- History of Tatarstan
Human habitation in
Tatarstandates back to the Palaeolithicperiod. Remains of several cultures of the Stone and Bronze Ages have been discovered within Tatarstan.During the Iron Age(8th c. BCE–3d c. CE), the Ananino culture, probably a Finno-Ugrianpeople, dominated the area of the upper Volgaand Kama river valleys. From the middle of the 1st millennium BC western Tatarstan was occupied by the Gorodetsculture.
From the fourth century BCE much of the Volga-Kama basin was occupied by tribes of the
İmänkiskä culture, who are thought to have been related to the Scythians, speakers of one of the Indo-European languages. Around the beginning of the 1st century CE a new group, the so-called Pyanobor culture(probably of Finnic origin) appeared at the lower Kama.
During the great migrations of late antiquity
Siberian Turkic and Ugrictribes settled the region east of the middle Volga and forced out the Pyanobor culture from the Kama basin. The Pyanobor tribes lingered on in what are now the north and north-western parts of Tatarstan.
"The main article is
The period from roughly 500 to 700 CE saw an influx of Turkic-speaking
nomads. These immigrants' culture was related to those of the Göktürks, Khazarsand the tribes of Great Bulgaria.
"The main article is
Volga Bulgaria"The 9th and 10th centuries saw the rise of the first organized state in the region, the Khanate of the Volga Bulgars. The population of Volga Bulgariawas largely agricultural. The cities of Bolghar, Bilär, and Suar, among others, appeared with the growth of industry (casting, forging) and trade. Crop-growing and a cattle-breeding played a major role in the economy. The farmers were predominantly free landowners.
In the early 900s the Volga Bulgars converted to
Islam, causing their culture to be greatly influenced by that of the Muslim Middle East.
"The main articles are
Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgariaand Golden Horde"
After the conquest of Volga Bulgaria by
Mongoltroops under Batu Khanthe country was under the control of the khans of the Golden Horde. As a result of the admixing of different Turkic peoples and languages to the Volga Bolgarsduring this period, the modern Volga Tatar ethnos emerged.
Khanate of Kazan
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Khanate of Kazan"In the first half of the 15th century, as the result of Golden Horde's collapse, the Khanate of Kazanemerged as the dominant power in the Volga-Kama region. As Muscovygrew in power and struggled for control of trade routes and territory with the Golden Horde's successor states, Kazan was at times dominated by factions favorable to Moscow, and at other times by factions advocating alliance with other Tatar polities such as the Crimean Khanate. Finally, the khanate was conquered by Ivan the Terriblein 1552.
After the Russian invasion
1552the khanate was governed by Kazan Palace's Officeformed in Moscow. In 1555a bishopwas appointed in Kazanwith a mandate to baptize the Idel-Uralpeoples. Many churches and monasteries were built, and Russian peasants and craftsmen were resettled within Tatarstan. At the same time ethnic Tatars were removed from Kazanproper as well as regions close to rivers and roads. Under pressure from the Russians many Tatars emigrated to the Upper Kama, Trans-Kama area, Bashkortostan, the Uralsand Siberiaduring the 16th and 17th centuries. The result was a decline in agriculture, industry and commerce throughout the region. The local population was forced to pay the yasaqtax. Some part of the Tatar nobility were included in the nobility of the Russian Empire; many underwent baptismto keep their privileges.
1708, the Khanate of Kazanwas abolished and the province was placed under the control of a new Kazan Governorate. It included Middle Volga and Western Urals. Kazan, with 20,000 citizens, was one of major trade and handicraft centers of Russia. Manufacturing developed and in the beginning of 19th century major hide, soap and candle factories appeared. A class of Tatar merchants arose, who carried on brisk trade with Central Asia.
Restrictions in occupation, heavy taxation, and discrimination against non-Christians blocked the cultural and economic development of the
Tatars. Several rebellions and peasants' wars broke out as a result. During the Time of Troubles, the Kazan khanate regained its independence with the aid of factions within the Russian army. Cangali bek, a Tatar nobleman, led another revolution in 1616. Other insurrections among the Volga Tatars included the Bolotnikovmovement ( 1670- 1671), Batırşamovement ( 1755- 1756), and Pugachev's war ( 1773- 1775). Other peoples of the Idel-Uralregion took part in these conflicts.
1773, Muslims in Russia were granted greatly expanded rights. In 1784Tatar noblemen (" morzalar") had equal rights with Russian noblemen ("dvoryane").
Tatar soldiers took part in all
Russian wars, sometimes in national units (as was the case during the Napoleonic Wars.
