Zhuge Liang


Zhuge Liang
Zhuge Liang
Zhuge Liang.jpg
Chancellor of Shu Han
Born 181
Yangdu, Langya Commandery (present-day Yinan County, Shandong)
Died 234 (aged 53)
Wuzhang Plains, Shaanxi
Names
Simplified Chinese 诸葛亮
Traditional Chinese 諸葛亮
Pinyin Zhūgě Liàng
Wade-Giles Chu-ko Liang
Style name Kongming (孔明)
Posthumous name Marquis of Zhongwu (忠武侯)
Other names Wolong (臥龍) Crouching Dragon
Fulong (伏龍) Sleeping Dragon

Zhuge Liang (181–234)[1] was a chancellor of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese history. He is often recognised as the greatest and most accomplished strategist of his era.[2]

Often depicted wearing a robe and holding a hand fan made of crane feathers,[3] Zhuge Liang was not only an important military strategist and statesman; he was also an accomplished scholar and inventor. His reputation as an intelligent and learned scholar grew even while he was living in relative seclusion, earning him the nickname "Wolong" (臥龍; literally: "Crouching Dragon").

Zhuge is an uncommon two-character compound family name. His name – even his surname alone – has become synonymous with intelligence and strategy in Chinese culture.

Contents

Early life

Zhuge Liang was born in Yangdu, Langya Commandery (present-day Yinan County, Shandong). He was orphaned at a premature age, and was raised by his uncle, Zhuge Xuan.[4] He followed his uncle to live in Jing Province under Liu Biao later. After his uncle died, Zhuge Liang and his brothers settled in Wolonggang (in present-day Henan)[5][6][7][8] for the next ten years or so, leading simple lives – farming by day and studying at night. Zhuge Liang's two older sisters married members of influential clans with strong connections in the region.

The Temple of the Marquis of Wu in Chengdu, a temple worshipping Zhuge Liang.

Zhuge Liang enjoyed reciting Liangfu Yin (梁父吟), a folk song popular in Shandong, his birthplace. He also liked to compare himself to Guan Zhong and Yue Yi, two famous historical figures. He developed close friendships with members of the local literati, such as Xu Shu, Cui Zhouping, Meng Jian and Shi Tao. Zhuge Liang also maintained close relations with other well known intellectuals, such as Sima Hui, Pang Degong and Huang Chengyan. Huang Chengyan once told Zhuge Liang, "I heard that you're seeking a spouse. I've an ugly daughter with a yellow face and dark complexion, but her talent matches yours."[9] Zhuge Liang agreed and married Huang Chengyan's daughter.

Service under Liu Bei

At that time, Liu Bei resided at Xinye while he was taking shelter under Jing Province's governor, Liu Biao. Liu Bei visited Sima Hui, who told him, "Confucian academics and common scholars, how much do they know about current affairs? Those who analyze current affairs well are elites. Crouching Dragon and Young Phoenix are the only ones in this region."[10] Xu Shu later recommended Zhuge Liang to Liu Bei again, and Liu wanted to ask Xu to invite Zhuge to meet him. However, Xu Shu replied, "You must visit this man in person. He cannot be invited to meet you."[11] Liu Bei succeeded in recruiting Zhuge Liang in 207 after paying three personal visits.[2][I] Zhuge Liang presented the Longzhong Plan to Liu Bei and left his residence to follow Liu. Afterwards, Liu Bei became very close to Zhuge Liang and often had discussions with him. Guan Yu and Zhang Fei were not pleased and complained. Liu Bei explained, "Now that I've Kongming (Zhuge Liang's style name), it's just like a fish getting into water. I hope you'll stop making unpleasant remarks."[12] Guan Yu and Zhang Fei then stopped complaining.

As a lobbyist

In 208, Liu Biao died and was succeeded by his younger son, Liu Cong, who surrendered Jing Province to Cao Cao. When Liu Bei heard of Liu Cong's surrender, he led his followers (both troops and civilians) on an exodus southward to Xiakou, engaging Cao Cao's forces in a brief skirmish at the Battle of Changban along the way. While in Xiakou, Liu Bei sent Zhuge Liang to follow Lu Su to Jiangdong to discuss the formation of an alliance between him and Sun Quan.

