Mordovia


Mordovia
Republic of Mordovia
Республика Мордовия (Russian)
Мордовия Республикась (Mordvin)
—  Republic  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of Mordovia
Coordinates: 54°26′N 44°27′E / 54.433°N 44.45°E / 54.433; 44.45Coordinates: 54°26′N 44°27′E / 54.433°N 44.45°E / 54.433; 44.45
Political status
Country Russia
Federal district Volga[1]
Economic region Volga-Vyatka[2]
Established January 10, 1930
Capital Saransk
Government (as of August 2010)
 - Head[3] Nikolay Merkushkin[4]
 - Legislature State Assembly[3]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[5]
 - Total 26,200 km2 (10,115.9 sq mi)
Area rank 68th
Population (2010 Census)[6]
 - Total 834,819
 - Rank 60th
 - Density 31.86 /km2 (82.5 /sq mi)
 - Urban 60.4%
 - Rural 39.6%
Population (2002 Census)[7]
 - Total 888,766
 - Rank 62nd
 - Density 33.92 /km2 (87.9 /sq mi)
 - Urban 59.8%
 - Rural 40.2%
Time zone(s) MSD (UTC+04:00)[8]
ISO 3166-2 RU-MO
License plates 13, 113
Official languages Russian;[9] Mordvin (Moksha and Erzya)[10]
http://www.e-mordovia.ru/

The Republic of Mordovia (Russian: Респу́блика Мордо́вия, Respublika Mordoviya; Moksha/Erzya: Мордовия Республикась,[11] Mordoviya Respublikas), also known as Mordvinia, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). Its capital is the city of Saransk. Population: 834,819 (2010 Census preliminary results).[12]

Contents

Geography

The republic is located in the eastern part of the East European Plain of Russia. The western part of the republic is situated in the Oka Don Plain; its eastern and central parts in the Volga Elevation.

  • Area: 26,200 square kilometers (10,100 sq mi)
  • Borders:
  • Highest point: 324 meters (1,063 ft) (crossing of the road from Bolshoy Maresev with the roads to Mokshaley, Pyaigiley, and Picheury)

Rivers

There are 114 rivers in the republic. Major rivers include:

Lakes

There are approximately five hundred lakes in the republic.

Natural resources

Natural resources include peat, mineral waters, and others.

Climate

Climate is moderately continental.

  • Average January temperature: −11 °C (12 °F)
  • Average July temperature: +19 °C (66 °F)
  • Average annual precipitation: ~500 millimeters (20 in)

Administrative divisions

Demographics

  • Population: 834,819 (2010 Census preliminary results)[12]
  • Population: 888,766 (2002 Census)[7]
    • Urban: 531,478 (59.8%)
    • Rural: 357,288 (40.2%)
    • Male: 408,556 (46.0%)
    • Female: 480,210 (54.0%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,175
  • Average age: 38.7 years
    • Urban: 36.8 years
    • Rural: 41.3 years
    • Male: 35.9 years
    • Female: 41.2 years
  • Number of households: 332,995 (with 866,749 people)
    • Urban: 197,923 (with 525,808 people)
    • Rural: 135,072 (with 340,941 people)
  • Vital statistics
Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Births Deaths Birth rate Death rate
1970 15,423 9,048 15.0 8.8
1975 14,983 9,689 14.9 9.7
1980 14,320 10,287 14.6 10.5
1985 15,123 11,152 15.7 11.6
1990 12,910 11,018 13.4 11.4
1991 11,537 11,079 12.0 11.5
1992 10,215 11,574 10.6 12.0
1993 9,276 13,217 9.7 13.8
1994 8,916 14,748 9.3 15.4
1995 8,589 13,460 9.0 14.1
1996 7,883 13,579 8.3 14.4
1997 7,493 13,631 8.0 14.5
1998 7,469 13,116 8.0 14.1
1999 6,994 14,200 7.6 15.4
2000 7,148 14,838 7.8 16.2
2001 7,049 14,200 7.8 15.7
2002 7,131 14,918 8.0 16.7
2003 7,433 15,170 8.4 17.2
2004 7,689 14,768 8.8 16.9
2005 7,394 14,823 8.6 17.2
2006 7,367 13,981 8.6 16.4
2007 7,728 13,320 9.2 15.8
2008 8,215 13,167 9.8 15.7
  • Ethnic groups

The Mordvin people are a Finnic group speaking two related languages, Moksha and Erzya. The two languages have been dealt with at various times as dialects of one Mordvinian language. In reality there are two orthographies with parallel newsmedia in the Republic of Mordovia where approximately only one third of all Mordvinians live. During the Soviet period, school textbooks were published in each language.[13]

