- Batu Khan
Batu Khan ( _mn. Бат Хаан, _ru. Баты́й) (c. 1205–1255) was a Mongol ruler and the founder of the
Blue Horde. Batu was a son of Jochiand grandson of Genghis Khan. His Blue Horde became the Golden Horde(or Kipchak Khanate), which ruled Rus and the Caucasusfor around 250 years, after also destroying the armies of Polandand Hungary.
Bloodline of the Kipchak Khans
Although Genghis Khan recognized Jochi as his son, his parentage was always in question, as his mother
Börte, Genghis Khan's wife, had been captured and he was born shortly after her return. During the lifetime of Genghis, this issue was public knowledge but it was taboo to publicly discuss it. Still, it drove a wedge between Jochi and his father; just before Jochi's death, he and Genghis almost fought a civil war because of Jochi's sullen refusal to join in military campaigns. Jochi also was given only 4,000 Mongol soldiers to carve out his own Khanate. Jochi's son Batu got most of his soldiers by recruiting amongst the Turkic peoplehe defeated, mostly KipchakTurks. Batu was later instrumental in setting the house of his uncle Ögedei aside in favor of the house of Tolui, his other uncle.
After Jochi and Genghis died, Jochi's lands were divided between Batu and his older brother
Orda. Orda's White Horderuled the lands roughly between the Volgariver and Lake Balkhash, while Batu's Golden Horde ruled the lands west of the Volga.
When Batu and his son
Sartakdied, Batu's brother Berkeinherited the Golden Horde. Berke was not inclined to unity with his cousins in the Mongol family, making war on Hulagu Khan, though Berke officially recognized the Khanate of China as his overlord—in theory only. In fact, Berke was an independent ruler by then. Fortunately for Europe, Berke did not share Batu's interest in conquering it.
Batu had at least four children:
Sartaq, khan of the Golden Horde from 1255–1256
Toqoqan[David Morgan, "The Mongols", p. 224.]
* Ulagchi (probably the son of Sartaq)
Batu's khatun Ukhaa ujin belonged to the Mongol
Onggiratclan [Rashid al-Din - Universal History, Jochids' tale]
Invasion of Rus
Mongol invasion of Rus, Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria". In 1235 Batu, who earlier had directed the conquest of the Crimea, was assigned an army of possibly 130,000 to oversee an invasion of Europe. The army, actually commanded by Subutai, crossed the Volgaand invaded Volga Bulgariain 1236. It took them a year to extinguish the resistance of the Volga Bulgarians, Kypchaks, and Alani.
In November 1237 Batu Khan sent his envoys to the court of
Yuri IIof Vladimirand demanded his allegiance. A month later, the hordes besieged Ryazan. After six days of the bloody battle, the city was totally annihilated, and never restored its former glory. Alarmed by the news, Yuri II sent his sons to detain the horde, but these were soundly defeated. Having burnt Kolomnaand Moscow, the horde laid siege to Vladimiron February 4, 1238. Three days later the capital of Vladimir-Suzdalwas taken and burnt to the ground. The royal family perished in the fire, while the grand prince hastily retreated northward. Crossing the Volga, he mustered a new army, which was totally exterminated by the Mongols on the Sit' River on March 4.
Thereupon Batu Khan divided his army into smaller units, which ransacked fourteen Rus' cities:
Rostov, Uglich, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Kashin, Ksnyatin, Gorodets, Galich, Pereslavl-Zalessky, Yuriev-Polsky, Dmitrov, Volokolamsk, Tver, and Torzhok. The most difficult to take was the small town of Kozelsk, whose boy-prince Titus and inhabitants resisted the Mongols for seven weeks. As the story goes, at the news of Mongol approach, a city of Kitezhwas submerged into a lake with all its inhabitants, where it may be seen to this day. The only major cities to escape destruction was Smolensk, who submitted to the Mongols and agreed to pay tribute, and Novgorodwith Pskov, which could not be reached by the Mongols on account of considerable distance and winter weather.
