- Serbian revolution
Infobox Military Conflict
caption=Flag of Revolutionary Serbia
Balkans(mainly Serbiaand Bosnia)
result= Serb victory, establishment of the
Principality of Serbia.
combatant1Serb victory, establishment of the
Principality of Serbia.
combatant1 = flagicon|SRB|1941 Serb revolutionaries Flagicon|Austria Volunteers from Habsburg Empire
First French Empire
Karađorđe Petrovićflagicon|SRB|1941 Miloš Obrenovićflagicon|SRB|1941 Mateja Nenadovićflagicon|SRB|1941 Veljko Petrovićflagicon|SRB|1941 Stanoje Glavaš
commander2=flagicon|Ottoman Empire|1453 Sultan
flagicon|Ottoman Empire|1453 Sultan
strength1 = 80,000 SerbsFact|date=March 2008
strength2 = 300,000 OttomansFact|date=March 2008
casualties1 = 50,000 SerbsFact|date=March 2008
casualties2 = 75,000 OttomanFact|date=March 2008
Serbian revolutionor "Revolutionary Serbia" refers to the national and social revolutionof the Serbian people between 1804 and 1817, during which Serbia managed to fully emancipate from the Ottoman Empireand exist as a sovereign European nation-state. The term was invented by a famous German historian Leopold von Rankein his book "Die Serbische Revolution", published in 1829. [ English translation: Leopold Ranke, A History of Servia and the Servian Revolution. Translated from the German by Mrs Alexander Kerr (London: John Murray, 1847)] These events marked the foundation of modern Serbia. [L. S. Stavrianos, The Balkans since 1453 (London: Hurst and Co., 2000), p. 248-250.]
The abovementioned timeframe covers several phases of the revolution:
First Serbian Uprising(1804- 1813), led by Karađorđe Petrović
*Hadži Prodan's revolt (1814)
Second Serbian Uprising(1815) under Miloš Obrenović
The Proclamation" [http://www.douklia.net/povest/proglasenije.html Povest - Prikljucenije ] ] (1809) by Karadjordjein the capital Belgraderepresented the peak of the revolution. It called for unity of the Serbian nation, emphasising the importance of freedom of religion, Serbian historyand rule of law- all of which Ottoman Empirecouldn't- or has denied to provide, beeing a non-secular Muslimstate. It also called on Serbs to stop paying taxes to the Portebecause they were based on religious affiliation.
The ultimate result of the uprisings was Serbia's
suzeraintyfrom the Ottoman Empire. Principality of Serbiawas established, governed by its own Parliament, Government, Constitution and its own royal dynasty. [cite web |url=http://www.royalfamily.org/ustanak/USTANAK_ENG.htm |title=The First Serbian Uprising |accessdate= |author=Čedomir Antić |date=1998 |publisher=The Royal Family of Serbia |language=English] Social element of the revolution was achieved through introduction of the bourgeois society values in Serbia, [http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Yugoslavia/Hx_Yugoslavia.html The History of Yugoslavia Serbia and Montenegro until 2006 ] ] which is why it was considered the world's easternmost bourgeois revolt, [ [http://www.royalfamily.org/ustanak/USTANAK_ENG.htm 200 godina ustanka ] ] which culminated with the abolition of feudalismin 1806- just 15 years after the French revolution. [http://www.nbs.bg.ac.yu/view_file.php?file_id=57] First constitution in the Balkans and its oldest university- Belgrade's Great Academy (1808) added to the achievements of the young Serb state. [ [http://www.bg.ac.yu/en_istorijat.php University of Belgrade ] ] De jure independence of the Principality was internationally recognized during the second half of the 19th century.
The withdrawal of the Austrians from Serbia in 1791 marked the end of the
Kočina Krajina Serb rebellion, which was ignited by Austria. Ottoman Empireannexed the Pashaluk of Belgrade, retaliated against the perpertrators of the uprising and their families, thus forcing thousands into exile in Austria. Reforms made by the Porte to ease the pressure on Serbswere only temporary; by 1799 the Janissarycorps have returned, suspended the Serb autonomy and drastically increased taxes, enforcing martial lawin Serbia.