Zhuge Liang met Sun Quan in Chaisang and proposed two solutions to Sun, "If you can use the forces of Wuyue to resist the Middle Kingdom, why not break ties (with Cao Cao) in advance? If you cannot oppose, why not demobilize the troops, discard your armour and surrender to the north?"[13] After Sun Quan's viceroy, Zhou Yu, analyzed the situation and pointed out weaknesses in Cao Cao's army, Sun finally agreed to ally with Liu Bei in resisting Cao. Zhuge Liang returned to Liu Bei's camp with Sun Quan's envoy, Lu Su, to make preparation for the upcoming war.

As a logistics officer

In late 208, the allied armies of Liu Bei and Sun Quan scored a decisive victory over Cao Cao's forces at the Battle of Red Cliffs. Cao Cao retreated to Ye, while Liu Bei proceeded to conquer territories in Jiangnan, covering most of southern Jing Province. Zhuge Liang was appointed "Military Advisor General of the Household" (軍師中郎將). He was put in charge of governing Lingling (present day Yongzhou, Hunan), Guiyang and Changsha commanderies and collecting taxes to fund the military.

In 211, Liu Zhang, governor of Yi Province (covering present-day Sichuan basin), requested aid from Liu Bei in attacking Zhang Lu of Hanzhong. Liu Bei left Zhuge Liang, Guan Yu, Zhang Fei and others in charge of Jing Province while he led an army into Sichuan. Liu Bei promptly agreed to Liu Zhang's proposal, but secretly planned to take over Liu Zhang's land. The following year, Liu Zhang discovered Liu Bei's intention, and the two turned hostile and waged war on each other. Zhuge Liang, Zhang Fei and Zhao Yun led separate forces to reinforce Liu Bei in the attack on Liu Zhang's capital city, Chengdu, while Guan Yu stayed behind to guard Jing Province. In 214, Liu Zhang surrendered and Liu Bei took control of Yi Province.

Liu Bei appointed Zhuge Liang "Military Advisor General" (軍師將軍) and let him administer affairs of his personal office (office of the General of the Left (左將軍)). Whenever Liu Bei embarked on military campaigns, Zhuge Liang remained to defend Chengdu and ensure a steady flow of supply of troops and provisions. In 221, in response to Cao Pi's usurping of Emperor Xian's throne, Liu Bei's subordinates advised him to declare himself emperor. After initially refusing, Liu Bei was eventually persuaded by Zhuge Liang to do so and became ruler of Shu Han. Liu Bei named Zhuge Liang his chancellor and put him in charge of the imperial agency where Zhuge assumed the functions of Imperial Secretariat. Zhuge Liang was appointed "Director of Retainers" (司隸校尉) after Zhang Fei's death.

Service under Liu Shan

In the spring of 222, Liu Bei retreated to Yong'an (present-day Fengjie County, Chongqing) after his defeat at the Battle of Xiaoting and became seriously ill. He summoned Zhuge Liang from Chengdu and said to him, "You're ten times more talented than Cao Pi, capable of both securing the country and accomplishing our great mission. If my son can be assisted, then assist him. If he proves incompetent, then you may take over the throne."[14] Zhuge Liang replied tearfully, "I'll do my utmost and serve with unwavering loyalty until death."[15] Liu Bei then ordered his son, Liu Shan, to administer state affairs together with Zhuge Liang and regard Zhuge as his father.

As a regent

After Liu Bei's death, Liu Shan ascended to the throne of Shu Han. He granted Zhuge Liang the title of "Marquis of Wu" (武鄉侯) and created an office for him. Not long later, Zhuge Liang was appointed governor of Yi Province and put in charge of all state affairs. At the same time, the commanderies in Nanzhong rebelled against Shu, but Zhuge Liang did not send troops to suppress the revolt as Liu Bei's death was still recent. He sent Deng Zhi and Chen Zhen to make peace with Eastern Wu and re-entered an alliance with Wu. Zhuge Liang would consistently send envoys to Wu to improve diplomatic relations between the two states.

