Mufti


Mufti

Part of a series on Islam
Usul al-fiqh

(The Roots of Jurisprudence)

Fiqh
Ahkam
Scholarly titles
  • Mujtahid (scholar of Islamic law with comprehensive understanding of the texts and reality)
  • Marja (authority)
  • Alim (scholar; pl. Ulema)
  • Mufti (cleric)
  • Mufassir (interpreter)
  • Qadi (judge)
  • Faqīh (professional counselor/jurist)
  • Muhaddith (narrator)
  • Mullah (scholar; pl. Ulema)
  • Imam (Sunni and Shia)
  • Mawlawi (scholar; pl. Ulema)
  • Sheikh (elderly person, respected person, also sometimes scholar; pl. Ulema)
  • Mujaddid (renewer)
  • Hafiz
  • Hujja
  • Hakim
  • Amir al-Mu'minin in reg. hadith
  • Maulana (scholar; pl. Ulema)
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This article is about an Islamic scholar. Mufti can also refer to civilian dress.

A mufti (Arabic: مفتي‎, muftī, Turkish: müftü) is a Sunni Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia).[1] In religious administrative terms, a mufti is roughly equivalent to a deacon to a Sunni population. A muftiat or diyanet is a council of muftis.

Contents

Qualifications

A Mufti will generally go through an Iftaa course and the person should fulfill the following conditions set by scholars in order that he may be able to issue verdicts (fataawa). They are eight:

  1. Mastering the science of principles of jurisprudence,
  2. Mastering the science of Hadith,
  3. Mastering the science of Maqasid ash-Shari`ah (Objectives of Shari`ah),
  4. Mastering legal maxims,
  5. Mastering the science of comparative religions,
  6. Mastering the foundations of social sciences,
  7. Knowing Arabic, and
  8. Having sufficient knowledge of social realities.[2]

The authority of the Mufti

An example of the influence of the mufti can be taken[original research?] from this incident in Tunisia: Habib Bourguiba, the late President of Tunisia, once argued in 1961 (1381 Muslim Calendar) that "fasting" during Ramadan should not be observed for it reduces productivity. He then appeared on television with his cabinet, eating and drinking during Ramadan. Bourguiba then asked the Grand Mufti of Tunisia, Sheikh Altaher Ibn Ashoor (Arabic: الشيخ الطاهر بن عاشور‎), to issue a fatwa accommodating the desires of the state.

The Grand Mufti of Tunisia went on television and and read sura Al-Baqara:183 (2:183):

O you who believe! Observing the fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become the pious.

Then he issued a fatwa that not observing Ramadan is a sin and whoever doesn't observe the fasting has knowingly rejected his well-known religious duty forcibly and added that fasting does not reduce productivity.

See also

References

  1. ^ "muf·ti". thefreedictionary. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/mufti. Retrieved 20 september 2011. 
  2. ^ Ask the scholar, Islam online, http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?cid=1218558415726&pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaEAskTheScholar .

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • mufti — mufti …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • mufti — [ myfti ] n. m. • 1560; muphti 1559; mofti 1546; ar. moufti « juge » ♦ Théoricien et interprète du droit canonique musulman, qui remplit à la fois des fonctions religieuses, judiciaires et civiles. Des muftis. ● mufti ou muphti nom masculin… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Mufti — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Mufti turco, dibujo español del siglo XVII, Biblioteca Apostólica Vaticana Un mufti (en árabe: مفتى ) es un jurisconsulto islámico, capaz de interpretar la sharia o ley islámica y de emitir dictámenes legales o… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Muftí — turco, dibujo español del siglo XVII, Biblioteca Apostólica Vaticana. Un muftí (en árabe: مفتى ) es un jurisconsulto musulmán sunni, intérprete o expositor de la sharia o ley islámica con autoridad de emitir dictámenes legales o fetuas. La… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Muftî — Mufti Religion religions abrahamiques : judaïsme · christianisme · islam C …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mûfti — Mufti Religion religions abrahamiques : judaïsme · christianisme · islam C …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mufti — Sm Rechtsgelehrter des Islam per. Wortschatz exot. (17. Jh.) Entlehnung. Besonders verbreitet in par ordre du Mufti durch Befehl von oben, dem nicht widersprochen werden darf , das zugleich zeigt, daß das Wort über das Französische ins Deutsche… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • mufti — Ⅰ. mufti [1] ► NOUN (pl. muftis) ▪ a Muslim legal expert empowered to give rulings on religious matters. ORIGIN from Arabic, decide a point of law . Ⅱ. mufti [2] ► NOUN ▪ civilian c …   English terms dictionary

  • mufti — (n.) 1580s, muphtie official head of the state religion in Turkey, from Arabic mufti judge, active participle of afta to give, conjugated form of fata he gave a (legal) decision (Cf. FATWA (Cf. fatwa)). Sense of ordinary clothes (not in uniform)… …   Etymology dictionary

  • muftí — (Del ár. hisp. muftí, este del ár. clás. muftī, jurisconsulto, este del arameo apti, detallar, y este del acadio patû uznam, explicar). m. Jurisconsulto musulmán con autoridad pública, cuyas decisiones son consideradas como leyes …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • Mufti — Muf ti, n.; pl. {Muftis}. [Ar. mufti.] 1. An official expounder of Mohammedan law. [1913 Webster] 2. One of the chief legal advisers to the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. [PJC] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English


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