- Omsk Oblast
Omsk Oblast Омская область (Russian) — Oblast —
Coat of arms
Anthem: Anthem of Omsk Oblast Coordinates: Coordinates: Political status Country Russia Federal district Siberian Economic region West Siberian Established December 7, 1934 Administrative center Omsk Government (as of March 2011) - Governor Leonid Polezhayev - Legislature Legislative Assembly Statistics Area (as of the 2002 Census) - Total 139,700 km2 (53,938.5 sq mi) Area rank 28th Population (2010 Census) - Total 1,977,450 - Rank 24th - Density 14.15 /km2 (36.6 /sq mi) - Urban 71.5% - Rural 28.5% Population (2002 Census) - Total 2,079,220 - Rank 25th - Density 14.88 /km2 (38.5 /sq mi) - Urban 68.7% - Rural 31.3% Time zone(s) OMSST (UTC+07:00) ISO 3166-2 RU-OMS License plates 55 Official languages Russian http://www.omskportal.ru/
Omsk Oblast (Russian: О́мская о́бласть, Omskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in southwestern Siberia. The oblast has an area of 139,700 square kilometers (53,900 sq mi) and a population of 1,977,450 (2010 Census preliminary results) with the majority, 1.15 million, living in Omsk, the administrative center.
Archeological finds have indicated that the present day territory of the oblast has been inhabited for the last 14,000 years. Neolithic societies in the area lived by fishing and hunting. About three thousand years ago, pastoralism began to take hold.
Various Turkic states dominated the area through-out the Middle Ages. The most notable of these were the Western Turkic Khaganate and the Siberian Khanate. Siberian Tatars, Mongols, Khanty and Mansi tribes, along with others, inhabited the territory.
The Russian history of Omsk can be said to begin with the 1584 arrival of a Cossack force under the command of Yermak, who defeated local rulers and established nominal Russian control of the area.
The Russian State
In the century following Yermak's passage through the area, the settlement of the oblast, and of Siberia in general, began in earnest. Tsars Feodor and Boris Godunov directed the construction of fortified settlements and military installations in order to defend their subjects from raiding nomadic tribesmen and to exert authority over local populations, specifically over the tribute-paying Tatars of The Baraba Lands and the recently founded Tara uyezd (a local administrative unit of the Russian empire).
In 1716 a fortress was constructed at the confluence of the Om and Irtysh rivers on the orders of sublieutenant Ivan Bugholtz.The fortress would form the nucleus for the development of the future city of Omsk. By the second half of the 18th century, Omsk fortress was the largest building of any kind in the eastern part of Russia.
As Russian settlement of the Yenisei, Tobol and Irtysh watersheds continued in the course of the 18th century, so did the development of the Omsk and the surrounding region. In 1753 a customs post was established to tax goods brought into the city by the ever increasing trade with Kazakh tribesmen. When, in 1764, The Siberian provinces were organized into two governorships, centered on Irkutsk and Tobolsk, the city of Tara and the fortress of Omsk were assigned to the latter. In 1780, on the orders of Catherine the Great the fortress was transferred to Kolyvan Oblast. By this time Omsk had grown to the size of a small city, however, from 1797 to 1804 it did not possess its own uyezd.
In 1804, the territories surrounding Omsk were organized into the Omsk Okrug. The city's rise to providence continued and, when Siberia was once again reorganized in 1822, Omsk became the administrative center of the General Governorship of Eastern Siberia, eclipsing the old center of Tobolsk. The new governorship was divided into settler populated oblasts around the cities of Omsk, Petropavlovsk, Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogrsk and okrugs, populated by Kazakh nomads. In subsequent reforms the name of the Oblast was changed repeatedly to The Oblast of The Siberian Kyrgyz (1854), Akmolinsk Oblast (1868), and Omsk Oblast (1917) before finally reverting to the Omsk Governorship in 1918. During the later periods the authority of the oblast was extended south, to include areas of present day Kazakhstan.
In the 19th century, Omsk gained the dubious distinction of being a premier destination for political exiles and prisoners from the European portion of the Empire. Decembrists, Polish rebels, French prisoners of war and political activists of every stripe found their way to Siberia. Among them was Fyoodor Dostoyevsky, who spent four years (1850–1854) at the Omsk prison.
The early nineteenth century also saw the growth of industry in the city and in the rest of the Irtysh basin. The Siberian Cossack Army was headquartered in Omsk after 1808 and contributed to the development of the city, by the beginning of the 20th century the Cossacks were a dominant component in the society of both the city of Omsk and the surrounding lands, having reached a population of 174 thousand and holding title to five million hectares of agricultural land. The 18th and 19th centuries also saw the influx of a significant number of German immigrants both from Russia's Volga Regions and from abroad.