Southern Campaign

During his reign as regent, Zhuge Liang set Shu's objective as the restoration of the Han Dynasty, which from Shu's point of view, had been usurped by Cao Wei. He felt that in order to attack Wei, a complete unification of Shu was first needed.[16] Zhuge Liang was worried that the local clans would work with the Nanman tribes in Nanzhong to stage a revolution. Fearing the possibility that the peasants might rebel and press into areas surrounding the capital city of Chengdu while he was attacking Wei in the north, Zhuge Liang decided to pacify the southern tribes first.

In the spring of 225, regional clans including Yong, Gao, Zhu, and Meng had taken control of some cities in the south, so Zhuge Liang led an expedition force to Nanzhong. Ma Su proposed that they should attempt to win the hearts of the Nanman and rally their support instead of using military force to subdue them. Zhuge Liang heeded Ma Su's advice and defeated the rebel leader, Meng Huo, on seven different occasions. He released Meng Huo each time in order to achieve Meng's genuine surrender.[17] Note that the story about Meng Huo and his captures is rejected as a reliable and accurate historical reference by the majority of the academic, including historians like Miao Yue, Tan Liangxiao, and Zhang Hualan.

Realizing he had no chance to win, Meng Huo pledged allegiance to Shu, and was appointed by Zhuge Liang as governor of the region to keep the populace content and secure the southern Shu border. This would ensure that the future Northern Expeditions would proceed without internal disruptions.[16] Rich and abundant resources acquired from Nanzhong were used to fund Shu's military and the state became more prosperous.

Northern Expeditions and death

After pacifying the Nanman, Zhuge Liang ordered the Shu military to make preparations for a large scale offensive on the rival state of Wei. In 227, while in Hanzhong, he wrote a memorial, titled Chu Shi Biao, to Liu Shan, stating his rationale for the campaign and giving advice to the emperor on good governance. From 228 until his death in 234, Zhuge Liang launched a total of five Northern Expeditions against Wei, all except one of which failed. The only permanent gains by Shu were the conquests of Wudu and Yinping prefectures, as well as the relocation of Wei citizens to Shu on occasion.[18] However, Zhuge Liang's army never suffered casualties over 5% of the total forces, and the resources put into military were affordable (assuming Shu's zenith at 200,000 military strength.)

During the first Northern Expedition, Zhuge Liang persuaded Jiang Wei, a young Wei military officer, to surrender and defect to his side.[18] Jiang Wei became a prominent general of Shu later and inherited Zhuge Liang's ideals. In late 234, Zhuge Liang and Sima Yi (the Wei commander) reached a stalemate at the Battle of Wuzhang Plains. Zhuge Liang fell seriously ill and eventually died in camp at the age of 54. Before his death, Zhuge Liang recommended Jiang Wan and Fei Yi to succeed him as regent of Shu.[19] He was buried on Mount Dingjun according to his dying wish and posthumously granted the title of "Loyal and Martial Marquis" (忠武侯) by Liu Shan.

Family

Sculpture of Zhuge Liang in the Temple of Marquis of Wu in Chengdu

The following list contains family members of Zhuge Liang:

  • Ancestor: Zhuge Feng (諸葛豐), served as Director of Retainers during the reign of Emperor Yuan of Han
  • Father: Zhuge Gui (諸葛珪), served as Assistant in Mount Tai Commandery during the late Han Dynasty
  • Uncle: Zhuge Xuan (諸葛玄), served as Administrator of Yuzhang, joined Liu Biao later. Raised Zhuge Liang and Zhuge Jun.
  • Siblings:
    • Zhuge Jin, older brother, served Wu
    • Zhuge Jun (諸葛均), younger brother, served Shu
    • Older sister, unknown name, married Pang Shanmin (Pang Tong's older cousin)
    • Older sister, unknown name, married a member of the Xiangyang Kuai clan (headed by Kuai Liang and Kuai Yue)
  • Cousins:
    • Zhuge Dan, served Wei, participated in the Three Rebellions in Shouchun, killed after his defeat
  • Adopted children:
    • Zhuge Qiao, son of Zhuge Jin, adopted by Zhuge Liang, served Shu, died at a young age
  • Grandsons:
    • Zhuge Pan (諸葛攀), son of Zhuge Qiao, returned to Eastern Wu to continue the Zhuge family line there after Zhuge Ke's death
    • Zhuge Shang, oldest son of Zhuge Zhan, killed in action with his father during the Conquest of Shu by Wei
    • Zhuge Jing (諸葛京), second son of Zhuge Zhan, moved to Hedong in 264 with Zhuge Pan's son Zhuge Xian (諸葛顯), served the Jin Dynasty
    • Zhuge Zhi (諸葛質), youngest son of Zhuge Zhan
  • Descendants:
    • Marie Zhuge Ziqi (諸葛梓岐), Hong Kong based Canadian model, claims to be a 63rd generation descendant of Zhuge Liang[21][22]

