Chengdu


Chengdu

Coordinates: 30°39′35″N 104°03′48″E / 30.65972°N 104.06333°E / 30.65972; 104.06333

Chengdu
成都
—  Sub-provincial city  —
成都市
The skyline of Chengdu
Nickname(s): 蓉城 (The Hibiscus City)
Location of Chengdu City jurisdiction (yellow) within Sichuan
Coordinates: 30°39′49″N 104°04′00″E / 30.66361°N 104.0666667°E / 30.66361; 104.0666667
Country People's Republic of China
Province Sichuan
Established 311 BC
City seat Qingyang District
Divisions
 - County-level

9 districts, 4 county-level cities, 6 counties
Government
 – Type Sub-provincial city
 – CPC Party Chief Li Chuncheng (李春城)
 – Mayor Ge Honglin (葛红林)
Area
 – Sub-provincial city 12,132 km2 (4,684.2 sq mi)
 – Urban 2,129 km2 (822 sq mi)
 – Metro 1,617 km2 (624.3 sq mi)
Elevation 500 m (1,640 ft)
Population (2010)[1]
 – Sub-provincial city 14,047,625
 – Density 1,157.9/km2 (2,998.9/sq mi)
 – Urban 7,123,697
 – Urban density 3,346/km2 (8,666.2/sq mi)
 – Metro 6,730,749
 – Metro density 4,162.5/km2 (10,780.8/sq mi)
 – Major Nationalities Han
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 610000-611944
Area code(s) 28
GDP (nominal) Total (2010) ¥ 555.13 billion (US$82.119 billion)
GDP (nominal) Per Capita (2010) ¥ 43,417 (US$6,442)
License Plate Prefix 川A 川O (Government)
Website http://www.chengdu.gov.cn
Chengdu
Chinese 成都
Hanyu Pinyin Chéngdū
Sichuanese Pinyin Cen2du1 ([tsʰən˨˩tu˥])
Literal meaning Become Capital

Chengdu (Chinese: ; Sichuanese: Cen2du1; pinyin: Chéngdū), formerly transliterated Chengtu, is the capital of Sichuan province in Southwest China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status. The urban area houses 14,047,625 inhabitants (2010 census: 7,123,697) within the municipality's nine districts and 6,730,749 in the surrounding region.

Chengdu is one of the most important economic, transportation, and communication centers in Western China. According to the 2007 Public Appraisal for Best Chinese Cities for Investment, Chengdu was chosen as one of the top ten cities to invest in out of a total of 280 urban centers in China.[2] It was recently named China's 4th-most livable city by China Daily.[3]

The fertile Chengdu Plain, on which Chengdu is located, is also known as the "Country of Heaven" (, Tiānfǔzhiguó), a phrase also often translated as "The Land of Abundance". The discovery of the Jinsha site suggests the area of Chengdu had become the center of the bronze age Sanxingdui culture around the time of the establishment of the state of Shu, prior to its annexation by Qin in 316 BC.

Contents

City nicknames

The city was named "Chengdu" when it was founded more than 2000 years ago, and the name has remained the same till the present day. The city has always been in the same location. The nicknames below are well known by people from Chengdu and other regions in China.

In the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (907-960), Mengchang, the king of the Later Shu Kingdom, ordered the planting of hibiscus on the fortress wall surrounding the city. After this, Chengdu started being called the City of Hibiscus. Nowadays, the hibiscus is still the city flower of Chengdu, but the last city wall was torn down in the 1960s, along with the Royal Palace situated in the middle of the city, where the statue of Mao Zedong now stands.

In the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-23 AD), brocade produced in Chengdu enjoyed great popularity among the royal and elite class in China. An emperor created the office of Jin Guan (锦官) to oversee brocade production in Chengdu. Since then, Chengdu has been called "Jin Guan Cheng" (锦官城) meaning "Brocade Official's City", or in its short form, "Jin Cheng" (锦城) meaning "Brocade City."

  • The Turtle City: Guichéng,

According to the ancient legend, when Chengdu was built in 310 AD, the chief architect Zhang Yi followed the routes of a turtle to decide the city's borders. It coincides with the fact that the city does resemble the shape of a turtle on a map.