According to the 2002 Census, Russians make up 60.8% of the republic's population, while ethnic Mordvins are only 31.9%. Other groups include Tatars (5.2%), Ukrainians (0.5%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population. 3,700 people (0.4%) did not indicate their nationalities during the Census.

census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Mordvins 405,031 (34.1%) 357,978 (35.8%) 364,689 (35.4%) 338,898 (34.2%) 313,420 (32.5%) 283,861 (31.9%)
Russians 719,117 (60.5%) 590,557 (59.0%) 606,817 (58.9%) 591,212 (59.7%) 586,147 (60.8%) 540,717 (60.8%)
Tatars 47,386 (4.0%) 38,636 (3.9%) 44,954 (4.4%) 45,765 (4.6%) 47,328 (4.9%) 46,261 (5.2%)
Ukrainians 7,586 (0.6%) 6,554 (0.7%) 6,033 (0.6%) 5,622 (0.6%) 6,461 (0.7%) 4,801 (0.5%)
Others 8,884 (0.7%) 6,468 (0.6%) 7,069 (0.7%) 8,012 (0.8%) 10,148 (1.1%) 13,126 (1.5%)

History

Map of the Republic of Mordovia
Old map of Mordovia

Early history

Earliest archaeological signs of human beings in the area of Mordovia are from the Neolithic era. Finno-Ugric Mordvins are mentioned in written sources in 6th century. Later, Mordvins were under the influence of both Volga Bulgaria and Kievan Rus. Mordvin princes sometimes raided Muroma and Volga Bulgaria, and often despoiled each other's holdings.

Mongol rule

The Mongols conquered vast areas of Eastern Europe in the 13th century. They established the khanate of the Golden Horde in 1241, subjugating the area of Mordovia. Mordvins fought against Mongols and later alongside with Russians.[citation needed] Mordvin lands territorially belonged to Mukhsha Ulus. The Golden Horde disintegrated in 1430s, which resulted in some Mordvins becoming subjects of Khanate of Kazan, whereas other were incorporated to the Muscovy.

Russian rule

When Ivan IV of Russia annexed the Khanate of Kazan in 1552, the Mordvin lands were subjugated to the Russian tsars. The Mordvin elite rapidly adopted Russian language and customs, whereas 1821 saw the publication of the New Testament in Erzya to address the non-elite population. In rural areas, Mordvin culture was preserved. Russians started to convert Mordvins to Orthodox Christianity in the mid-18th century. Mordvins gave up their own shamanist religion only slowly, however, and many of shamanist features were preserved as parts of local culture though the population became nominally Christian. Translations of literature to Mordvin languages were mostly religious books. In 18th century, the Latin alphabet was used in writing Mordvin, but from the mid-19th century, Cyrillic was used.

Part of the Soviet Union

During the Russian revolution and civil war, Mordovia was held mostly by opponents of Bolsheviks. When the Bolsheviks prevailed in the war, Mordovia became a part of the Russian SFSR. In 1925, the Soviet government founded autonomous districts and village councils in the area of Mordvins. During the Soviet era, two written languages were developed: based on the Erzya dialect in 1922 and on the Moksha dialect in 1923, both using Cyrillic script. Mordovian Okrug was founded on July 16, 1928 and it was elevated to the status of autonomous oblast on January 10, 1930. The autonomous oblast was transformed into the Mordovian Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic on December 20, 1934.

Part of the Russian Federation

When the Soviet Union disintegrated, the Mordovian ASSR proclaimed itself the Republic of Mordovia in 1990, and remained a part of the Russian Federation. The Republic of Mordovia in its present form has existed since January 25, 1994.

Politics

The head of the government in the Republic of Mordovia is the Head of the Republic. As of 2004, the head of the republic is Nikolay Merkushkin, who was elected in 1995.

The State Assembly is the legislature of the republic.

Economy

The most developed industries are machine building, chemical, woodworking, and food industries. Most of the industrial enterprises are located in the capital Saransk, as well as in the towns of Kovylkino and Ruzayevka, and in the urban-type settlements of Chamzinka and Komsomolsky.

Culture

There are many museums in the republic. The largest ones include the Mordovian Republican United Museum of Regional Studies and the Museum of Mordvinian Culture in Saransk.

The National Library of the Republic of Mordovia is the largest library in the republic.

The State Puppet Theater of the Republic of Mordovia, located in Saransk, is well-known in Russia. Most of the plays played in this theater are Russian fairy-tales.