Legacy

Inventions

Zhuge Liang was believed to be the inventor of mantou, the landmine and a mysterious but efficient automatic transportation device (initially used for grain) referred to as the "wooden ox and flowing horse" (木牛流馬), which is sometimes identified with the wheelbarrow.

Although he is often credited with the invention of the repeating crossbow that is named after him and called "Zhuge Crossbow", this type of semi-automatic crossbow is an improved version of a model that first appeared during the Warring States Period (though there is debate whether the original Warring States Period bow was semi-automatic, or rather shot multiple bolts at once). Nevertheless, Zhuge Liang's version could shoot farther and faster.

Zhuge Liang is also credited with constructing the mysterious Stone Sentinel Maze, an array of stone piles that is said to produce supernatural phenomenon, located near Baidicheng.[23]

An early type of hot air balloon used for military signalling, known as the Kongming lantern, is also named after him.[24] It was said to be invented by Zhuge Liang when he was trapped by Sima Yi in Pingyang. Friendly forces nearby saw the message on the lantern paper covering and came to Zhuge Liang's aid. Another belief is that the lantern resembled Zhuge Liang's headdress, so it was named after him.

Literary works

Some books popularly attributed to Zhuge Liang can be found today. For example, the Thirty-Six Stratagems, and Mastering the Art of War (not to be confused with Sun Tzu's The Art of War) are two of Zhuge Liang's works that are generally available. Supposedly, his mastery of infantry and cavalry formation tactics, based on the Taoist classic I Ching, were unrivalled. His memorial Chu Shi Biao, written prior to the Northern Expeditions, provided a salutary reflection of his unwavering loyalty to the state of Shu. The memorial moved readers to tears.

Zhuge Liang is also the subject of many Chinese literary works. A poem by Du Fu, a prolific Tang Dynasty poet, was written in memory of Zhuge Liang whose legacy of unwavering dedication seems to have been forgotten in Du Fu's generation (judging by the description of Zhuge Liang' unkept temple). Some historians believe that Du Fu had compared himself with Zhuge Liang in the poem.[citation needed] The full text is:

蜀相 (武侯祠)

丞相祠堂何處尋?
錦官城外柏森森。
映階碧草自春色,
隔葉黃鸝空好音。
三顧頻煩天下計,
兩朝開濟老臣心。
出師未捷身先死,
長使英雄淚滿襟

Premier of Shu (Temple of the Marquis of Wu)

Where to seek the temple of the noble Premier?
In the deep pine forests outside the City of Silk:
Where grass-covered steps mirror the colours of spring,
And among the leaves orioles' empty songs sing.
Three visits brought him the weight of the world;
Two emperors he served with one heart.
Passing ere his quest was complete,
Tears have dampened the robes of heroes ever since.

In fiction

The wisdom and achievements of Zhuge Liang were popularized by the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, written by Luo Guanzhong during the Ming Dynasty. The novel is based on historical sources, including Chen Shou's Records of Three Kingdoms. Other major influences include Liu Yiqing's A New Account of the Tales of the World, and Sanguozhi Pinghua, a chronological collection of 80 sketches starting with the Oath of the Peach Garden and ending with Zhuge Liang's death.

