I Giray) were in Crimea. Their invitation to the throne of Kazan was vitiated by a large portion of vernacular nobility. Under Qoşçaq's government relations with Russia continued to worsen. A group of disgruntled noblemen at the beginning of 1551invited a supporter of Tsar Ivan the Terrible, Şahğäli, for the second time.
At the same time the lands to the east of the
VolgaRiver ( Taw yağı) were ceded to Russia. Ütämeşgäräy, along with his mother, was sent to a Moscow prison. Şahğäli occupied the Kazan throne until February 1552. Anti-Moscow elements in the Kazan government exiled Şahğäli and invited the Astrakhan prince Yadegar Moxammad, along with the Nogays, to aid them.
Kazan was then put under siege. The forces of Ivan IV operated from the Russian castle of
Sviyazhsk. In August 1552, the Russians defeated the Tatar inland troops, burnt Archaand some castles. After two months of siege and destruction of the citadel walls on October 3, the Russians entered the city. Some defenders managed to escape but most were put to the sword. Yadegar Moxammadwas imprisoned and the population was slaughtered. The Kazan Chroniclereports about 110,000 killed, both civilians and garrison, and 60,000 - 100,000 Russians who had been kept captive in khanate released.
After the fall of Kazan, territories such as
Udmurtiaand Bashkortostanjoined Russiawithout a conflict. The khanate's administration was wiped out, pro-Moscow and neutral nobles kept their lands, but others were executed. Tatars were then resettled far away from rivers, roads and Kazan. Free lands were settled by Russians and sometimes by pro-Russian Tatars. Orthodox bishops such as Germogenforcibly baptized many Tatars.
Until 1556, part of the population continued to resist Russian rule. The rebel governments were formed in
Chalemand Mishatamaq. But as the Nogaysunder Ğäli Äkrämoften raided the agricultural population, the coalition went to ruin. After a brutal repression against Kazan rebels, their commanders were executed.
By some estimates, [TES|
Kazan War] the population of the former khanate declined by several thousands during wars. The colonial administration, known as the Kazan Palace's Officeundertook the Russificationand the Christianizationof the Tatars and other peoples. [TES|Kazan Khanate] The term "Tsardom of Kazan" was in use until 1708when the Kazan Governoratewas formed.
According to some scholarsFact|date=February 2007, the Khanate of Kazan was briefly restored during the
Time of Troubleswith the help of the ethnic Russian population, but Russian forces under the leadership of Kuzma Mininsuppressed the rebellion.
List of Kazan khans
List of Turkic states and empires
* [http://members.tripod.com/~Groznijat/fadlan/rorlich1.html Origins of Volga Tatars]
* [http://www.kcn.ru/tat_en/history/h_hordee.html Brief History of Khanate]
* [http://www.ozturkler.com/data_english/0003/0003_06.htm Khahate of Kazan on ÖzTürkler]
* [http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/ru-ta_h.html Early Tatar Flags]
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