Serb leaders from both sides of the
Danubebegan to conspire against the dahias. When they found out, they rounded up and murdered tens of Serbian noblemen on the main square of Valjevoin an event known today as "Seča knezova" ( Massacre of Serbian knightson February 4, 1804). The massacre outraged the Serbian people and incited the revolt across the Pashaluk of Belgrade. Within days, in the small Šumadijavillage of Orašac, the Serbs gathered to proclaim the uprising, electing Karađorđe Petrovićas the leader. That afternoon, a Turkish inn ( caravanserai) in Orašac was burned and its residents fled or were killed, followed by similar actions country-wide. Soon the cities Valjevoand Požarevacwere liberated, and the siege of Belgradelaunched.
Revolution erupts: First Serbian Uprising
During almost 10 years of the
First Serbian Uprising( 1804- 1813), Serbia perceived itself as an independent state for the first time after 300 years of Ottoman and short-lasting Austrian occupations. Revolutionary Serbia responded to the Ottoman Massacre of Serbian knightsby establishing its separate institutions, such as the government("Praviteljstvujusci Sovjet"), Serbian Prince, Parliament("Zbor") and University of Belgrade. Following the French invasion in 1812 the Russian Empirewitdrew its support for the Serb rebels; unwilling to accept Ottoman conditions, Serbs were fought into submission following the brutal Ottoman incursion into Serbia.
Hadži Prodanova buna
Despite the lost battle, the tensions nevertheless persisted. In 1814 an unsuccessful "Hadži Prodan's revolt" was launched by Hadži Prodan Gligorijević, one of the veterans of the
First Serbian Uprising. He knew the Turks would arrest him, so he thought it would be the best to resist the Ottomans; Milos Obrenović, another veteran, felt the time was not right for an uprising and did not provide assistance.
Hadži Prodan's Uprising soon failed and he fled to Austria. After the failure of this revolt, the Turks inflicted more persecution against the Serbs, such as high taxation, forced labor, and rape. In March 1815, Serbs had several meetings and decided upon a new revolt.
econd Serbian Uprising
Second Serbian Uprising(1815-1817) was a second phase of the national revolution of the Serbsagainst the Ottoman Empire, which erupted shortly after the brutal annexation of the country to the Ottoman Empireand the failed Hadži Prodan's revolt. The revolutionarry council proclaimed an uprising in Takovoon April 23 1815, with Milos Obrenović chosen as the leader. When the Ottomans discovered this they sentenced all of its leaders to death. The Serbs fought in battles at Ljubic, Čačak, Palez, Požarevac and Dublje and managed to reconquer the Pashaluk of Belgrade.
Negotiations with the Porte
In mid 1815, the first negotiations began between Obrenović and Marashli Ali Pasha, the Ottoman governor. The result was acknowledgment of a
Serbian Principalityby the Ottoman Empire. Although a suzerain of the Porte (yearly tax tribute), it was, in most means, an independent state.
By 1817, Obrenović succeeded in forcing Marashli Ali Pasha to negotiate an unwritten agreement, thus ending the
Second Serbian uprising. The same year, Karadjordje, the leader of the First Uprising (and Obrenović's rival for the throne) returned to Serbia and was assassinated by Obrenović's orders; Obrenović consequently received the title of "Prince of Serbia".
The "Convention of Ackerman" (1828), the "Treaty of Adrianople" (1829) and finally, the
Hatt-i Sharif(1830), formally recognised the suzeraintyof Principality of Serbiawith Miloš Obrenović Ias its hereditary Prince.
Principality of Serbia
Pashaluk of Belgrade
Vojvodina of Serbia and Tamis Banat
List of Serbian monarchs
Military history of Serbia
History of the Serbian-Turkish wars
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