- Shu Han
Infobox Former Country
native_name = aut|漢
conventional_long_name = Han
common_name = Shu
continent = Asia
region = Pacific
country = China
era = Three Kingdoms
status = Empire
government_type = Monarchy
year_start = 221
year_end = 263
event_start = Establishment
event_end = Conquest of Shu by Wei
p1 = Han Dynasty
s1 = Cao Wei
image_map_caption = The territories of Shu Han (in red), AD 262
common_languages = Chinese
Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion
Chinese coin, Chinese cash
leader1 = Liu Bei
leader2 = Liu Shan
year_leader1 = 221 - 223
year_leader2 = 223 - 263
title_leader = Emperor
stat_pop1 = 940,000
Shu Han (
Traditional Chinese: 蜀漢, pinyin: Shǔ Hàn), sometimes known as the Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) was one of the Three Kingdomscompeting for control of Chinaafter the fall of the Han Dynasty, based on areas around Sichuanwhich was then known as Shu. Some historians argue it is the last Han dynasty because Liu Beiis directly related to the Han sovereignty. The other two states were Cao Weiin central and northern China, and Eastern Wuin southern and southeastern China.
During the decline of the Han Dynasty,
Liu Bei, a distant relative of the emperor, gathered together many capable men, and with Zhuge Liang's advice, took parts of Jing provinceat first, then Yi province and Hanzhong. From these territories, he established a place for himself in China during Han's final years. In 219, Lü Mengattacked and conquered Jing province for Sun Quan. Subsequently, Liu Bei's trusted general Guan Yuwas executed by Sun Quan. After Cao Piseized the imperial throne in 220from Emperor Xian and proclaimed the Wei Dynasty, Liu Bei proclaimed himself to be the next Han emperor and the real ruler of China in 221. Although Liu Bei is said to be the founder of the "Shu Han dynasty", he himself never claimed to be the founder of a new dynasty; rather, he claimed to continue the heritage of the earlier Han Emperors.
222, the first major conflict of the Three Kingdoms period began. Liu Bei initiated an attack of over 40,000 men upon Sun Quan's state of Eastern Wu in the Battle of Yilingto retake Jing province. However, because of a grave tactical mistake, his line of camps was burned to the ground and his already numerically inferior troops were decimated. He survived the attack and fled to Baidicheng, but one year later he became ill and died there. He was succeeded by his son, Liu Shan.
The Chancellor of Shu,
Zhuge Liang, made peace with Wu instead of taking revenge. He decided that it was more important to conquer Cao Wei and not only gain the fertile lands of the north but also to topple the Wei government and restore legitimacy to the Shu-Han Dynasty. He made several invasions to the north but failed each time, finally dying of sickness during his sixth attempt to conquer Wei. Jiang Wei, his eventual successor, also tried many times but was pushed back each time.
263, Wei took advantage of Shu's weakness and attacked. The brilliant strategies of the Wei generals, Zhong Huiand Deng Ailed to the quick conquest of Hanzhong and the subsequent conquest of the capital Chengdu. Jiang Wei surrendered to Zhong Hui and tried to incite Zhong Hui to rebel against Deng Ai, hoping to revive Shu Han by trying to take advantage of the ensuing chaos and bringing back the Emperor Liu Shan. However, his plan failed and he was killed along with Zhong Hui and Deng Ai by their soldiers. Afterwards, the Emperor Liu Shan was taken to the capital of Wei, Luoyang, where he was given the title Duke of Anle (安樂公; meaning Duke of Comfort) and retired in peace.
However, Shu was not simply a nation of war. During times of peace, Shu began many
irrigationand road-building projects designed to improve the economy of Shu. Many of these public works still exist and are widely used. For example, the Nine-Mile Damis still present near Chengduin Sichuanprovince. These works helped improve the economy of Southwest China and can be credited with beginning the history of economic activity in the Sichuan area.
* Chen Zhen
* Empress Wu
* Empress Zhang (former)
* Empress Zhang (later)
* Zhang Bao
Rulers of Shu Han
221– 263 Posthumous names Family name (in bold) and first names Durations of reigns Era names and their ranges of years "Convention: use family and first names" Zhaolie (昭烈 Zhāoliè) Liu Bei(劉備) 221- 223 Zhāngwǔ (章武) 220- 223 Xiaohuai (孝懷 Xiàohuái) Liu Shan(劉禪) 223- 263 Jiànxīng (建興) 223- 237
Personages of the Three Kingdoms
Timeline of the Three Kingdoms period
Romance of the Three Kingdoms"
Records of Three Kingdoms
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Shu Han — Shǔ Hàn (chinesisch 蜀漢 / 蜀汉) war ein chinesischer Teilstaat während der Zeit der Drei Reiche. Der Staat wurde von Liu Bei im Jahre 220 gegründet und wurde unter seinem Sohn im Jahre 263 von der Wei Dynastie erobert. Das Kerngebiet… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Shu Han — /shooh hahn / a dynasty that ruled in China A.D. 221 63. * * * … Universalium
Shu Han — /shooh hahn / a dynasty that ruled in China A.D. 221 63 … Useful english dictionary
Shu-Han-Dynastie — Shǔ Hàn (chin. 蜀汉) war ein chinesischer Teilstaat während der Zeit der Drei Reiche. Der Staat wurde von Liu Bei (刘备) im Jahre 221 gegründet und wurde unter seinem Sohn im Jahre 263 von der Wei Dynastie erobert. Das Kerngebiet des Staates ist das… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Shu Han-Dynastie — Shǔ Hàn (chin. 蜀汉) war ein chinesischer Teilstaat während der Zeit der Drei Reiche. Der Staat wurde von Liu Bei (刘备) im Jahre 221 gegründet und wurde unter seinem Sohn im Jahre 263 von der Wei Dynastie erobert. Das Kerngebiet des Staates ist das… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Zhang Bao (Shu Han) — Chinese t=張苞 s=张苞Zhang Bao was the oldest son of the famous Shu Han general, Zhang Fei. There is little information on the historical personage, with Chen Shou s Records of Three Kingdoms merely stating that he died prematurely. Zhang Bao,… … Wikipedia
Ma Zhong (Shu Han) — Chinese t=馬忠 s=马忠 p=Mǎ Zhōng w=Ma ChungMa Zhong (Chinese style name: Dexin 德信) (? 249), for some time known as Hu Du (狐篤) after adoption, was a prominent general of Shu Han. In Romance of the Three Kingdoms , Zhang Yi and Ma Zhong are both… … Wikipedia
Han Dynasty — 漢朝 ← 206 BCE–220 CE … Wikipedia
SHU — ist der Name: des chinesischen Staates Shu zur Zeit der Streitenden Reiche der chinesischen Shu Han Dynastie (221–263) zur Zeit der Drei Reiche zweier chinesischer Königreiche zur Zeit der Fünf Dynastien und Zehn Königreiche: Frühes Shu Reich… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Han-Fluss — Han steht für: Han (Staat) (韓, Hán), ein chinesischer Staat in der Zeit der streitenden Reiche Han Dynastie (漢, Hàn), eine chinesische Dynastie die Westliche Han Dynastie (206 v. Chr.–8 n. Chr.) die Östliche Han Dynastie (23–220) die Shu Han… … Deutsch Wikipedia