History

The archaeological site of Jinsha proved that Chengdu, as the capital of Shu, was established around 1200 BCE
Dujiangyan Irrigation System built in 256 BC still fuctions today
The tomb of Wang Jian, founder of Former Shu Kingdom based in Sichuan

In the early 4th century BC, the 9th king of the state of Shu moved his capital to the city's current location from today's nearby Pixian. The Song Dynasty geographical work Tai Ping Huan Yu Ji states that the king was inspired by King Tai of Zhou's statement that a settlement needed "one year to become a town; two years to become a capital."[4] Following this, the king named the new city Cheng Du: literally, "become the capital". There are, however, several versions of why the capital was moved to Chengdu, and more recent theories of the name's origin point to it as stemming from, or referring to, earlier non-Han inhabitants and/or their languages.

After the conquest of Shu by the State of Qin in 316 BC, a new city was founded by the Qin general Zhang Yi (who as a matter of fact had argued against the invasion). This can be seen as the beginning of the Chinese Chengdu.

During the partition following the fall of the Eastern Han Dynasty, i.e. the era of the Three Kingdoms, Liu Bei founded the southwest kingdom of Shu-Han (; 221-263) with Chengdu as its capital.

During the Tang Dynasty, both the "Poet God" Li Bаí () and the "Poet Sage" Dù Fǔ () spent some part of their lives in Chengdu. Du Fu constructed the celebrated "Caotáng" (thatched cottage or grass-hut) in the second year of his four-years stay (759-762). But today's Caotang, a rather sumptuous house in the traditional style, was only constructed in 1078 in memory of Du Fu. As early as the Tang dynasty more than 1,200 years ago, Chengdu became one of the foremost commercial cities in China, second only to Yangzhou.

Chengdu was also the birthplace of the first widely used paper money in the world (Northern Song Dynasty, around A.D. 960). The Qingyang Gong Taoist temple was built in Chengdu in the ninth century, meaning "Green Goat".

Two rebel leaders, one around the end of Song Dynasty, the other near the end of Ming Dynasty, set up the capitals of their short-lived kingdoms here, called Dàshu () and Dàxi (西), respectively. In the 13th century, Marco Polo wrote about several bridges in China and the Anshun Bridge (or an earlier version of it) in Chengdu was one of them. He referred to Chengdu as "Sindafu" ("Cheng-Tu_Fu") as the capital of the province of the same name.[5][6][7]

In 1279 the Mongols sacked Chengdu, killing 1.4 million inhabitants in the process.

During the Second World War the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party) government under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek fled to Sichuan Province to escape the invading Japanese forces. They brought with them businesspeople, workers and academics, who founded many of the industries and cultural institutions which continue to make Chengdu an important center.

In 1944 the American XX Bomber Command launched Operation Matterhorn, an ambitious plan to base B-29 Superfortresses at Chengdu and strategically bomb the Japanese Home Islands. Because the operation required a massive airlift of fuel and supplies over the Himalayas, it was not a significant military success, but it did earn Chengdu the distinction of launching the first serious retaliation against the Japanese homeland.

During the Chinese Civil War, Chengdu was the last city on the Chinese mainland to be held by the Kuomintang-controlled government. R.O.C. President Chiang Kai-shek and his son Chiang Ching-kuo directed the defence of the city at Chengdu Central Military Academy until 1949, when the city fell into Communist hands. The People's Liberation Army took the city on December 10 and the remnants of the Nationalist Chinese government fled to Taiwan.

Today the industrial base is very broad, including light and heavy manufacturing, aluminum smelting and chemicals. The textile industry remains important, with cotton and wool milling added to the traditional manufacturing of silk brocade and satin.

Today Chengdu is the headquarters of the Chengdu Military Region.

On May 12, 2008, a magnitude 8.0 earthquake struck causing damage to the area, killing about 80,000 people and injuring 26,413 as of May 12, 2008. 4,021 of the casualties and most of the property damage were from Dujiangyan and Pengzhou, two cities within the administration of Chengdu, the sub-provincial city. Chengdu did not suffer any discernible damage.[8] The reason why many people died in the surrounding areas had to do with poor construction. Though only 75 kilometers (47 mi) from the epicenter, Chengdu itself was built to earthquake specification, and most buildings there remained intact.

