- Volga Bulgaria
Infobox Former Country
native_name = Volga-Kama Bolghar
conventional_long_name = Volga Bulgaria
common_name = Volga Bulgaria
continent = Europe
era = Middle Ages
year_start = 7th century
date_event1 = 922
event_end = Conquered by the
year_end = 1240s
p1 = Bulgars
s1 = Golden Horde
image_map_caption = Detailed map of Volga Bulgaria
common_languages = Bulgar
Suar, Barsil, Bilar, Baranja
government_type = Monarchy
year_leader1 = Mid-7th century
Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is an historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama
rivers in what is now Russia. Today, both the Republics of Tatarstanand Chuvashiaare considered to be descendants of Volga Bulgaria.
First-hand information on Volga Bulgaria is rather sparse. As no authentic Bulgar records have survived, most of our information comesfrom contemporary
Arabic, Persian, Indian or Russian sources. Some information is provided by excavations.
It is thought that the territory of Volga Bulgaria was originally settled by
Finno-Ugricpeoples. The Turkic [ [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0521364477&id=u-SsbHs5zTAC&pg=PA504&lpg=PA504&dq=%22volga+bulgars%22%2Bturkic&sig=w9lT1dSoGCfAIW7YYl4PatPu0x4 The New Cambridge Medieval History — Volga Bulgars] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-80003/Turkic-languages Britannica Online — Bolgar Turkic] ] Bulgarsmoved from the Azovregion in about AD 660, commanded by Kotrag, Kubrat's son. They reached Idel-Uralin in the 8th century, where they became the dominant population at the end of the 9th century, uniting other tribes of different origin which lived in the area. [TES|Болгарлар] Some Bulgar tribes, however, continued westward and after many adventures settled along the Danube River, in what is now known as Bulgariaproper, where they merged with the Slavs, adopting a South Slavic language and the Eastern Orthodoxfaith.
Most scholars agree that the Volga Bulgars were subject to the great
Khazarian Empire. Sometime in the late 9th century unification processes started, and the capital was established at Bolğar (also spelled Bulgar) city, 160 km south from modern Kazan. Most scholars doubt, however, that the state could assert independence from the Khazars until the latter were annihilated by Svyatoslav of Rusin 965.
A large part of the region's population was Turkic and included
Bulgars, Suars, Barsil, Bilars, Baranjars and part of Burtas(by ibn Rustah). Modern Chuvashes and Kazan Tatars descend from the Volga Bulgars(with more or less significant admixtures of Finno-Ugric and KipchakTurkic populations, respectively). Another part comprised Finnic and Magyaric ( Asageland Pascatir) tribes, from which Bisermäns and Tatarsprobably descend. Islamwas adopted as the state religion in the early tenth century, under Almış. Ibn Fadlanwas dispatched by the Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtadirin 922/3 to establish relations and bring qadis and teachers of Islamic law to Volga Bulgaria, as well as help in building a fort and a mosque. [ [http://www.nordicway.com/search/Vikings%20in%20the%20East.htm Vikings in the East, Amazing Eyewitness Accounts] ] Tengriismand other religions, however, continued to be practiced.
Volga Riverin its middle course, the state controlled much of trade between Europe and Asia prior to the Crusades(which made other trade routes practicable). The capital, Bolghar, was a thriving city, rivalling in size and wealth with the greatest centres of the Islamic world. Trade partners of Bolghar included from Vikings, Bjarmland, Yugraand Nenetsin the north to Baghdadand Constantinoplein the south, from Western Europe to Chinain the East. Other major cities included Bilär, Suar(Suwar), Qaşan (Kashan) and Cükätaw(Juketau). Modern cities Kazanand Yelabugawere founded as Volga Bulgaria's border fortresses.
Some of the Volga Bulgarian cities still haven't been found, but they are mentioned in Russian sources. They are:
Aşlı(Oshel), Tuxçin (Tukhchin), İbrahim (Bryakhimov), Taw İle. Some of them were ruined after and during the Mongol invasion.