Some fictitious accounts involving Zhuge Liang from Romance of the Three Kingdoms include:

Borrowing of arrows with straw boats

Prior to the Battle of Red Cliffs, Zhuge Liang visited Sun Quan's camp to assist Zhou Yu. Zhou Yu was jealous of Zhuge Liang's talent and felt that Zhuge would become a threat to his lord in future. He assigned Zhuge Liang the task of making 100,000 arrows in ten days or face execution for failure in duties under military law. Zhuge Liang promised that he could complete the mission in three days. With help from Lu Su, Zhuge Liang prepared 20 large boats, each manned by a few soldiers and filled with human-like figures made of straw and hay.

At dawn, when there was a great fog, Zhuge Liang deployed the boats and they sailed towards Cao Cao's camp across the river. He ordered the troops to beat war drums loudly and shout orders to imitate the noise of an attack. Upon hearing the noise, Cao Cao's troops rushed out to engage the enemy, but they were unsure of the enemy's strength, because their vision was obscured by the fog. They fired volleys of arrows towards the sound of the drums and the arrows became stuck in the straw figures. In the meantime, Zhuge Liang was enjoying wine with Lu Su inside the cabin and they returned to camp when the fog cleared. Zhuge Liang acquired more than 100,000 arrows with his plan and Zhou Yu had no choice but to let him off.

Praying for the eastern wind

Before the Battle of Red Cliffs, when all preparations for the fire attack on Cao Cao's fleet had been made, Zhou Yu suddenly realized that the wind was not blowing to their advantage, because the eastern wind was required to enhance the fire attack. He collapsed and became ill. Zhuge Liang visited him and prescribed a "cure" for him, by offering to pray for the eastern wind. Days later, the eastern wind started blowing, much to everyone's surprise. Zhou Yu was pleased, but became worried because he thought Zhuge Liang possessed magical powers and would become a greater threat to his lord. He sent men to kill Zhuge Liang at the altar, but Zhuge anticipated his move and had already escaped under Zhao Yun's protection.[25]

Stone Sentinel Maze

In chapter 84, Liu Bei was defeated by Eastern Wu's Lu Xun at the Battle of Xiaoting and he fled towards Baidicheng with Lu Xun hot on pursuit. When Lu Xun arrived at Yufu Shore by the Yangtze River near Baidicheng, he felt a strong enemy presence and cautioned his troops of a possible ambush. He sent men to scout ahead, who reported that the area was deserted except for some scattered piles of rocks. Bewildered, Lu Xun asked a local, who told him that qi started emerging from the area after Zhuge Liang arranged the rocks there when he first entered Sichuan.

Lu Xun personally inspected the area and believed that the "maze" was only a petty display of deception, so he led a few men inside. Just as he was about to leave, a strong gust of wind blew. Dust storms overshadowed the sky and the rocks seemed like swords, mountainous piles of dirt emerged while the river waves sounded like an attacking army. Lu Xun exclaimed, "I have fallen into Zhuge Liang's trap!", and attempted to escape from the maze but to no avail.

Suddenly, Lu Xun saw an old man, who offered him assistance in exiting the labyrinth. Lu Xun followed him and got out of the maze unharmed. The old man identified himself as Huang Chengyan, Zhuge Liang's father-in-law. He explained to Lu Xun that the maze was constructed based on the ba gua concept. Huang Chengyan also told Lu Xun that Zhuge Liang had predicted that a Wu general would chance upon the maze when he first built it, and had asked him not to lead the general out when he fell into the trap. Lu Xun dismounted and thanked Huang Chengyan. When he returned to camp, he exclaimed that he was inferior to Zhuge Liang in terms of intelligence.

Empty Fort Strategy

During the first Northern Expedition, Zhuge Liang's efforts to conquer Chang'an were undermined by the Shu defeat at the Battle of Jieting. With the loss of Jieting, Zhuge Liang's current location, Xicheng, was in peril of being attacked by the Wei army. In the face of imminent danger, with his main force deployed elsewhere and only a small group of soldiers in the city, Zhuge Liang came up with a ploy to hold off the approaching enemy.