Demography

The municipality is home for 14,047,625 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 7,123,697 in the city considerered as urban. The built up area is home to 6,730,749 million inhabitants and emcompasses 7 out of 9 urban districts (all but Longquanyi District and Qingbaijiang District still separated of core built up area + Pi county being urbanized quickly)

Historical populations
Year Pop. ±%
1953 857,000
1964 1,583,000 +84.7%
1970 6,922,918 +337.3%
1975 7,819,732 +13.0%
1980 8,225,399 +5.2%
1985 8,626,770 +4.9%
1990 9,195,004 +6.6%
1995 9,715,977 +5.7%
2000 10,392,531 +7.0%
2005 10,820,285 +4.1%
2010 14,047,625 +29.8%
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

Administrative divisions

Chengdu is a sub-provincial city. It has direct jurisdiction over 9 districts (区 qu), 4 county-level cities (市 shi) and 6 counties (县xian) :

Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010)[1]
Area (km²) Density
(/km²)
Chengdu mcp.png
City Core
1 Qingyang District 青羊区 Qīngyáng Qū 828,140 66 12,548
2 Jinjiang District 锦江区 Jǐnjiāng Qū 690,422 61 11,318
3 Jinniu District 金牛区 Jīnniú Qū 1,200,776 108 11,118
4 Wuhou District 武侯区 Wǔhóu Qū 1,083,806 77 14,075
5 Chenghua District 成华区 Chénghuá Qū 938,785 109 8,613
Suburban districts within city limit
6 Longquanyi District 龙泉驿区 Lóngquányì Qū 767,203 558 1,375
7 Qingbaijiang District 青白江区 Qīngbáijiāng Qū 381,792 392 974
8 Xindu District 新都区 Xīndū Qū 775,703 481 1,613
9 Wenjiang District 温江区 Wēnjiāng Qū 457,070 277 1,650
Satellite cities
10 Dujiangyan 都江堰市 Dūjiāngyàn Shì 657,996 1,208 545
11 Pengzhou 彭州市 Péngzhōu Shì 762,887 1,420 537
12 Qionglai 邛崃市 Qiónglái Shì 612,753 1,384 443
13 Chongzhou 崇州市 Chóngzhōu Shì 661,120 1,090 607
Rural
14 Jintang County 金堂县 Jīntáng Xiàn 717,225 1,156 620
15 Shuangliu County 双流县 Shuāngliú Xiàn 1,158,516 1,067 1,086
16 Pi County 郫县 Pí Xiàn 756,047 438 1,726
17 Dayi County 大邑县 Dàyì Xiàn 502,198 1,327 378
18 Pujiang County 蒲江县 Pújiāng Xiàn 239,562 583 411
19 Xinjin County 新津县 Xīnjīn Xiàn 302,199 330 916

Geography

Chengdu
Climate chart (explanation)
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Chengdu is the habitat of pandas
Chengdu Plain in Spring
Chaoyang Lake in Chengdu's suburb

Chengdu is located at the western edge of the Sichuan Basin and sits on the Chengdu Plain; the dominating terrain is plains. The prefecture prefecture ranges in latitude from 30° 05' to 31° 26' N, while its longitude ranges from 102° 54' to 104° 53' E, stretching for 192 kilometres (119 mi) from east to west and 166 kilometres (103 mi) south to north, administering 12,390 square kilometres (4,780 sq mi) of land. Neighbouring prefectures are Deyang (NE), Ziyang (SE), Meishan (S), Ya'an (SW), and the Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture (N). The urban area, with an elevation of 500 metres (1,600 ft), features a few rivers, three of them being the Jin, Fu (府河), and Sha Rivers. Outside of the immediate urban area, the topography becomes more complex: to the east lies the Longquan Range (龙泉山脉) and the Penzhong Hills (盆中丘陵); to the west lie the Qionglai Mountains, which rise to 5,364 metres (17,598 ft) in Dayi County. The lowest point in Chengdu Prefecture, at 378 metres (1,240 ft), lies in the southeast in Jintang County.