The Russian principalities to the west posed the only tangible military threat. In the 11th century, the country was devastated by several Russian raids. Then, at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries, the rulers of
Vladimir(notably Andrew the Piousand Vsevolod III), anxious to defend their eastern border, systematically pillaged Bulgarian cities. Under Slavic pressure from the west, the Bulgars had to move their capital from Bolgharto Bilär.
1223near Samara an advance guard of Genghis Khan's army under command of Uran, son of Subutai Bahadur, entered Volga Bulgaria but was defeated in the battle of Samara Bend. In 1236, the Mongolsreturned but it took them five years to subjugate the whole country which at that time was suffering from internal war. Henceforth Volga Bulgaria became a part of the Ulus Jochi, later known as the Golden Horde. It was divided into several principalities; each of them became a vassal of the Golden Horde and received some autonomy. By the 1430s, the Khanate of Kazanwas established as the most important of these principalities.
According to some historians, over 80% of the country's population was killed during the invasion. The remaining population mostly relocated to the northern areas (territories of modern Chuvashia and Tatarstan). Some autonomous duchies appeared in those areas. The steppe areas of Volga Bulgaria were settled by nomadic Kipchaks and Mongols, and the agricultural development suffered a severe decline.
Over time, the cities of Volga Bulgaria were rebuilt and became trade and craft centers of the Golden Horde. Some Bulgarians, primarily masters and craftsmen, were forcibly moved to Sarai and other southern cities of the Golden Horde. Volga Bulgaria remained a center of agriculture and handicraft.
Khanate of Kazan
* [http://www.bulgars.ru/ We are Bulgars, not Tatars (Мы болгары, а не татары)] , Bulgar National Congress ru icon
* [http://bariev.narod.ru/Volga_Bolgar/Volga_Bolgar.html Volga Bulgars: History and Culture (Волжские Булгары : история и культура)] ru icon
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Volga Bulgaria — o Volga Kama Bolghar es un estado histórico que existó entre los siglos VIII y XIII en el entorno de la confluencia de los ríos Volga y Kama, dentro de lo que hoy es la Federación Rusa. Hoy, las repúblicas de Tatarstán y Chuvashia son… … Enciclopedia Universal
Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria — Date 1223 (first), 1229 1230 (second) and 1236 AD (third) Location Volga Bulgaria Result Mongol victory … Wikipedia
List of Volga Bulgaria kings — This is a list of Volga Bulgaria iltäbärs.* Almış * Mikail bine Cäğfär * Mö mim bine Äxmäd * Mö min bine âl Xäsän * Talib bine Äxmäd … Wikipedia
Bulgaria del Volga — Volga Kama Bolğar Bolgar Bulgaria del Volga ← … Wikipedia Español
Volga (disambiguation) — Volga can refer to the following.Geography;Russia *Volga River, the largest river of Europe and a national river of Russia *Volga Federal District, one of the seven Federal districts of Russia *Volga, Russia, a settlement in Yaroslavl Oblat,… … Wikipedia
Volga River — Geobox River name = Volga River native name = Волга other name = other name1 = image size = 300 image caption = Volga in Yaroslavl (autumn morning) country = Russia country1 = state = state1 = region = region1 = district = district1 = city =… … Wikipedia
Volga Tatars — Ethnic group group=Volga Tatars poptime= c. 8 million (2005) popplace=Russia: 7,500,000 *Tatarstan: 3,000,000 *Bashkortostan: 1,000,000 all over former Soviet Union *Kazakhstan *Uzbekistan *Ukraine *Azerbaijan *Tajikistan *Lithuania *Belarus… … Wikipedia
Bulgaria — Infobox Country native name = bg. Република България bg. Republika Balgaria This article uses the official Bulgarian transliteration system when romanizing Bulgarian Cyrillic. For details, see Romanization of Bulgarian.] local name = bg. Balgaria … Wikipedia
Bulgaria (disambiguation) — The term Bulgaria can refer to:* Bulgaria, country in Europe and a member state of the European Union. ** Bulgaria (European Parliament constituency) * Old Great Bulgaria, historical country just northeastern from the Black Sea. * Volga Bulgaria … Wikipedia
Bulgaria — • A European kingdom in the northeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Bulgaria Bulgaria † … Catholic encyclopedia