Zhuge Liang ordered all the city gates to be opened and instructed soldiers disguised as civilians to sweep the roads while he sat on the viewing platform above the gates with two boys flanking him. He put on a calm and composed image by playing his guqin. When Sima Yi arrived with the Wei army, he was surprised by the scene before him and ordered a retreat after suspecting that there was an ambush inside the city. Zhuge Liang later explained that his strategy was a risky one. It worked because Zhuge Liang had a reputation for being a careful military tactician who hardly took risks, so Sima Yi came to the conclusion that there was an ambush upon seeing Zhuge's relaxed composure.

Events before his death

When Zhuge Liang fell critically ill during the Battle of Wuzhang Plains, he attempted to extend his lifespan by 12 years through a ritual. However, he failed when the ritual was disrupted by Wei Yan, who rushed in to warn him about the enemy's advance.[26] Before his death, Zhuge Liang also passed his 24 Volumes on Military Strategy (兵法二十四篇) to Jiang Wei,[27] who would continue his legacy and lead another nine campaigns against the state of Wei.

Temple of the Marquis of Wu

There are many temples to commemorate the Marquis of Wu, the most famous ones are the Temple of the Marquis of Wu in Chengdu, and Temple of the Marquis of Wu in Baidicheng

Modern references

Film and television

Zhuge Liang was featured as a minor character in the 2008 film Three Kingdoms: Resurrection of the Dragon and was played by Pu Cunxin. Takeshi Kaneshiro played Zhuge Liang in another film Red Cliff.

Zhuge Liang was played by veteran Chinese actor Tang Guoqiang in the 1994 CCTV television series Romance of the Three Kingdoms, based on the novel of the same title. Lu Yi played Zhuge Liang in Three Kingdoms, a 2010 remake of the 1994 version. Alan Ke played the role of Zhuge Liang in the 2009 Taiwanese drama K.O.3an Guo, a parody of Romance of the Three Kingdoms in a modern high school setting.

Video games

Zhuge Liang's reputation for being an unparalleled genius is also emphasised in his portrayal in video games. Reflecting his status as the most highly regarded strategist in Romance of the Three Kingdoms, games such as Destiny of an Emperor and Koei's Romance of the Three Kingdoms game series place Zhuge Liang's intelligence statistic as the highest of all characters. He is also a playable character in Koei's Dynasty Warriors, Dynasty Tactics and Kessen II. He also appears in Warriors Orochi, a crossover between Dynasty Warriors and Samurai Warriors.

Zhuge Liang is the protagonist in Koei's tactical role-playing game Sangokushi Koumeiden, where he can die at the Battle of Wuzhang Plains, as he did historically, or proceed to restore the Han Dynasty under Emperor Xian.

Zhuge Liang appears in the game Civilization V as a great general along with Cao Cao.

Card games

In the collectible card game Magic: The Gathering, there is a card named "Kongming, Sleeping Dragon" in the Portal Three Kingdoms set.

Comics

The young Chu-Ko Liang is a member of the League of Infinity in the superhero pastiche Supreme by Alan Moore.

In the manhua Faeries' Landing, the protagonist of the story is a high-school student named Ryang Jegal, whose life is turned upside-down by a fairy and her heavenly (and not-so-heavenly) peers. Ryang Jegal, or Jegal Ryang in the proper Asian sequence, is the Korean translation of "Zhuge Liang".

See also

Notes

I.^ Some other historical sources contradict this story, claiming that it was Zhuge who visited Liu Bei first and offered his services.[citation needed]