Climate

Chengdu has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) and is largely mild and humid. The Qin Mountains to the far north help shield the city from cold Siberian winds in the winter; because of this, the short winter is milder than in the Lower Yangtze. January averages 5.6 °C (42.1 °F) Snow is rare but there are a few periods of frost each winter. The summer is hot and humid, but not to the extent of the "Three Furnaces" () cities of Wuhan, Nanjing, and Chongqing, all which lie in the Yangtze basin. July and August average around 25 °C (77 °F), with afternoon highs sometimes reaching 33 °C (91 °F); sustained heat in the likes of some cities in Southeastern China is rare. Rainfall is common year-round but is the greatest in July and August, with very little of it in the cooler months. Chengdu also has one of the lowest sunshine totals in China (less sunshine annually than London), and most days are cloudy and overcast even if without rain. This is especially so in the winter months, when it is typically interminably grey and dreary, compounding the poor air quality. Spring (March–April) tends to be sunnier and warmer than autumn (October–November). Extremes have ranged from −5.9 °C (21 °F) to 40.0 °C (104.0 °F).[9]

Culture and folklore

Jinli historical district of Chengdu
Teahouse in Chengdu

The native language in Chengdu is Sichuanese (四川话), otherwise referred as Sichuan dialect. More precisely, "Chengdu Dialect" (成都话/成都方言) is widely used in lieu of "Sichuanese" due to the largely different accents of Sichuanese speakers residing elsewhere.

People from Chengdu (or Sichuan/Chongqing, in general) tend to eat spicy food. Local specialties include Grandma Chen's Tofu (Mapo doufu), Chengdu Hot pot, and Dan Dan Mien (literally meaning, "Noodles carried on a pole" (Dan Dan Noodles). All three dishes are spicy. Mapo Doufu and Dan Dan Mien contain Sichuan peppers (huājiāo; 花椒; literally "flower pepper") to give them additional flavor. An article[10] by the Los Angeles Times (2006) called Chengdu "China's party city" for its carefree lifestyle. Chengdu outnumbers Shanghai in the number of tea houses and bars despite having less than half the population. The inhabitants have a reputation in China for having a laid-back attitude and for knowing how to enjoy life.

Economy

Chunxi Road

The main industries in Chengdu - which include food, medicine, machinery and information technology - are supported by numerous large-scale enterprises, such as Chengdu Sugar and Wine Co. Ltd., Chengdu Food Group, Sichuan Medicine Co. Ltd., Chengdu Automobile Co. Ltd. etc. Many high-tech enterprises from outside Chengdu are also beginning to settle down there.

Chengdu is becoming one of the favorite cities for investment in western China.[11] Among the world's 500 largest companies, 133 multinational enterprises have had subsidiaries or branch offices in Chengdu by October 2009.[11] These MNEs include Intel, Cisco, Sony and Toyota that have assembly and manufacturing bases, as well as Motorola, Ericsson, and Microsoft that have R&D centers in Chengdu.[11] , The National Development and Reform Commission has formally approved Chengdu's proposed establishment of a national bio-industry base there. The government of Chengdu has recently unveiled a plan to create a ¥90 billion bio pharmaceutical sector by 2012.[12] China's aviation industries have begun construction of a high-tech industrial park in the city that will feature space and aviation technology. The local government plans to attract overseas and domestic companies for service outsourcing and become a well-known service outsourcing base in China and worldwide.

