Shu Han


Shu Han

Infobox Former Country
native_name = aut|漢
conventional_long_name = Han
common_name = Shu
national_motto =
continent = Asia
region = Pacific
country = China
era = Three Kingdoms
status = Empire
government_type = Monarchy
year_start = 221
year_end = 263
event_start = Establishment
event_end = Conquest of Shu by Wei
p1 = Han Dynasty
s1 = Cao Wei
event1 =
date_event1 =
event2 =
date_event2 =
event3 =
date_event3 =
event4 =
date_event4 =
event5 =
date_event5 =



image_map_caption = The territories of Shu Han (in red), AD 262
capital = Chengdu
common_languages = Chinese
religion = Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion
currency = Chinese coin, Chinese cash
leader1 = Liu Bei
leader2 = Liu Shan
year_leader1 = 221 - 223
year_leader2 = 223 - 263
title_leader = Emperor
legislature =
stat_year1 =
stat_area1 =
stat_pop1 = 940,000

Shu Han (Traditional Chinese: 蜀漢, pinyin: Shǔ Hàn), sometimes known as the Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty, based on areas around Sichuan which was then known as Shu. Some historians argue it is the last Han dynasty because Liu Bei is directly related to the Han sovereignty. The other two states were Cao Wei in central and northern China, and Eastern Wu in southern and southeastern China.

History

During the decline of the Han Dynasty, Liu Bei, a distant relative of the emperor, gathered together many capable men, and with Zhuge Liang's advice, took parts of Jing province at first, then Yi province and Hanzhong. From these territories, he established a place for himself in China during Han's final years. In 219, Lü Meng attacked and conquered Jing province for Sun Quan. Subsequently, Liu Bei's trusted general Guan Yu was executed by Sun Quan. After Cao Pi seized the imperial throne in 220 from Emperor Xian and proclaimed the Wei Dynasty, Liu Bei proclaimed himself to be the next Han emperor and the real ruler of China in 221. Although Liu Bei is said to be the founder of the "Shu Han dynasty", he himself never claimed to be the founder of a new dynasty; rather, he claimed to continue the heritage of the earlier Han Emperors.

In 222, the first major conflict of the Three Kingdoms period began. Liu Bei initiated an attack of over 40,000 men upon Sun Quan's state of Eastern Wu in the Battle of Yiling to retake Jing province. However, because of a grave tactical mistake, his line of camps was burned to the ground and his already numerically inferior troops were decimated. He survived the attack and fled to Baidicheng, but one year later he became ill and died there. He was succeeded by his son, Liu Shan.

The Chancellor of Shu, Zhuge Liang, made peace with Wu instead of taking revenge. He decided that it was more important to conquer Cao Wei and not only gain the fertile lands of the north but also to topple the Wei government and restore legitimacy to the Shu-Han Dynasty. He made several invasions to the north but failed each time, finally dying of sickness during his sixth attempt to conquer Wei. Jiang Wei, his eventual successor, also tried many times but was pushed back each time.

In 263, Wei took advantage of Shu's weakness and attacked. The brilliant strategies of the Wei generals, Zhong Hui and Deng Ai led to the quick conquest of Hanzhong and the subsequent conquest of the capital Chengdu. Jiang Wei surrendered to Zhong Hui and tried to incite Zhong Hui to rebel against Deng Ai, hoping to revive Shu Han by trying to take advantage of the ensuing chaos and bringing back the Emperor Liu Shan. However, his plan failed and he was killed along with Zhong Hui and Deng Ai by their soldiers. Afterwards, the Emperor Liu Shan was taken to the capital of Wei, Luoyang, where he was given the title Duke of Anle (安樂公; meaning Duke of Comfort) and retired in peace.

However, Shu was not simply a nation of war. During times of peace, Shu began many irrigation and road-building projects designed to improve the economy of Shu. Many of these public works still exist and are widely used. For example, the Nine-Mile Dam is still present near Chengdu in Sichuan province. These works helped improve the economy of Southwest China and can be credited with beginning the history of economic activity in the Sichuan area.

Important figures

* Chen Dao
* Chen Shi
* Chen Shou
* Chen Zhen
* Deng Zhi
* Dong Yun
* Empress Wu
* Empress Zhang (former)
* Empress Zhang (later)
* Fa Zheng
* Fei Yi
* Fu Qian
* Fu Shiren
* Fu Tong
* Guan Ping
* Guan Xing
* Guan Yu
* Huang Zhong
* Jiang Wan
* Jiang Wei
* Jian Yong
* Liao Hua
* Liu Bei
* Liu Feng
* Liu Pi
* Liu Shan
* Ma Chao
* Ma Dai
* Ma Liang
* Ma Su
* Mi Fang
* Mi Zhu
* Pang Tong
* Sun Qian
* Wang Ping
* Wei Yan
* Xiahou Ba
* Xu Shu
* Yan Yan
* Zhang Bao
* Zhang Fei
* Zhao Yun
* Zhuge Liang

Rulers of Shu Han 221 – 263

Posthumous namesFamily name (in bold) and first namesDurations of reignsEra names and their ranges of years
"Convention: use family and first names"
Zhaolie (昭烈 Zhāoliè)Liu Bei (劉備)221-223Zhāngwǔ (章武) 220-223
Xiaohuai (孝懷 Xiàohuái)Liu Shan (劉禪)223-263Jiànxīng (建興) 223-237
Yánxī (延熙) 238-257
Jǐngyào (景耀) 258-263
Yánxīng (炎興) 263

ee also

*Cao Wei
*Eastern Wu
*Three Kingdoms
*Personages of the Three Kingdoms
*Timeline of the Three Kingdoms period
*"Romance of the Three Kingdoms"
*Records of Three Kingdoms
*"Dynasty Warriors"


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Shu Han — /shooh hahn / a dynasty that ruled in China A.D. 221 63. * * * …   Universalium

  • Shu Han — /shooh hahn / a dynasty that ruled in China A.D. 221 63 …   Useful english dictionary

  • Shu-Han-Dynastie — Shǔ Hàn (chin. 蜀汉) war ein chinesischer Teilstaat während der Zeit der Drei Reiche. Der Staat wurde von Liu Bei (刘备) im Jahre 221 gegründet und wurde unter seinem Sohn im Jahre 263 von der Wei Dynastie erobert. Das Kerngebiet des Staates ist das… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • SHU — ist der Name: des chinesischen Staates Shu zur Zeit der Streitenden Reiche der chinesischen Shu Han Dynastie (221–263) zur Zeit der Drei Reiche zweier chinesischer Königreiche zur Zeit der Fünf Dynastien und Zehn Königreiche: Frühes Shu Reich… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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