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A biographical dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Brill. p. 1172. ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0. 
  2. ^ a b "Zhuge Liang - Kong Ming, The Original Hidden Dragon". JadeDragon.com. http://www.jadedragon.com/archives/history/liang1.html. Retrieved 2007-11-11. 
  3. ^ "Ancient Cultivation Stories: Zhuge Liang's Cultivation Practise". ClearHarmony.net. 28 July 2005. http://www.clearharmony.net/articles/200507/27920.html. Retrieved 2007-11-11. 
  4. ^ "Zhuge Liang, Three Kingdoms Period". TravelChinaGuide.com. http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/three_kingdoms/zhugeliang.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-11. 
  5. ^ 《大元一统志卷三·河南江北行省》:“卧龙岗在南阳县境内,诸葛亮孔明躬耕地。”
  6. ^ 《大明一统志卷60·襄阳府》“诸葛亮琅琊人,寓居南阳,往来隆中。”
  7. ^ 《嘉靖乙酉抚民右参政许复礼呈照碑记》:“南阳郡城西七里许,有阜隆然,绵亘四十余里,名曰卧龙岗,乃汉丞相忠武侯诸葛孔明躬耕之地也,岗上有草庐故居,前有忠武侯庙,庙中塑像纶巾抱膝,宛然令人起敬,旁有书院故址,询之父老,考之郡志,皆云孔明大节,自唐宋以来,乡人立祠祀之,血食有年。”
  8. ^ "诸葛亮"躬耕于南阳"的解读". http://news.163.com/10/1228/08/6OVRL3IF00014JB6.html. 
  9. ^ (聞君擇婦;身有醜女,黃頭黑色,而才堪相配。) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms, Volume 35, Biography of Zhuge Liang.
  10. ^ (儒生俗士,豈識時務?識時務者為俊傑。此間自有卧龍、鳳雛。) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms, Volume 35, Biography of Zhuge Liang.
  11. ^ (此人可就見,不可屈致也。將軍宜枉駕顧之。) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms, Volume 35, Biography of Zhuge Liang.
  12. ^ (孤之有孔明,猶魚之有水也。願諸君勿復言。) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms, Volume 35, Biography of Zhuge Liang.
  13. ^ (若能以吳、越之眾與中國抗衡,不如早與之絕﹔若不能當,何不案兵束甲,北面而事之!) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms, Volume 35, Biography of Zhuge Liang.
  14. ^ (君才十倍曹丕,必能安國,終定大事。若嗣子可輔,輔之;如其不才,君可自取。) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms, Volume 35, Biography of Zhuge Liang.
  15. ^ (臣敢竭股肱之力,效忠貞之節,繼之以死!) Chen Shou. Records of Three Kingdoms, Volume 35, Biography of Zhuge Liang.
  16. ^ a b (Chinese) Zhuge Liang; Zhang Zhu; Xizhong Duan; Xuchu Wen (1960) (in Chinese). Collected works of Zhuge Liang 諸葛亮集. Beijing: Zhonghua Publishing. OCLC 21994628. 
  17. ^ Walter Ta Huang (1967). Seven times freed. New York: Vantage Press. OCLC 2237071. 
  18. ^ a b (Chinese) Zhizhong Luo (2003). 諸葛亮 (Zhuge Liang). Taizhong: Hao du chu ban you xian gong si. ISBN 978-957-455-576-5. OCLC 55511668. 
  19. ^ "Advisors of Shu Kingdom". 3Kingdoms.net. http://www.3kingdoms.net/shuadv.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-11. 
  20. ^ Huang Chengyan married the younger sister of Lady Cai, who was married to Liu Biao.
  21. ^ "性感女模諸葛梓岐 有諸葛亮的好基因? | 娛樂新聞 | NOWnews 今日新聞網". Nownews.com. http://www.nownews.com/2009/02/28/340-2415174.htm. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  22. ^ "諸葛梓岐:我不是嫩模不露肉 公主病是媒體誤解_娛樂頻道_新浪網-北美". Dailynews.sina.com. 2010-08-22. http://dailynews.sina.com/bg/ent/hktwstar/sinacn/20100822/00041761095.html. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  23. ^ Zhuge Liang; Liu Ji; Thomas Cleary (1989). Mastering the art of war. Boston: Shambhala Publications. ISBN 978-0-87773-513-7. OCLC 19814956. 
  24. ^ Yinke Deng (2005). Ancient Chinese inventions. ISBN 978-7-5085-0837-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=ssO_19TRQ9AC&pg=PA113&ots=vDEuq_hKqc&dq=Kongming+balloon&sig=c3NT-uzoBYhzq203Qofw6XR9MH0. 
  25. ^ Luo Guanzhong, Three Kingdoms: A Historical Novel: Volume II, translated by Moss Roberts. page 852-856. Foreign Languages Press. Tenth Printing 2007. First Edition 1995. Beijing, China 1995. ISBN 978-7-119-00590-4
  26. ^ Luo Guanzhong, Three Kingdoms: A Historical Novel: Volume IV, translated by Moss Roberts. page 1886-1888. Foreign Languages Press. Tenth Printing 2007. First Edition 1995. Beijing, China 1995. ISBN 978-7-119-00590-4
  27. ^ Luo Guanzhong, Three Kingdoms: A Historical Novel: Volume IV, translated by Moss Roberts. page 1889. Foreign Languages Press. Tenth Printing 2007. First Edition 1995. Beijing, China 1995. ISBN 978-7-119-00590-4. In note 1 of chapter 104 - see page 2189 - Roberts mentions the Zhuge Liang ji (AD 274, which Chen Shou compiled)