Erzya literature experienced a renaissance in the 1920s and 1930s.

Education

The most important facilities of higher education include Mordovian State University and Mordovian State Pedagogical Institute in Saransk.

Language

The Mordvinic languages,[14] alternatively Mordvin languages,[15] or Mordvinian languages, (Russian: Mordovskie yazyki, the official Russian term for the language pair)[16] are a subgroup of the Uralic languages, comprising the closely related Erzya language and Moksha language.[17] Previously considered a single "Mordvin language",[18] it is now treated as a small language family. Due to differences in phonology, lexicon, and grammar, Erzya and Moksha are not mutually intelligible, to the extent that Russian language is often used for intergroup communications.[19]

The two Mordvinic languages also have separate literary forms. The Erzya literary language was created in 1922 and the Mokshan in 1923.[20]

Phonological differences between the two languages include:[18]

  • Moksha retains a distinction between the vowels /ɛ, e/ while in Erzya, both have merged as /e/.
  • In unstressed syllables, Erzya features vowel harmony like many other Uralic languages, using [e] in front-vocalic words and [o] in back-vocalic words. Moksha has a simple schwa [ə] in their place.
  • Word-initially, Erzya has a postalveolar affricate /tʃ/ corresponding to a fricative /ʃ/ in Moksha.
  • Next to voiceless consonants, liquids /r, rʲ, l, lʲ/ and the semivowel /j/ are devoiced in Moksha to [r̥ r̥ʲ l̥ l̥ʲ ȷ̊].

The medieval Muromian language may have been Mordvinic, or close to Mordvinic.

Religion

The prevailing confession is the Russian Orthodox Church. Sunni Islam, practiced mostly by Tatars, is the biggest religious minority.

Notes

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ a b Constitution, Article 10.3
  4. ^ Official website of the Republic of Mordovia. Nikolay Ivanovich Merkushkin (Russian)
  5. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_03.htm. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  6. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2011). "Предварительные итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года (Preliminary results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2010). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/results_of_the_census/results-inform.php. Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  7. ^ a b Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  8. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication).
  9. ^ Official the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  10. ^ Constitution, Article 13
  11. ^ Official website of Mordovia republic government
  12. ^ a b Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2011). "Предварительные итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года (Preliminary results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2010). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/results_of_the_census/results-inform.php. Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  13. ^ Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver, "Equality, Efficiency, and Politics in Soviet Bilingual Education Policy, 1934-1980," American Political Science Review 78 (December 1984): 1019-1039.
  14. ^ Bright, William (1992). International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195051964. http://books.google.com/books?id=oo4YAAAAIAAJ&q=Erza&pgis=1. 
  15. ^ Mordvin languages @ google books
  16. ^ Dalby, Andrew (1998). Dictionary of Languages. Columbia University Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=yKSeVLghcfQC&pg=PA429&dq=Erza. 
  17. ^ Grenoble, Lenore (2003). Language Policy in the Soviet Union. Springer. p. A80. ISBN 9781402012983. http://books.google.com/books?id=Nn3xDTiL0PQC&pg=PA80&dq=Mordvinic+languages. 
  18. ^ a b Raun, Alo (1988). Sinor, Denis. ed. The Uralic languages: Description, history and foreign influences. BRILL. p. A96. ISBN 9789004077416. http://books.google.com/books?id=TM2NQ78dP2wC&pg=PA96. 
  19. ^ Minahan, James (2000). "Mordvin+language" One Europe, Many Nations. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. A489. ISBN 9780313309847. http://books.google.com/books?id=NwvoM-ZFoAgC&pg=PA489&dq="Mordvin+language". 
  20. ^ Wixman, Ronald (1984). The Peoples of the USSR. M.E. Sharpe. p. A137. ISBN 9780873325066. http://books.google.com/books?id=WKrN10g4whAC&pg=PA137. 

See also

References

  • Конституционное собрание Республики Мордовия. 21 сентября 1995 г. «Конституция Республики Мордовия», в ред. Закона №20-З от 20 мая 2008 г «О внесении изменений в Конституцию Республики Мордовия». Вступил в силу 22 сентября 1995 г.. Опубликован: "Известия Мордовии", №180, 22 сентября 1995 г. (Constitutional Assembly of the Republic of Mordovia. September 21, 1995 Constitution of the Republic of Mordovia, as amended by the Law #20-Z of May 20, 2008 On Amending the Constitution of the Republic of Mordovia. Effective as of September 22, 1995).

External links


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