Udmurtia


Udmurtia
Udmurt Republic
Удмуртская Республика (Russian)
Удмурт Республика (Udmurt)
—  Republic  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: National Anthem of the Udmurt Republic
Coordinates: 57°17′N 52°45′E / 57.283°N 52.75°E / 57.283; 52.75Coordinates: 57°17′N 52°45′E / 57.283°N 52.75°E / 57.283; 52.75
Political status
Country Russia
Federal district Volga[1]
Economic region Urals[2]
Established November 4, 1920
Capital Izhevsk
Government (as of August 2010)
 - President[3] Alexander Volkov[4]
 - Legislature State Council[3]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[5]
 - Total 42,100 km2 (16,254.9 sq mi)
Area rank 57th
Population (2010 Census)[6]
 - Total 1,522,761
 - Rank 30th
 - Density 36.17 /km2 (93.7 /sq mi)
 - Urban 69.2%
 - Rural 30.8%
Population (2002 Census)[7]
 - Total 1,570,316
 - Rank 29th
 - Density 37.3 /km2 (97 /sq mi)
 - Urban 69.7%
 - Rural 30.3%
Time zone(s) MSD (UTC+04:00)[8]
ISO 3166-2 RU-UD
License plates 18
Official languages Russian;[9] Udmurt[10]
http://www.udmurt.ru/en/

The Udmurt Republic (Russian: Удму́ртская Pеспу́блика, Udmurtskaya respublika; Udmurt: Удмурт Республика), or Udmurtia (Удму́ртия, Udmurtiya) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). Its capital is the city of Izhevsk. Population: 1,522,761 (2010 Census preliminary results).[6]

Contents

History

Map of the Udmurt Republic
History of Udmurtia
Coat of Arms of the Udmurt Republic
This article is part of a series
Volga Bulgaria
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Khanate of Kazan
Ar begs
Muscovy
Kazan Governorate
Udmurt Autonomous Oblast
Udmurt ASSR
Udmurt Republic

Udmurt Republic Portal
v · Uralic language community was founded in the late Stone Age in the Ural region. Later, a Permic community split off from the Uralic community. At the end of the first millennium CE, Proto-Udmurts were differentiated from the Permic generality.[clarification needed] Originally, the Proto-Udmurts lived in the middle Kama River region, then began to settle around the mouth of the Vyatka River.

Middle Ages

Udmurts are mentioned by Arab historians Ibn Fadlan (921) and Abu-Said al-Balchi (950) as neighbors of the Idel River Bolgars. Thus, the southern Udmurts were under the influence of Volga Bulgaria.

By the middle of the second millennium, Udmurts had settled before the middle reaches of the Vyatka, where they began to settle in the valley of the Cheptsa River – from the mouth to the source of river. At the Vyatka River, Udmurts first met the Old Rus people, who had been settling there since the 12th century. In addition, Udmurts were contacted with Russian and Arab merchants. The Russian state exerted political and cultural influence on the northern Udmurt. By the 16th century, the northern Udmurt almost became part of the Russian state.

During the Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria of 1237, the Mongols also conquered the land where most of the Udmurts lived. They had to pay annual taxes to the Khan of Kazan, who did not otherwise intervene in Udmurt tribal society.

By this time, some Udmurt tribes mixed with Tatars, and these people, still using the Udmurt language, were called Besermaans, in Udmurt Busurmans. The Maris called Udmurts "Odo". From this name, the Russians derived their second alternative name for Udmurts: Otjans (Otjaki) or Otiny. From this is derived Votjaki.

The Udmurts fought with the Tatars against the Muscovite Princes up to 1552, when the Khanate of Kazan was conquered and destroyed by the Russians. The territory of modern Udmurtia was divided after 1552 between the Kazan and Vyatka Governorates (guberniyas). In 1553–1557, Udmurts rebelled against the Russians. In 1582, a new rebellion broke out. The Russians had to make, from Moscow, an armed venture against the Udmurt rebels. A new revolt started again in 1592 together with Maris. In 1609, Udmurts took part in a rebellion and conquered, in 1612 and for a short period, Kazan, together with the Tatars. The next uprising took place when Udmurts joined the Stenka Razin rebellion in 1667–1671. However, the Russians still considered Udmurts dangerous enough that an order was issued in 1697 not to sell any iron which could be used to arm the Udmurt population. The last large scale uprising took place in 1773–1774, when Udmurts joined the Yemelyan Pugachyov's rebellion.

