Politics of Portugal


Politics of Portugal

Politics of Portugal takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Assembly of the Republic. Since 1975 the party system is dominated by the social democratic Socialist Party and the liberal conservative Social Democratic Party.The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.:"see also: Portuguese Constitution"

Political background

The national and regional governments are dominated by two political parties, the PS, a Social Democratic party, that resembles the British Labour or the German SPD, and the PSD, a conservative party, member of the European People's Party, both with similar base politics: pro-European, and focusing on market economy. Other parties with seats in the parliament are the Portuguese Communist Party, the People's Party, the Leftwing Bloc and the Green Party. The Communists and the Greens are in coalition as the Unitarian Democratic Coalition. As of 2005, José Sócrates is the prime minister for the Socialists, and the party also has an absolute majority in the parliament with 121 MPs, the Social Democratic Party holds 75 MPs, the Communist Party 12 MPs, the People's Party 12 MPs, the Leftwing Bloc 8 MPs and the Green party 2 MPs.

History of the current regime

Portugal's April 25, 1976 constitution reflected the country's 1974-76 move from authoritarian rule to provisional military government to a parliamentary democracy with some initial communist and left-wing influence. The military coup in 1974 was a result of the colonial wars and removed the authoritarian dictator, Marcelo Caetano, from power. The prospect of a communist takeover in Portugal generated considerable concern among the country's NATO allies. The revolution also led to the country abruptly abandoning its colonies overseas and to the return of an estimated 600,000 Portuguese citizens from abroad. The 1976 constitution, which defined Portugal as a "Republic ... engaged in the formation of a classless society," was revised in 1982, 1989, 1992, 1997, 2001, and 2004.

The 1982 revision of the constitution placed the military under strict civilian control, trimmed the powers of the president, and abolished the Revolutionary Council (a non-elected committee with legislative veto powers). The country joined the European Union in 1986, beginning a path toward greater economic and political integration with its richer neighbors in Europe. The 1989 revision of the constitution eliminated much of the remaining Marxist rhetoric of the original document, abolished the communist-inspired "agrarian reform", and laid the groundwork for further privatization of nationalized firms and the government-owned communications media. The 1992 revision made it compatible with the Maastricht treaty.

The current Portuguese constitution provides for progressive administrative decentralization and calls for future reorganization on a regional basis. The Azores and Madeira Islands have constitutionally mandated autonomous status. A regional autonomy statute promulgated in 1980 established the Government of the Autonomous Region of the Azores; the Government of the Autonomous Region of Madeira operates under a provisional autonomy statute in effect since 1976. Apart from the Azores and Madeira, the country is divided into 18 districts, each headed by a governor appointed by the Minister of Internal Administration. Macau, a former dependency, reverted to Chinese sovereignty in December 1999.

XIV Constitutional Government (1995-2002)

The Socialist Party, under the leadership of António Guterres, came to power following the October 1995 parliamentary elections. The Socialists later won a new mandate by winning exactly half the parliamentary seats in the October 1999 election, and constituting then the XIV Constitutional Government. Socialist Jorge Sampaio won the February 1996 presidential elections with nearly 54% of the vote. Sampaio's election marked the first time since the 1974 revolution that a single party held the prime ministership, the presidency, and a plurality of the municipalities. Local elections were held in December 1997.

Prime Minister Guterres continued the privatization and modernization policies begun by his predecessor, Aníbal Cavaco Silva of the Social Democratic Party. Guterres was a vigorous proponent of the effort to include Portugal in the first round of countries to collaborate and put into effect the euro in 1999. In international relations, Guterres pursued strong ties with the United States and greater Portuguese integration with the European Union while continuing to raise Portugal's profile through an activist foreign policy. One of his first decisions as Prime Minister was to send 900 troops to participate in the IFOR peacekeeping mission in Bosnia. Portugal later contributed 320 troops to SFOR, the follow-up Bosnia operation. Portugal also contributed aircraft and personnel to NATO's Operation Allied Force in Kosovo.

XV Constitutional Government (2002-2004)

The XV Constitutional Government was led by José Manuel Durão Barroso, leader of the Social Democratic Party in coalition with People's Party, whose leader was Paulo Portas, that became Minister of Defence.

XVI Constitutional Government (2004-2005)

After José Manuel Durão Barroso accepted the invitation to be the next European Commission President, a new government had to be formed, the opposition parties called for general elections, but the President Jorge Sampaio nominated the new Social Democratic leader, Pedro Santana Lopes, to form a new government, in which Paulo Portas kept his place as Minister of Defence. However, in December 2004, due to several scandals involving the government, the President dissolved the parliament and called for early elections. Nevertheless, Santana Lopes resigned after the announcement of the President's decision.