Electronics and the IT industry

Chengdu has long been established as a national base for the electronics and the IT industry. The first telecom R&D centre was set up by an Indian company called Primetel in 1996 and since then the city has developed as the global centre for the telecom R&D industry. Chengdu's growth accelerated alongside the growth of the telecom services sector in India and China, which together account for over 70% of the world telecommunications market. Several key national electronics R&D institutes are located in Chengdu. Chengdu Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone has attracted a variety of multinationals, at least 30 Fortune 500 companies and 12,000 domestic companies, including Intel, IBM, Cisco, NOKIA, Motorola, SAP, Siemens, Canon, HP, Xerox, Microsoft, Tieto, NIIT and Wipro, as well as domestic powerhouses such as Lenovo.[13] Dell plans to open its second major China operations center in 2011 in Chengdu as its center in Xiamen expands in 2010.[14]

Intel Capital acquired a strategic stake in Primetel, Chengdu's first foreign technology company in 2001. Intel's Chengdu factory, set up in 2005 is its second in China, after its Shanghai factory, and the first such large-scale foreign investment in the electronics industry in interior mainland China. Intel, the world's largest chipmaker, has invested US$525 million in two assembly and testing facilities in Chengdu. Following the footsteps of Intel, Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation (SMIC), the world's third largest foundry, set up an assembly and testing plant in Chengdu. Intel's rival AMD is likewise set to open an R&D center in this city.

In November 2006, IBM signed an agreement with the Chengdu High-Tech Zone to establish a Global Delivery Center, its fourth in China after Dalian, Shanghai and Shenzhen, within the Chengdu Tianfu Software Park. Scheduled to be operational by February 2007, this new center will provide multilingual application development and maintenance services to clients globally in English, Japanese and Chinese, and to the IBM Global Procurement Center, recently located to the southern Chinese city of Shenzhen.[15] On March 23, 2008, IBM announced at the "West China Excellent Enterprises CEO Forum" that the southwest working team of IBM's Global Business Services is now formally stationed in Chengdu. On May 28, 2008, Zhou Weikun, president of IBM China disclosed that IBM Chengdu would increase its staff number from the present 600 to nearly 1,000 by the end of the year.[16][17]

Over the past few years, Chengdu's economy has flourished rapidly. Chengdu has been quick to become a major base for communication infrastructure, with one of China's nine top level postal centers and one of six national telecom exchanges.

In 2009, Chengdu hosted the World Cyber Games Grand Finals (11–15 November). It was the first time China hosted the world's largest computer and video game tournament.[18]

Financial industry

Chengdu is positioning itself to be a financial center for Western China and has successfully attracted major international financial institutions, including Citigroup, HSBC, Standard Chartered Bank, ABN AMRO, BNP Paribas, JPMorgan Chase and The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ. In 1988, Dr. Joseph Fowler, a British professor of optoelectronics from Cambridge founded Scsi Capital, Asia's first venture capital firm focused on opportunities in the digital age, in Chengdu. Scsi currently manages an active portfolio in excess of Remnibi 300 billion and has operations in India, Israel, Singapore and USA.

Historically, Chengdu has marked its name in the history of financial innovation. The world’s first ever paper currency 'Jiao Zi' was seen in Chengdu in the year 1023, during the Song Dynasty of ancient China.

Now, Chengdu is not only the gateway of Western People's Republic of China for foreign financial institutions, but also a booming town for Chinese domestic financial firms. The Chinese monetary authority, People's Bank of China (China’s central bank), set its southwest China headquarters in Chengdu City. In addition, almost all domestic banks and securities brokerage firms located their regional headquarters or branches in Chengdu. At the same time, the local financial firms of Chengdu are strengthening their presences nationally, notably, West China Securities, GuoJin Securities and Chengdu Commercial Bank. Moreover, on top of banks and brokerage firms, the flourish of local economy lured more and more financial service firms to the city to capitalise on the economic growth. KPMG opened this first west China office in Chengdu City this October, and before the inauguration of KPMG Chengdu office, its rival, Ernst & Young, had already integrated Chengdu into its global operation for several years.

Defense industry

Located within the city limits is the Chengdu Aircraft Company which produces the recently declassified J-10 Vigorous Dragon combat aircraft as well as the JF-17 Thunder, in a joint collaborative effort with Pakistan Air Force. Chengdu Aircraft Company is also currently developing the J-20 Black Eagle stealth fighter. The company is one of the major manufacturers of Chinese Military aviation technology.

Investment

The Chengdu Statistics Bureau reports that the total investment in fixed assets in 2008 was 301.29 billion yuan (US$43.38 billion). Domestic investment was 180.52 billion yuan (US$26 billion), an increase of 23.5 percent from 2007. The total amount of foreign direct investment reached US$2.25 billion, an increase of 97.3 percent from 2007.