In the summer of 1238, Batu Khan devastated the
Crimeaand pacified Mordovia. In the winter of 1239, he sacked Chernigovand Pereyaslav. After several months of siege, the horde stormed Kyivin December 1239. Despite fierce resistance of Danylo of Halych, Batu Khan managed to take two principal capitals of his land, Halychand Volodymyr-Volyns'kyi. The Rus' states were left as vassals rather than integrated into the central Asian empire.
Invasion of Central Europe
Batu Khan then decided to "reach the ultimate sea", where the Mongols could proceed no further. Some modern historians speculate that Batu Khan intended primarily to assure his flanks were safe for the future from possible interference from the Europeans, and partially as a precursor to further conquest. Most believe he intended the conquest of all Europe, as soon as his flanks were safe, and his forces ready.
The Mongols invaded central Europe in three groups. One group conquered
Poland, defeating a combined force under Henry the Pious, Duke of Silesia and the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order at Legnica. A second crossed the Carpathians and a third followed the Danube. The armies re-grouped and crushed Hungaryin 1241, defeating the army led by Béla IV of Hungaryat the Battle of Mohion April 11. The armies swept the plains of Hungary over the summer and in the spring of 1242 regained impetus and extended their control into Austriaand Dalmatiaas well as invading Bohemia.
This attack on Europe was planned and carried out by
Subutai, under the nominal command of Batu. Subutai achieved perhaps his most lasting fame with his victories there. Having devastated the various Rus principalities, he sent spies into Poland, Hungary, and as far as Austria, in preparation for an attack into the heartland of Europe. Having gotten a clear picture of the European kingdoms, he brilliantly prepared an attack nominally commanded by Batu Khan and two other princes of the blood. Batu Khan, son of Jochi, was the overall leader, but Subutai was the actual commander in the field, and as such was present in both the northern and southern campaigns against Rus. While Kaidu's northern force won the Battle of Legnicaand Kadan's army triumphed in Transylvania, Subutai was waiting for them on the Hungarian plain. The newly reunited army then withdrew to the Sajo river where they inflicted the tremendous defeat on King Béla IV at the Battle of Mohi.
By late 1241, Batu and Subutai were finishing plans to invade Austria,
Italyand Germany, when the news came of the death of Ögedei Khan(died in December, 1241), and the Mongols withdrew in the late spring of 1242, as the Princes of the blood, and Subutai, were recalled to Karakorum where the " kurultai" was held. Batu was a potential Great Khanand when he failed to win this he turned to consolidate his conquests in Asiaand the Urals. He did not have Subutai with him when he returned—Subutai had remained in Mongolia where he died in 1248—and Batu's animosity to Guyuk Khanmade any further European invasion impossible. He had to keep his troops ready in the event of attack from the East, as the deterioration of relations between the grandsons of Genghis Khan ultimately brought about the end of the Mongol Empire. After his return, Batu Khan established the capital of his khanateat Sarai on the lower Volgain 1242. He was planning new campaigns after Guyuk's death, (he was intent on carrying out Subutai's original plans to invade Europe) but he died in 1255 and the khanate passed to Sartaq. He decided against the invasion of Europe. The Kipchak Khanateruled Russia through local princes for the next 230 years.
Berke did not share Batu's interest in conquering Europe. He was more interested in fighting his cousins, especially Hulagu, whom he loathed for destroying Baghdad. For Berke, a devout Muslim, what Hulagu had done was despicable, and in 1262, when Hulagu prepared to move on Egypt to avenge the defeat of his army (during his absence) at the
Battle of Ain Jalut, Berke Khan had Kipchak raiding parties despoil lands considered part of the Il-Khanate. Enraged, Hulagu gathered his armies and marched north, and suffering severe defeat in an attempted invasion north of the Caucasus in 1263, after Berke Khan had lured him north, and away from the Holy Land.
