Bolghar ( _tt. Болгар|Bolğar, _cv. Пăлхар) was the capital of
Volga Bulgariafrom the 8th to the 15th centuries. It was situated on the bank of the Volga River, about 30 km downstream from its confluence with the Kama Riverand some 130 km from modern Kazan. North of it lies a small modern town, since 1991 known as Bolgar.
The city is supposed to have been the capital of Volga Bulgaria from as early as the 8th century. Regular Russian incursions along the Volga forced the Volga Bulgars to move their capital to
Bilar. After the destruction of Bilar during the Mongol invasion, the older capital became the centre of a separate province (or duchy) within the Golden Horde. During the period of Mongol domination Bolghar acquired immense wealth, many imposing buildings, and grew tenfold in size.
Tokhtamysh-Timur warsaw a marked decline in its fortunes. It was sacked by Bulaq-Temirin 1361, endangered by Timur, looted by Russian pirates ( ushkuiniki), and destroyed in 1431 by Vasily the Blindof Muscovy. As a Muslim religious center Bolghar persevered until the mid-16th century when the Khanate of Kazanwas conquered by the Russian czar Ivan IVand incorporated into the Russian state.
During the Tsarist rule the site of the ancient town was settled by Russian commoners.
Peter the Greatissued a special ukaseto preserve the surviving ruins, which was probably the first Russian law aimed at preserving historical heritage.
During the Soviet period, Bolghar was the center of a local Islamic movement known as "The Little
Hajj": Muslimsfrom Tatarstan and other parts of the Soviet Unioncould not participate in the hajj to Mecca, so they travelled to Bolghar instead.
The Tatars refer to the medieval capital of Volga Bolgaria as "Shahri Bolghar" ( _tt. Шәһри Болгар|Şähri Bolğar), that is, "the Great Bolghar". The town is part of their cultural heritage, because Volga Bolgaria is viewed by many Tatars as a predecessor state of the
Khanate of Kazan, which in turn has cultural links to today's Russian republic of Tatarstan.
Today, the capital of Tatarstan is
Kazan, but many Tatars consider Bolghar to be their ancient and religious capital and to allow a glimpse of Muslim Bulgar life before the Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Volga Bulgaria — Infobox Former Country native name = Volga Kama Bolghar conventional long name = Volga Bulgaria common name = Volga Bulgaria continent = Europe region = country = era = Middle Ages status = event start = year start = 7th century date start =… … Wikipedia
Bulgarie de la Volga — Волжка България (bg) IXe siècle – 1236 Extension de la Bulgarie de la Volga vers 1200 … Wikipédia en Français
Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria — Date 1223 (first), 1229 1230 (second) and 1236 AD (third) Location Volga Bulgaria Result Mongol victory … Wikipedia
Bólgar — Болгар Bólgar Escudo … Wikipedia Español
Qashan Principality — Qashan Duchy was a Bolghar Duchy in today Tatarstan. After th Mongol invasion to Bolghar in 13th century it became independent on Volga Bulgaria. It was a vassal of Golden Horde.The capital was Qashan city. Population was agriculturists, citizens … Wikipedia
Möngke Khan — Khagan of the Mongol Empire (Supreme Khan of the Mongols) King of Kings Emperor of China … Wikipedia
Almış — (Almas) iltäbär [IPA|ʌl mɯʃ] [English spelling ul MESH] (the end of 9th century – the beginning of 10th) was the first Muslim ruler (emir) of Volga Bulgaria.Almas was a son of Şilki [IPA|ʃil ki] . He was a ruler of one of Bulgarian duchies,… … Wikipedia
Bolgar (town) — Bolgar ( ru. Болгар; tt. Bolğar), inofficially called Bulgar, Bolgari or Bolgary, is a town in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. It is located on the left bank of the Volga River, km to mi|140 from Kazan. Population: 8,655 (2002 Census); 8,397… … Wikipedia
Battle of Samara Bend — Infobox Military Conflict caption= conflict=Battle of Samara Bend partof=Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria place=Kernek, Volga Bulgaria date=1223 result=Decisive Bulgarian victory combatant1= Volga Bulgaria combatant2= Mongol Empire… … Wikipedia
Bolgar — Болгар Coordonnées … Wikipédia en Français