Industrial zones

  • Chengdu Economic & Technological Development Zone

Chengdu Economic and Technological Development Zone was approved as state-level development zone in February 2000. The zone now has a developed area of 10.25 square kilometers and has a planned area of 26 square kilometers. Chengdu Economic and Technological Development Zone (CETDZ) lies 13.6 kilometers east of Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province and the hub of transportation and communication in southwest China. The zone has attracted investors and developers from more than 20 countries to carry out their projects there. Industries encouraged in the zone include mechanical, electronic, new building materials, medicine and food processing.[19]

  • Chengdu Export Processing Zone

Chengdu Export Processing Zone was ratified by the State Council as one of the first 15 export processing zones in the country in April, 2000. In 2002, the state ratified the establishment of the Sichuan Chengdu Export Processing West Zone with a planned area of 1.5 km2, located inside the west region of the Chengdu Hi-tech Zone.[20]

  • Chengdu Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Established in 1988, Chengdu Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone was approved as one of the first national hi-tech development zones in 1991. In 2000, it was open to APEC and has been recognised as a national advanced hi-tech development zone in successive assessment activities held by China's Ministry of Science and Technology. It ranks 5th among the 53 national hi-tech development zones in China in terms of comprehensive strength. Chengdu Hi-tech Development Zone covers an area of 82.5 km2, consisting of the South Park and the West Park. By relying on the city sub-center, which is under construction, the South Park is focusing on creating a modernised industrial park of science and technology with scientific and technological innovation, incubation R&D, modern service industry and Headquarters economy playing leading roles. Priority has been given to the development of software industry. Located on both sides of the "Chengdu-Dujiangyan-Jiuzhaigou"golden tourism channel, the West Park aims at building a comprehensive industrial park targeting at industrial clustering with complete supportive functions. The West Park gives priority to three major industries i.e. electronic information, biomedicine and precision machinery.[21]

  • Chengdu National Cross-Strait Technology Industry Development Park

Transportation

Intercity High-Speed Rail

The Chengdu-Dujiangyan High Speed Railway (成灌高速铁路) is a dual-track, electrified, passenger-dedicated, high-speed rail line connecting the urban area of Chengdu with the satellite city of Dujiangyan. The line is 65 kilometres (40 mi) in length with 15 stations. China Railways CRH1 train sets on the line reach a maximum speed of 220 kilometres per hour (140 mph) and make the full-trip in 30 minutes. The line was built in 18 months and entered into operation on May 12, 2010. The railway is built to withstand an 8.0-magnitude earthquake.

On May 28, 2008, 16 days after the Wenchuan Earthquake devastated Dujiangyan and the western suburbs of Chengdu, the Chengdu city government and the Ministry of Railways agreed to build a high-speed railway line as part of the reconstruction of the disaster zone. Construction began on November 4, 2008 and involved 20,000 workers at the cost of Y13 billion. The line entered trial operation on April 1, 2010 and full commercial operation began on May 12, 2010, the second anniversary of the large earthquake that killed some 70,000 people in the region.[22]

The route uses CRH1 trains in eight-car train sets, which can carry 661 passengers. Each day, 15 pairs of trains are scheduled daily between Chengdu and Dujiangyan’s Mountain Qingcheng Station.

Chengdu metro

Luomashi Station of Chengdu Metro.jpg

[23] Chengdu Metro officially opened on 1 October 2010. The 18 km North-South Line runs from Shenxian Lake (near northern railway station) to Century City (south Chengdu/Software Park). This is also called the number 1 line. The number 2 line is also opening in just a few months. Four more lines are planned to open in the (near) future.

Expressways

Chengdu's transportation network is well developed, and Chengdu serves as the starting point for many national highways, with major routes going from Sichuan-Shanxi, Sichuan-Tibet, and Sichuan-Yunnan.