The Soviet Union
In 1925 the Omsk governorship was dissolved into the newly formed Siberian Krai and again reorganized, this time as an Oblast by order of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee on the 7th of December, 1934. Parts of the Obsko-Irtysh Oblast and the West Siberian Krai as well as the southern part of Chelyabinsk Oblast were given over to Omsk. In 1943, Kurgan Oblast was created from a portion of the territory of Omsk. In 1944, several districts were transferred to the newly created Tyumen Oblast.
The 1950s saw the creation of the petroleum processing industry, as well as the development of various high-technology facilities that came to define the economy of the Oblast for the remainder of the century.
With the dissolution of the Soviet Union the oblast became part of the newly independent Russian Federation. The independence of the Union Republic of Kazakhstan gave Omsk an international border to the south, while continued federal policy aiming to rectify the effects of Stalin Era population transfers a national German district created an area with a significant, although not a dominant, German population around the town of Azovo.
As of 2008, Omsk Oblast is the 23rd largest economy in Russia, with a gross regional product of 10.2 billion dollars.
The economy of Omsk Oblast is heavily industrial, with well developed, and growing, service and financial sectors. Agriculture represents a smaller, but still significant, portion of the economy.
Economic activity is concentrated in Omsk, with over sixty-six thousand private enterprises registered, ranging from small-scale retailers to billion-dollar manufacturing.
The oblast and city governments have made efforts to improve the business climate and foster small enterprise through various incentives and government programs designed to ease the bureaucratic red-tape, a notorious feature of Russian business life, and to generate cooperation within the business community.
The bulk of industrial output, as of 2009, is concentrated in food and tobacco processing ($900 million), hydrocarbon processing ($6.7 billion), chemical manufacturing ($500 m), plastics manufacturing ($200 m) and the manufacture of electrical components ($280 m). The remainder of the economy is dominated by the retail sector and agriculture.
The largest industrial enterprises include the aerospace manufacturer Polyot, the Omsk Aggregate Plant, the agricultural manufacturer Sibzavod, Omsk Baranov Motorworks, and Omsktransmash, which manufactures the T-80 main battle tank. Additionally, Omsk Rubber, the Technical Hydrocarbon Plant, Omsk-Polymer and Omsk Hydrocarbon Processing Plant, represent the petroleum and hydrocarbon industry. Omsk Hydrocarbon is one of the most important oil refineries in Russia.
The oblast operates four thermal power plants, which makes it largely self-sufficient from the standpoint of energy generation.
Agricultural production is concentrated in the Isil'rul'skii District and produces wheat, barley, flax, sunflower, potato, various fruits and vegetables as well as meat, poultry and dairy products.
The food processing sector includes several breweries, a distillery and numerous food packaging enterprises.
Omsk Oblast spans 600 km north to south and 300 km west to east. The geography of the oblast is dominated by the Irtysh River and its larger tributaries, the Ishim, Om, Osha, and Tara. The region is part of the West Siberian Plain, and as such is fairly level. The south of the oblast consists predominantly of grassy plains, which gradually transition to wooded plains, forests and, eventually, marshy taiga forest in the north. The most fertile lands are concentrated about the Irtysh river, this area, is also more wooded, and more uneven than the rest of the Oblast. Numerous lakes can be found in the oblast, with the largest being the Saltaim, Tenis, Ik, Ebeity, Ul'jai and Tobol-Kushly.
The highest point in the oblast, is an elevation of 150 meters lying near the town of Nagornoye, while the lowest is a section of the Irtysh river lying near Malaya Bicha.
The oblast has a classic continental climate, with cold, snowy winters and hot, dry summers. Average January temperatures range from -42° to -30°C. Average July temperatures range from +28° to +25°C, and can reach up to +35° and even +40°C. Annual rainfall averages 300-400mm. Sunny days predominate.
The southern plains have notably longer and warmers summers and a delayed onset of freezing temperatures. They are also significantly drier than the northern forests, receiving only 250–300 mm of precipitation annually. Winters, however, are as severe as on the plains as they are further north. Spring rains are rare, but late spring freezes are not. The early part of the summer is frequently dominated by hot, dry southern winds.
- 83.47% Russian
- 3.93% Kazakh
- 3.74% Ukrainian
- 3.67% German
- 2.30% Tatar
- 0.44% Belarusians
- 0.32% Armenian
- 0.20% Azeri
- 0.20% Chuvash
- 0.15% Estonian
- 0.14% Polish
- 0.12% Jewish
- 0.11% Roma
- 0.11% Latvian
- many other groups of less than two thousand persons each.
- an additional 0.16% of residents declined to state their ethnicity on the census questionnaire.
