History of Tatarstan


History of Tatarstan

Pre-history

Human habitation in Tatarstan dates back to the Palaeolithic period. Remains of several cultures of the Stone and Bronze Ages have been discovered within Tatarstan.During the Iron Age (8th c. BCE–3d c. CE), the Ananino culture, probably a Finno-Ugrian people, dominated the area of the upper Volga and Kama river valleys. From the middle of the 1st millennium BC western Tatarstan was occupied by the Gorodets culture.

From the fourth century BCE much of the Volga-Kama basin was occupied by tribes of the İmänkiskä culture, who are thought to have been related to the Scythians, speakers of one of the Indo-European languages. Around the beginning of the 1st century CE a new group, the so-called Pyanobor culture (probably of Finnic origin) appeared at the lower Kama.

During the great migrations of late antiquity Siberian Turkic and Ugric tribes settled the region east of the middle Volga and forced out the Pyanobor culture from the Kama basin. The Pyanobor tribes lingered on in what are now the north and north-western parts of Tatarstan.

Turkic peoples

"The main article is Onoghur"

The period from roughly 500 to 700 CE saw an influx of Turkic-speaking nomads. These immigrants' culture was related to those of the Göktürks, Khazars and the tribes of Great Bulgaria.

Volga Bulgaria

"The main article is Volga Bulgaria"The 9th and 10th centuries saw the rise of the first organized state in the region, the Khanate of the Volga Bulgars. The population of Volga Bulgaria was largely agricultural. The cities of Bolghar, Bilär, and Suar, among others, appeared with the growth of industry (casting, forging) and trade. Crop-growing and a cattle-breeding played a major role in the economy. The farmers were predominantly free landowners.

In the early 900s the Volga Bulgars converted to Islam, causing their culture to be greatly influenced by that of the Muslim Middle East.

Mongol invasion

"The main articles are Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria and Golden Horde"

After the conquest of Volga Bulgaria by Mongol troops under Batu Khan the country was under the control of the khans of the Golden Horde. As a result of the admixing of different Turkic peoples and languages to the Volga Bolgars during this period, the modern Volga Tatar ethnos emerged.

Khanate of Kazan

"The main article is Khanate of Kazan"In the first half of the 15th century, as the result of Golden Horde's collapse, the Khanate of Kazan emerged as the dominant power in the Volga-Kama region. As Muscovy grew in power and struggled for control of trade routes and territory with the Golden Horde's successor states, Kazan was at times dominated by factions favorable to Moscow, and at other times by factions advocating alliance with other Tatar polities such as the Crimean Khanate. Finally, the khanate was conquered by Ivan the Terrible in 1552.

After the Russian invasion

After 1552 the khanate was governed by Kazan Palace's Office formed in Moscow. In 1555 a bishop was appointed in Kazan with a mandate to baptize the Idel-Ural peoples. Many churches and monasteries were built, and Russian peasants and craftsmen were resettled within Tatarstan. At the same time ethnic Tatars were removed from Kazan proper as well as regions close to rivers and roads. Under pressure from the Russians many Tatars emigrated to the Upper Kama, Trans-Kama area, Bashkortostan, the Urals and Siberia during the 16th and 17th centuries. The result was a decline in agriculture, industry and commerce throughout the region. The local population was forced to pay the yasaq tax. Some part of the Tatar nobility were included in the nobility of the Russian Empire; many underwent baptism to keep their privileges.

In 1708, the Khanate of Kazan was abolished and the province was placed under the control of a new Kazan Governorate. It included Middle Volga and Western Urals. Kazan, with 20,000 citizens, was one of major trade and handicraft centers of Russia. Manufacturing developed and in the beginning of 19th century major hide, soap and candle factories appeared. A class of Tatar merchants arose, who carried on brisk trade with Central Asia.