After the reforms of
1860sin Imperial Russiaeconomic conditions in Tatarstan improved markedly. Stolypin's reforms led to accelerated economic development of the rural areas. In the 19th century a large middle class developed among the Tatars. The Russian Revolution of 1905awakened Tatar national consciousness and led to calls for equal rights, development of a distinct national culture and national self-consciousness as well as other freedoms. The pan-Islamic Russian party " Ittifaq al-Muslimin" represented the growing nationalist camp within the State Duma. The first Tatar mass-media appeared during this period with the publication of Tatar languagenewspapers such as "Yoldız", "Waqıt", "Azat", "Azat xalıq", "İrek", "Tañ yoldızı", "Nur", "Fiker", "Ural", "Qazan möxbire", "Älğäsrelcädid", "Şura", "Añ", and "Mäktäp". The first Tatar professional theatre, the "Säyyär" also emerged at this time.
Revolution and Civilian War
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During the chaos of the Russian Revolutions of
1917, Tatarstan became functionally independent with a national parliament ( Millät Mäclese), national government ( Milli İdarä), national council ( Milli Şura), and a national military council ( Xärbi Şura). Some Tatar military units took part in civil war against the Reds. Anti- communistTatar revolutionaries declared the Idel-Ural State, but the MoscowBolshevist government moved to prevent an independent Tatarstan on its flank. The "Muslim Council" was overthrown by a "Workers' Bolshevik Council" in a mostly Tatar-populated part of Kazan province called "Bolaq artı" or "Zabulachye" (In English, the " Transbolaqia Republic"). The Muslim Council was arrested.
In August, 1918, the
White Czechsand KomUchforces reached Kazan, but retreated under the Red pressure.
1919the Bolsheviks declared an autonomous Tatar-Bashkir Soviet Socialistic Republic, but the region was at the time largely occupied by the Whites, the leader of whom, General Kolchak, did not support an independent Muslim republic. The declaration, coupled with Kolchak's hostility, caused many Tatar and Bashkirtroops to switch sides and fight for the Bolsheviks. Ultimately, the victorious Communists subsumed Tatarstan within the RSFSR, leading to large-scale emigration of from the country, particularly among the upper class.
The Russian Civil War ended in Tatarstan with the suppression of anti-communist peasan
Pitchfork Uprisingin March 1920. As a result of war communismpolicy the 1921-1922 Famine in Tatarstanhad began and annihilated neraby half million.
The Soviet rule
"The main article is
Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic".
27 May 1920the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republicof the RSFSRwas declared. However, in the late 1920sthe Soviet government under Stalinbegan to place restrictions on the use of the Tatar language(among many other minority languages in the Soviet Union). The development of national culture declined significantly. The Tatar alphabetwas switched twice (to the Latin alphabetand then to Cyrillic). From the 1930sthrough the 1950sTatar-language press, cultural institutions, theatres, national schools and institutes gradually disappeared, as education was required to be conducted in the Russian language. Industrialization, the rise of the collective farms kolektivizatsiyaand persecutions such as the Great Purgecontributed to this decline.
The religion also was repressed. At the first time Soviet rule discriminate mostly Orthodox Church and some Islamic religious streams was preserved (see
Jadidism, Wäisi movement), but later they also was repressed. Some theologians of Jadidism(that was liberal to Soviet rule at the first time) escaped to Turkey or Egypt.
More than 560,000 Tatarstan soldiers took part in
World War IIand more than 300,000 of them were killed. Many Soviet plants and their workers, as well as the Soviet Academy of Sciences, were evacuated to Tatarstan. During the war large petroleumdeposits were discovered. During their exploration Tatarstan became one of the most industrially developed regions of the Soviet Union.
1960s- 1970sTatar ASSR's industry was developed not only in petrol sector: major car plant KamAZwas built in Naberezhnye Chelny, making this city the second large in the republic. Another major cities, build and developed those years are Nizhnekamskand Almetyevsk.
The Supreme Council of
TASSRchanged Tatarstan's status at 30 Augustof 1990. Declaration about sovereignty of Tatarstan Soviet Socialistic Republic was declared.
12 June 1991: The first elections for President of Tatarstan. Mintimer Shaymievwas elected.
21 March 1992: Referendum held regarding Tatarstan's status. The majority of the population support Tatatrstan's independence.
November 1992: The Constitution of Tatarstan accepted by parliament.
1994: The Treaty "On Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Mutual Delegation of Authority between the State Bodies of the Russian Federation and the State Bodies of the Republic of Tatarstan" was signed. Tatarstan becomes a de facto constituent republic of the Russian Federation.
1995and 1999elections held for the Governmental Council of Tatarstan.
March 2002: Numerous amendments to Tatarstan's Constitution. Tatarstan officials officially declared Tatarstan to be a part of Russia.
*TES|Tatarstan taríxı/Татарстан тарихы
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