According to Russia's 2002 Census, Omsk Oblast has one of the lowest birth rates in Siberia. However, birth rates remain higher than the average in heavily German districts - Azovsky Nemetsky National District (24% German), Moskalensky, Poltavsky (22% Ukrainian & 11% German) and Isilkulsky (8% German), even as significant emigration to Germany acts to reduce the overall birth rate.  In 2009, the lowest death rate was recorded for Azovsky German National Raion (9.4 per 1000) and the highest birth rate was recorded for Moskalenskom (17.0 per 1000), Isilkulskom (15.2), Maryanovsky (15.8), Pavlogradski (15.8), Tevrizskom (16.6), Ust-Ishim (15.4) and Sherbakulskom (16.2). Regions with the highest population growth were Moskalensky area (5.5 ppm), Azovsky German National Raion (4.8 ppm), Sherbakulsky (3.8 ppm) and Pavlogradskij (3.2 ppm).
Raion (2007) Pop Births Deaths NG BR DR NGR Omsk Oblast 2,020,000 23,627 29,578 -5,951 11.7 14.6 -0.29% Omsk 1,130,000 11,857 15,599 -3,742 10.5 13.8 -0.33% Azovsky Nemetsky National District 22,500 327 245 82 14.5 10.9 0.36% Bolsherechensky District 32,400 393 519 -126 12.1 16 -0.39% Bolsheukovsky District 8,800 125 160 -35 14.2 18.1 -0.39% Gorkovsky 23,400 295 366 -71 12.6 15.7 -0.31% Znamensky 13,400 195 213 -18 14.6 15.9 -0.13% Isilkulsky 46,700 681 715 -34 14.6 15.3 -0.07% Kalachinsky 44,700 506 754 -248 11.3 16.9 -0.56% Kolosovsky 14,900 184 240 -56 12.4 16.1 -0.37% Kormilovsky 25,800 352 447 -95 13.6 17.3 -0.37% Krutinsky 20,000 248 343 -95 12.4 17.1 -0.47% Lyubinsky 41,900 590 750 -160 14.1 17.9 -0.38% Maryanovsky 27,300 423 444 -21 15.5 16.3 -0.08% Moskalensky 32,200 505 460 45 15.7 14.3 0.14% Muromtsevsky 26,100 271 542 -271 10.4 20.8 -1.04% Nazyvayevsky 28,500 350 465 -115 12.3 16.3 -0.40% Nizhneomsky 18,600 247 277 -30 13.3 14.9 -0.16% Novovarshavsky 26,700 336 325 11 12.6 12.2 0.04% Odessky 18,200 260 231 29 14.3 12.7 0.16% Okoneshnikovsky 16,700 194 247 -53 11.6 14.8 -0.32% Omsky 91,800 1,146 1,326 -180 12.5 14.4 -0.19% Pavlogradsky 20,600 292 292 0 14.2 14.2 0.00% Poltavsky 24,000 328 320 8 13.7 13.3 0.04% Russko-Polyansky 22,800 314 344 -30 13.7 15.1 -0.14% Sargatsky 21,800 279 364 -85 12.8 16.7 -0.39% Sedelnikovsky 11,900 153 205 -52 12.9 17.3 -0.44% Tavrichesky 39,200 519 579 -60 13.2 14.8 -0.16% Tarsky 48,000 585 839 -254 12.2 17.5 -0.53% Tevrizsky 17,200 270 305 -35 15.6 17.7 -0.21% Tyukalinsky 29,500 357 472 -115 12.1 16 -0.39% Ust-Ishimsky 15,200 192 289 -97 12.6 18.9 -0.63% Cherlaksky 34,700 506 562 -56 14.6 16.2 -0.16% Sherbakulsky 24,500 347 339 8 14.2 13.8 0.04%
- ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000).
- ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- ^ Official website of Omsk Oblast. Leonid Polezhayev, Governor of Omsk Oblast (Russian)
- ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_03.htm. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- ^ a b Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2011). "Предварительные итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года (Preliminary results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2010). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/results_of_the_census/results-inform.php. Retrieved 2011-04-25.
- ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
- ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication).
- ^ Official the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- ^ http://omskobl.ru/his/
- ^ Отчёт о работе администрации города Омска в 2005—2009 годах
- ^ "Журнал "Forbes" - 30 лучших городов для бизнеса — 2010" (in Russian). May 27, 2010. http://www.forbesrussia.ru/rating/30-luchshih-gorodov-dlya-biznesa/2010. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
- ^ Галина Балашенко «Заниматься бизнесом станет проще» // «Домашняя газета» № 22 (065), 9 июня 2010 года
- ^ (XLS) National Composition of Population for Regions of the Russian Federation. 2002 Russian All-Population Census. 2002. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/English/4-2.xls. Retrieved 2006-07-20.
- ^ http://www.demograf.omskmintrud.ru/default.asp?objType=2&objValue=52025
- ^ Hungary Russia sister city relationships
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