20th century

The first industrial enterprise in what is now Udmurtia was the state-owned Votkinsk Zavod founded as a weapons arsenal on the west bank of the river Kama. In 1917, Udmurts joined the short lived Idel-Ural League which was dissolved in December 1918. On November 4, 1920 Votsk Autonomous Oblast was formed. On January 1, 1932, it was renamed Udmurt Autonomous Oblast, which was then reorganized into the Udmurt ASSR on December 28, 1934. In Joseph Stalin's Great Purge of 1937–1938, the murder of most of Udmurt's nationalist intellectuals had its effects on Udmurt society. During World War II, many industrial factories were evacuated from Ukraine and western borderlands to Udmurtia, considerably increasing the ethnic Russian population in Udmurtia.

The Udmurt Republic in its present form has existed since September 20, 1990.

Geography

The republic is located in the eastern portion of the Eastern European Plain, between the Kama and Vyatka Rivers.

Borders
Kind Polity or geographical feature Direction
Internal Kirov Oblast SW/W/NW/N
Perm Krai NE/E
Republic of Bashkortostan SE
Republic of Tatarstan S/SW
Water Votkinsk Reservoir E
  • Highest point: 332 m (1,089 ft)
  • Maximum N->S distance:320 kilometers (200 mi)
  • Maximum E->W distance: 200 kilometers (120 mi)

Rivers

Major rivers include:

Lakes

While there are no large lakes in the Republic, the Votkinskoye Reservoir is partially located on its territory.

Natural resources

The republic's natural resources include oil, peat, mineral waters, and more. Oil reserves are estimated to be 820 million tons (as of 2002). Approximately 7–8 million tons are extracted annually. Most of the oil is exported.

Forests cover over 40% of the republic's territory. Most of the forests are coniferous.

Climate

The republic has moderate continental climate, with warm summers and cold winters with a lot of snow.

Average temperatures
Month Average temperature
January −14.5 °C (5.9 °F)
July +18.3 °C (64.94 °F)

Administrative divisions

Demographics

2010 Census
  • Population: 1,522,761[6]
2002 Census
  • Population: 1,570,316[7]
  • Urban: 1,094,338 (69.7%)
  • Rural: 475,978 (30.3%)
  • Male percentage: 46.2%
  • Female percentage: 53.7%
  • Females per 1000 males:1,160
  • Average age: 35.8
  • Average age, Urban: 35.6
  • Average age, Rural: 36.1
  • Average age, Male: 32.8
  • Average age, Female: 38.4
  • TFR: 1.613 children per women. (2008)
  • Urban TFR: 1.395 children per women. (2008)
  • Rural TFR: 2.214 children per women. (2008)
  • Vital statistics
Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Births Deaths Birth rate Death rate
1970 23,286 13,265 16.4 9.3
1975 26,497 14,666 18.2 10.1
1980 27,601 16,862 18.3 11.2
1985 29,343 17,553 18.8 11.2
1990 24,345 15,816 15.1 9.8
1991 22,213 16,002 13.7 9.9
1992 20,074 18,063 12.4 11.1
1993 17,126 21,923 10.6 13.5
1994 16,874 24,183 10.4 14.9
1995 15,484 22,445 9.6 13.9
1996 14,877 20,641 9.2 12.8
1997 15,368 19,881 9.6 12.4
1998 16,130 19,080 10.1 11.9
1999 15,793 20,745 9.9 13.0
2000 16,256 21,852 10.2 13.7
2001 16,636 22,810 10.5 14.4
2002 17,746 24,520 11.3 15.6
2003 17,982 24,571 11.5 15.7
2004 18,238 23,994 11.7 15.4
2005 17,190 24,006 11.1 15.5
2006 17,480 22,011 11.3 14.3
2007 19,667 21,727 12.8 14.2
2008 20,421 21,436 13.3 14.0
2009 21,155 20,286 13.8 13.3

Ethnic groups

According to the 2002 Census, Russians make up 60.1% of the republic's population, while the ethnic Udmurts only make up 29.3%. Other groups include Tatars (7.0%), Ukrainians (11,527, or 0.7%), Mari (8,985, or 0.6%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the republic's total population. 2,957 people (0.2%) did not indicate their nationalities during the Census.