The Kipchak Khanate was known in Rus and Europe as the
Golden Horde("Zolotaya Orda") some think because of the Golden colour of the Khan's tent. "Horde" comes from the Mongol word "orda/ordu" or camp. "Golden" is thought to have had a similar meaning to "royal" (Royal Camp). Of all the Khanates, the Golden Horde ruled longest. Long after the fall of the Yuan Dynastyin China, and the fall of Ilkhanatein Middle East, the descendants of Batu Khan continued to rule the Russian steppes.
List of Khans of the Golden Horde
*cite book|last=Morgan|first=David|authorlink=David Morgan (historian)|title=The Mongols|isbn= 0-631-17563-6
*cite book|last=Nicolle|first=David|title=The Mongol Warlords|publisher=Brockhampton Press|year=1998
*cite book|first=Gabriel|last=Ronay|title=The Tartar Khan's Englishman|publisher=Cassel|year=1978
*cite book|last=Saunders|first=J.J.|title=The History of the Mongol Conquests|publisher=Routledge & Kegan Paul|year=1971|isbn=0-8122-1766-7
*cite book|last=Sicker|first=Martin|title=The Islamic World in Ascendancy: From the Arab Conquests to the Siege of Vienna|publisher=Praeger Publishers|year=2000
*cite book|last=Soucek|first=Svatopluk|title=A History of Inner Asia|publisher=Cambridge|year= 2000
* [http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/mongols/goldenHorde.html "The Islamic World to 1600: The Golden Horde"]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Batu Khan — oder auch Batu der Prächtige (* 1205; † 1255) war als Sohn Jochis und Enkel Dschingis Khans ein mongolischer Teilherrscher, Khan der Goldenen Horde. Familie, Namensherkunft Batus Brüder waren u.a. Orda, Berke Khan und Shibani. Seine Hauptfrau war … Deutsch Wikipedia
Batu khan — (v. 1204 1255), petit fils de Gengis khan. Khan de la Horde d Or (1241 1245), il conquit la Russie et la Pologne … Encyclopédie Universelle
Batu-Khan — Batu Khan, Sohn Tuschis, Enkel Dschingis Khans, erhielt von seinem Großvater 1223 die nördlichen Länder, erkannte nach Dschingis Khans Tode Oktai als Großkhan an, begleitete denselben bei der Unternehmung gegen China u. verwüstete später auf… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Batu Khan — [ x ], Mongolenfürst, * um 1205, ✝ Saraj 1255; Enkel Dschingis Khans, erhielt bei dessen Tod (1227) anstelle seines schon vorher verstorbenen Vaters die Herrschaft über das nördlich des Kaspischen Meeres gelegene Kiptschakgebiet; unterwarf… … Universal-Lexikon
Batu-Khan — Batu Pour les articles homonymes, voir Batu (homonymie). Batu selon un dessin chinois médiéval Batu ou Batou (mongol Bat Xaan, de bat : fort, solide et xaan : prince), fils de … Wikipédia en Français
Batu Khan — Batu Pour les articles homonymes, voir Batu (homonymie). Batu selon un dessin chinois médiéval Batu ou Batou (mongol Bat Xaan, de bat : fort, solide et xaan : prince), fils de … Wikipédia en Français
Batu Khan — Ba•tu Khan [[t]ˈbɑ tu ˈkɑn[/t]] n. big d. 1255, Mongol conqueror: grandson of Genghis Khan and leader of the Golden Horde … From formal English to slang
Batu Khan — /bah tooh kahn / d. 1255, Mongol conqueror: leader of the Golden Horde (grandson of Genghis Khan). * * * … Universalium
Batu Khan — /bah tooh kahn / d. 1255, Mongol conqueror: leader of the Golden Horde (grandson of Genghis Khan) … Useful english dictionary
Batu Kan — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Batu Kan (o Batu Khan, Батый en ruso) (aprox.1205 1255) fue un gobernante mongol, fundador de la Horda Azul, hijo de Yochi y nieto de Gengis Kan. Su Horda Azul se convirtió en la Horda de Oro (o Kanato Cumano), que… … Wikipedia Español