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  • Zhuge Liang — (181 234) parfois orthographié Tchou kö Lieang, Tchou ko Lieang ou Chu ko Liang (諸葛亮 , pinyin: Zhūge Liàng) était un célèbre stratège chinois et, avec Sima Yi et Zhou Yu, l’un des plus brillants tacticiens de l’époque des …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Zhuge Liang — Zhūgě Liàng (chinesisch 諸葛亮 / 诸葛亮, IPA (hochchinesisch) [[d̥ʐ̥u5 ɡ̊ɤ214 li̯ɑŋ51]], * 181; † 234), Rufname Kungming (chinesisch 孔明 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Zhuge Liang — Zhuge Liang. Zhuge Liang (chino tradicional:诸葛亮, pinyin: Zhūgě Liàng) (181 234), fue un militar y estratega chino. También llamado Zhu Ge Kong Ming o Kong Ming, fue el principal estratega y consejero del reino de Shu. Debido a su genialidad fue… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Zhuge Liang — or Chu ko Liang born AD 181, Yangdu, Shandong province, China died August 234, Wuzhangyuan, Shaanxi province, China Celebrated adviser to Liu Bei, founder of the Shu Han dynasty of the Six Dynasties period. Liu was so impressed with Zhuge that on …   Universalium

  • Zhuge Liang — o Chu ko Liang (181 AD, Yangdu, provincia de Shandong, China–ago. 234, Wuzhangyuan, provincia de Shaanxi, China). Célebre consejero de Liu Bei, fundador de la dinastía Shu Han, del período de las Seis dinastías. Impresionó tanto a Liu Bei que en… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Zhuge Liang's Northern Expeditions — Northern Expeditions Part of the wars of the Three Kingdoms Date Spring 228 August 234 Location Gansu and Shaanxi, China …   Wikipedia

  • Zhuge Liang's Southern Campaign — Infobox Military Conflict conflict= Zhuge Liang s Southern Campaign partof= the wars of the Three Kingdoms caption= date= Spring 225 – Autumn 225 place= Nanzhong (modern Yunnan), China result= Shu Han victory combatant1=Shu Han combatant2=Shu… …   Wikipedia

  • Zhuge Luo — Zhuge Ke, Großjährigkeitsname Yuanxun (* 203; † 253), war der Sohn des Wu Ministers Zhuge Jin und der Neffe des Shu Ministers Zhuge Liang. Er wurde nach Lu Xuns Tod Kanzler und nach Sun Quans Tod Regent für dessen Nachfolger Sun Liang.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Zhuge Ke — Zhuge Ke, Großjährigkeitsname Yuanxun (* 203; † 253), war der Sohn des Wu Ministers Zhuge Jin und der Neffe des Shu Ministers Zhuge Liang. Er wurde nach Lu Xuns Tod Kanzler und nach Sun Quans Tod Regent für dessen Nachfolger Sun Liang.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Zhuge — (zh tsp|t=|s=|p=Zhūgě) is a Chinese double surname. It is ranked 314th in Hundred Family Surnames . The surname has often been synonymous with wisdom in Chinese culture, due to the fame of Zhuge Liang. Notable people with the surname Zhuge*Zhuge… …   Wikipedia


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