Ethnic group census 1926 census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Udmurts 395,607 (52.3%) 480,014 (39.4%) 475,913 (35.6%) 484,168 (34.2%) 479,702 (32.1%) 496,522 (30.9%) 460,584 (29.3%)
Besermyan 9,200 (1.2%) 2,998 (0.2%)
Russians 327,493 (43.3) 679,294 (55.7%) 758,770 (56.8%) 809,563 (57.1%) 870,270 (58.3%) 945,216 (58.9%) 944,108 (60.1%)
Tatars 19,248 (2.5%) 40,561 (3.3%) 71,930 (5.4%) 87,150 (6.1%) 99,139 (6.6%) 110,490 (6.9%) 109,218 (7.0%)
Others 4,716 (0.6%) 19,481 (1.6%) 30,314 (2.3%) 36,794 (2.6%) 43,061 (2.9%) 53,435 (3.3%) 53,408 (3.4%)

Over two thirds of the world population of Udmurts live in the republic.[11]

Although as of 2007 population is declining, the decline is more pronounced in urban areas. Out of the 19,667 births reported in 2007, 12,631 were in urban areas(11.86 per 1000) and 7,036 were in rural areas(14.88 per 1000). Birth rates for rural areas are 25% higher than that of urban areas. Of the total of 21,727 deaths, 14,366 were reported in urban areas(13.49 per 1000) and 7,361 were in rural areas(15.56 per 1000). Natural decline of population was measured at -0.16% for urban areas and an insignificant -0.07% for rural areas (average for Russia is -0.33%). [1]

Politics

The head of the government in the Udmurt Republic is the President, who is selected by the President of Russia from a list provided by parties represented in the regional parliament and later approved by the parliament for a five-year term. As of April 2010, the President is Alexander Volkov, who assumed his post on February 20, 2009. He served as the President of the Udmurt Republic since 2000, when the office was elected directly. Prior to the elections, Volkov was the Chairman of the Republic's Council—the highest post at that time.

The Republic's parliament is the State Council, popularly elected every five years. The State Council has 100 deputies.

The Republic's constitution was adopted on December 7, 1994.

Economy

Udmurtia is an industrialized republic. The most developed industries include machine building, chemical, and oil and gas industries. The republic also benefited from the transfer of defense industry production during World War II. Izhevsk is the home to the Izhmash factory (AKA Izhmash Joint Stock Company) and Izhmech (AKA Izhevsky Mehanichesky Zavod); Izhmash being the primary manufacturer of Kalashnikov based weapon systems, and the 'home' of the AK-47 rifle. The Udmurt Republic is also home for other military technology factories, and also possesses a potential in electronics and nano technology industries.

Culture

St. Michael's Cathedral is the main church of Udmurtia

In Udmurtia, there are eight professional theaters, the Philharmonic Society, and more than ten state and numerous public museums which tell about history and culture of Udmurtia and its people, like the Museum of history and culture in Sarapul, or the Tchaikovsky Museum in Votkinsk. One of the oldest arms museums is located in Izhevsk, as well as the newer Kalashnikov Museum (dedicated in November 2004), which has recently become a general small-arms museum. Since the breakup of the Soviet Union a new, pan-Uralic cultural movement has evolved called "Ethnofuturism". [2]

Education

The most important facilities of higher education include the Udmurt State University, Izhevsk State Technical University, and Izhevsk State Medical Academy, all located in the capital Izhevsk.

Religion

The majority of the Republic's population is atheist or Russian Orthodox (Russians, Urdmuts, Besermyan and Mari), with many rural people incorporating traditional folk religion into the Orthodox Christian faith, while majority of the Tatars in the region Sunni Muslim.

Notes

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ a b Constitution, Article 9.1
  4. ^ Official website of the Udmurt Republic. Alexander A. Volkov
  5. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_03.htm. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  6. ^ a b c Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2011). "Предварительные итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года (Preliminary results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2010). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/results_of_the_census/results-inform.php. Retrieved 2011-04-25. 
  7. ^ a b Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  8. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication).
  9. ^ Official the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  10. ^ Constitution, Article 8
  11. ^ "NUPI: Centre for Russian Studies". Norsk Utenrikspolitisk Institutt (NUPI). http://www.nupi.no/cgi-win/Russland/etnisk_b.exe?Udmurtian. Retrieved 2006-09-09.  Data from the Soviet census of 1989. The table at the bottom states that in "Udmurtiya"(the y is optional), the "% av gruppen"(% of total world population) is "69,46%" which is more or less two thirds.

References

  • №663-XII 7 декабря 1994 г. «Конституция Удмуртской Республики», в ред. Закона №62-РЗ от 22 ноября 2007 г. (#663-XII December 7, 1994 Constitution of the Udmurt Republic, as amended by the Law #62-RZ of November 22, 2007. ).

Further reading

External links


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