Restrictions in occupation, heavy taxation, and discrimination against non-Christians blocked the cultural and economic development of the Tatars. Several rebellions and peasants' wars broke out as a result. During the Time of Troubles, the Kazan khanate regained its independence with the aid of factions within the Russian army. Cangali bek, a Tatar nobleman, led another revolution in 1616. Other insurrections among the Volga Tatars included the Bolotnikov movement (1670-1671), Batırşa movement (1755-1756), and Pugachev's war (1773-1775). Other peoples of the Idel-Ural region took part in these conflicts.

In 1773, Muslims in Russia were granted greatly expanded rights. In 1784 Tatar noblemen ("morzalar") had equal rights with Russian noblemen ("dvoryane").

Tatar soldiers took part in all Russian wars, sometimes in national units (as was the case during the Napoleonic Wars.

After the reforms of 1860s in Imperial Russia economic conditions in Tatarstan improved markedly. Stolypin's reforms led to accelerated economic development of the rural areas. In the 19th century a large middle class developed among the Tatars. The Russian Revolution of 1905 awakened Tatar national consciousness and led to calls for equal rights, development of a distinct national culture and national self-consciousness as well as other freedoms. The pan-Islamic Russian party "Ittifaq al-Muslimin" represented the growing nationalist camp within the State Duma. The first Tatar mass-media appeared during this period with the publication of Tatar language newspapers such as "Yoldız", "Waqıt", "Azat", "Azat xalıq", "İrek", "Tañ yoldızı", "Nur", "Fiker", "Ural", "Qazan möxbire", "Älğäsrelcädid", "Şura", "Añ", and "Mäktäp". The first Tatar professional theatre, the "Säyyär" also emerged at this time.

* Biznä Unrest

Revolution and Civilian War

"The main article is Idel-Ural State"

During the chaos of the Russian Revolutions of 1917, Tatarstan became functionally independent with a national parliament (Millät Mäclese), national government (Milli İdarä), national council (Milli Şura), and a national military council (Xärbi Şura). Some Tatar military units took part in civil war against the Reds. Anti-communist Tatar revolutionaries declared the Idel-Ural State, but the Moscow Bolshevist government moved to prevent an independent Tatarstan on its flank. The "Muslim Council" was overthrown by a "Workers' Bolshevik Council" in a mostly Tatar-populated part of Kazan province called "Bolaq artı" or "Zabulachye" (In English, the "Transbolaqia Republic"). The Muslim Council was arrested.

In August, 1918, the White Czechs and KomUch forces reached Kazan, but retreated under the Red pressure.

In 1919 the Bolsheviks declared an autonomous Tatar-Bashkir Soviet Socialistic Republic, but the region was at the time largely occupied by the Whites, the leader of whom, General Kolchak, did not support an independent Muslim republic. The declaration, coupled with Kolchak's hostility, caused many Tatar and Bashkir troops to switch sides and fight for the Bolsheviks. Ultimately, the victorious Communists subsumed Tatarstan within the RSFSR, leading to large-scale emigration of from the country, particularly among the upper class.

The Russian Civil War ended in Tatarstan with the suppression of anti-communist peasan Pitchfork Uprising in March 1920. As a result of war communism policy the 1921-1922 Famine in Tatarstan had began and annihilated neraby half million.

The Soviet rule

"The main article is Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic".

On 27 May 1920 the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the RSFSR was declared. However, in the late 1920s the Soviet government under Stalin began to place restrictions on the use of the Tatar language (among many other minority languages in the Soviet Union). The development of national culture declined significantly. The Tatar alphabet was switched twice (to the Latin alphabet and then to Cyrillic). From the 1930s through the 1950s Tatar-language press, cultural institutions, theatres, national schools and institutes gradually disappeared, as education was required to be conducted in the Russian language. Industrialization, the rise of the collective farms kolektivizatsiya and persecutions such as the Great Purge contributed to this decline.

The religion also was repressed. At the first time Soviet rule discriminate mostly Orthodox Church and some Islamic religious streams was preserved (see Jadidism, Wäisi movement), but later they also was repressed. Some theologians of Jadidism (that was liberal to Soviet rule at the first time) escaped to Turkey or Egypt.