XVII Constitutional Government (2005-)

In the elections of February 20, the Socialist Party obtained its largest victory ever, achieving an absolute majority for the first time in the party's history. Prime Minister José Sócrates was sworn in by President Jorge Sampaio on March 12. To many's surprise, Sócrates formed a cabinet made up of roughly half senior members of the Socialist Party and half independents, among whom are Diogo Freitas do Amaral, founder of the rightist People's Party who was chosen to be Minister of Foreign Affairs but later resigned due to personal issues.

Executive branch

The President, elected to a 5-year term by direct, universal suffrage, is also commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Presidential powers include appointing the prime minister and Council of Ministers, in which the president must be guided by the assembly election results; dismissing the prime minister; dissolving the assembly to call early elections; vetoing legislation, which may be overridden by the assembly; and declaring a state of war or siege.

The Council of State, a presidential advisory body, is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former presidents elected under the 1976 constitution, five members chosen by the assembly, and five selected by the president.

The government is headed by the presidentially appointed prime minister, who names the Council of Ministers. A new government is required to define the broad outline of its policy in a program and present it to the assembly for a mandatory period of debate. Failure of the assembly to reject the program by a majority of deputies confirms the government in office.

President
Aníbal Cavaco Silva
PSD
9 March 2006
-
Prime Minister
José Sócrates
PS
March 2005

Legislative branch

The four main organs of the national government are the presidency, the prime minister and Council of Ministers (the government), the Assembly of the Republic (the parliament), and the judiciary. The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to 230 deputies. Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of proportional representation, deputies serve terms of office of 4 years, unless the president dissolves the assembly and calls for new elections.

Political parties and elections

Judicial branch

The national Supreme Court is the court of last appeal. Military, administrative, and fiscal courts are designated as separate court categories. A nine-member Constitutional Court reviews the constitutionality of legislation.

Administrative divisions

:"See: Subdivisions of Portugal"18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regiões autónomas, singular - região autónoma); Aveiro, Açores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Bragança, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Évora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarém, Setúbal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

International organization participation

AfDB, Australia Group, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, Zangger Committee

organization participation of Portugal

ABEDA, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUB, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

ABEDA , Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa AfDB, African Development Bank AsDB, Asian Development Bank Australia Group, BIS, Bank for International SettlementsCE, Council of EuropeCERN, Conseil Europeen de Recherche NucleaireCPLP, Comunidade De Paises De Lingua Portuguesa EAPC Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council EBRD, European Bank for Reconstruction and DevelopmentEIB, European investment bankEMU, Economic and Monetary Union of the European UnionESA, European Space AgencyEU, European UnionFAO,Food and Agriculture OrganizationIADB, Inter-American Development BankIAEA, International Atomic Energy AgencyIBRD, International Bank for Reconstruction and DevelopmentICAO, International Civil Aviation OrganizationICC, International Chamber of CommerceICCt, International Criminal CourtICRM, International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology IDA, International Development AssociationIEA, International Energy AgencyIFAD, International Fund for Agricultural DevelopmentIFC, International Finance CorporationIFRCS, International Red Cross and Red Crescent MovementIHO,International Hydrographic OrganizationILO, International Labour OrganizationIMF, International Monetary FundIMO, International Maritime OrganizationIMSO, International Mobile Satellite OrganizationInterpol, International Criminal Police Organization IOC, International Olympic CommitteeIOM, International Organization for MigrationISO, International Organization for StandardizationITU, International Telecommunication UnionITUC, International Trade Union ConfederationLAIA (observer), Latin American Integration AssociationMINURSO United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western SaharaMIGA, Multilateral Investment Guarantee AgencyNAM (guest),Non-Aligned MovementNATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization NEA, Nuclear Energy AgencyNSG, Nuclear Suppliers GroupOAS (observer), Organization of American StatesOECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentONUB, United Nations Operation in Burundi (ended as of January 2007)OPCW, Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical WeaponsOSCE, Organization for Security and Co-operation in EuropePCA, Permanent Court of ArbitrationSchengen Convention, SECI (observer), Southeast European Cooperative InitiativeUN, United NationsUNCTAD, United Nations Conference on Trade and DevelopmentUNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNHCR, United Nations High Commissioner for RefugeesUNIDO, United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNMIBH United Nations Mission in Bosnia and HerzegovinaUnion Latina, UNMOP United Nations Mission of Observers in PrevlakaUNMIK United Nations Interim Administration Mission in KosovoUNWTO, United Nations World Tourism Organization UPU, Universal Postal UnionWCL, World Confederation of LabourWCO, World Customs OrganizationWEU, Western European UnionWFTU, World Federation of Trade UnionsWHO, World Health OrganizationWIPO, World Intellectual Property OrganizationWMO, World Meteorological OrganizationWTO,World Trade OrganizationZC Zangger Committee

See also


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