More than 560,000 Tatarstan soldiers took part in World War II and more than 300,000 of them were killed. Many Soviet plants and their workers, as well as the Soviet Academy of Sciences, were evacuated to Tatarstan. During the war large petroleum deposits were discovered. During their exploration Tatarstan became one of the most industrially developed regions of the Soviet Union.

In 1960s-1970s Tatar ASSR's industry was developed not only in petrol sector: major car plant KamAZ was built in Naberezhnye Chelny, making this city the second large in the republic. Another major cities, build and developed those years are Nizhnekamsk and Almetyevsk.

Post-Soviet history

The Supreme Council of TASSR changed Tatarstan's status at 30 August of 1990. Declaration about sovereignty of Tatarstan Soviet Socialistic Republic was declared.
*12 June 1991: The first elections for President of Tatarstan. Mintimer Shaymiev was elected.
*21 March 1992: Referendum held regarding Tatarstan's status. The majority of the population support Tatatrstan's independence.
*November 1992: The Constitution of Tatarstan accepted by parliament.
*1994: The Treaty "On Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Mutual Delegation of Authority between the State Bodies of the Russian Federation and the State Bodies of the Republic of Tatarstan" was signed. Tatarstan becomes a de facto constituent republic of the Russian Federation.
*1995 and 1999 elections held for the Governmental Council of Tatarstan.
*March 2002: Numerous amendments to Tatarstan's Constitution. Tatarstan officials officially declared Tatarstan to be a part of Russia.

References

*TES|Tatarstan taríxı/Татарстан тарихы


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tatarstan — This article is about the republic in Russia. For the ship, see Gepard class frigate. Republic of Tatarstan Республика Татарстан (Russian) Татарстан Республикасы (Tatar)   Republic …   Wikipedia

  • History of the Turkic peoples — This article refers to the history of Turkic peoples. For the history of Turkish people, see History of the Turkish people. The history of the Turkic peoples (Turkic speaking peoples).OriginsIt is generally believed that the first Turkic people… …   Wikipedia

  • Flag of Tatarstan — The flag of Tatarstan was adopted 29 November, 1991 and was designed by Täwil Ğiniät ulı Xaziäxmätev [IPA|tæˈwil ɣiniɪˈæt uˈlɯ xæziəxˈmætəf] . The green, the colour of Islam, represents the Tatars; the red stands for the Russians. The white… …   Wikipedia

  • Nurlatsky District, Republic of Tatarstan — This article is about a district of the modern Republic of Tatarstan. For the historical district of the Tatar ASSR, see Nurlatsky District, Tatar ASSR. Nurlatsky District (English) Нурлатский район (Russian) …   Wikipedia

  • Malaya Tsilna, Republic of Tatarstan — Malaya Tsilna (English) Малая Цильна (Russian) Кече Чынлы (Tatar) …   Wikipedia

  • Khazars — Kazar redirects here. For the Marvel Comics character, see Ka Zar. For the village in Azerbaijan, see Xəzər. For Khazar University, see Khazar University. Khazaria Eastern Tourkia Khaganate …   Wikipedia

  • Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria — Date 1223 (first), 1229 1230 (second) and 1236 AD (third) Location Volga Bulgaria Result Mongol victory …   Wikipedia

  • Kipchaks — Kipchak–Cuman confederation Desht i Qipchaq Khaganate ←   …   Wikipedia

  • Cükätaw — (pronounced [ʑykæˈtɑʊ]; Tatar Cyrillic: Җүкәтау) or Juketau (called Zhukotin in Russian chronicles) was a medieval Bolgar city during the 10th to 15th centuries CE. The city was situated on the right bank of Kama, near the modern city of Çístay… …   Wikipedia

  • Muhtasib — A muḥtasib (Arabic: محتسب) was a supervisor of bazaars and trade in the mediæval Islamic countries. His duty was to ensure that public business was conducted in accordance with the law of sharia. In the reign of the Sultan Barqūq, for example,… …   Wikipedia