For the year 2007, Chengdu announced the official launch of 37 significant projects, including the Chengdu-Jianyang Expressway in an attempt to accelerate the construction of the experimental district. This project is expected to solve the current transportation problem, which is proved to be the bottleneck in Jianyang's development. Development of major tunnels and the Longquan Lake scenic spot has also been planned to integrate Jianyang better into the Chengdu economic circle.

Several major road projects were also mentioned in the paper: a 15 km tunnel from Shuangliu Taiping to Jianyang Sancha Lake; alteration of the National Expressway 321, from Jiangyang to Longquanyi, totaling 26 kilometers. There will also be a road that connects Longquan Town to Longquan Lake - it will be connected to the Chengdu-Jianyang Expressway and hence shorten the journey by 10 kilometers. The authority has yet to decide whether drivers will have to pay tolls to access the road.By the end of 2008, there are ten expressways, connecting the center of Chengdu to its suburbs. The expressways that will be open to the public by the end of December are the Chenglin Expressway, extensions of Guanghua Avenue, Shawan Line, and an expressway from Chengdu to Heilongtan.

  • The toll-free Chengjin Expressway in the east of Chengdu is 38.7 km long, with six lines and designed for travel at 80 km/h. After it opens to the public, it will take only about half an hour to drive from the downtown Chengdu to Jintang, half the time of the current journey.
  • The expressway between Chengdu to Heilongtan (Chengdu section), going to the south of the city, is 42 km long. It is also toll-free and a journey from downtown Chengdu to Heilongtan will only take half an hour.
  • The extension of Guanghua Avenue, going towards the west of the city, is 11.6 km long with an estimated investment of 300 million yuan. It will cut the journey time from Chongzhou city to Sanhuan Road to less than half an hour.
  • The extension of Shawan Road going north will be 8.8 km long, and is designed for travel at 60 km/h. After it is connected to the expressways Pixian–Dujiangyan and Pixian–Pengzhou, it will take only 30 minutes to go from Chengdu to Pengzhou.

Highway

Public transport

The seven line Chengdu Metro subway system has been planned, and construction of Line 1 is complete. Line 1 started to operate at the end of September 2010.[24] Chengdu was the site of the June 5th bus fire incident.

Air transport

Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport

Chengdu is served by the Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport located 16 km southwest of downtown. It has been the busiest airport in Central and Western China and the 6th busiest airport nationwide, with a total of 17.25 million in terms of passenger traffic in 2008.[25]

The Chengdu Airport has constructed a second runway, capable of landing an Airbus 380, the largest commercial airplane to date. Chengdu is the fourth city in China with double commercial runways, after Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. On May 26, 2009, Air China, the Chengdu Government and Sichuan Airport Group signed an agreement to improve the infrastructure of the airport and increase the number of international direct flights to and from Chengdu. The objective is to have a passenger traffic of 40 million by 2015, making Chengdu Airport the fourth international hub in China, after Beijing, Shanghai, and GuangZhou.[25][26] There is also a long-term plan to build a second airport in Jintang County with five runways. Upon completion, it will take less than 30 minutes to travel from Jintang to downtown Chengdu.[27]

Railway transport

Chengdu is a major railway junction city and rail administrative center in southwestern China. It is the terminus for the Baoji-Chengdu, Chengdu-Chongqing, ChengKun (Chengdu-Kunming) and DaCheng (Chengdu-Dazhou), as well as the Chengdu-Dujiangyan High-Speed Railway. The Chengdu Railway Bureau manages the railway system of Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou and Yunnan.

New lines under construction include conventional line to Lanzhou and high-speed lines to Mianyang, Leshan and Chongqing.

Chengdu now has four main train stations. Among them the North Marshalling Station is the largest marshalling station in China.[28] Meanwhile, a new station for passenger transportation is to be built in a few years.

River transport

Located to the northwest of Chongqing, Chengdu has no direct access to the Yangtze River, or any other larger river. However, to ensure that Chengdu's goods have access to the river efficiently, the port cities of Yibin and Luzhou -- both of which are reachable from Chengdu within hours by expressways—on the Yangtze have commenced large-scale port infrastructure development. As materials and equipment for the rebuilding of northern Sichuan are sent in from the East Coast to Sichuan, these ports will see significant increases in throughput.

Education

Chengdu is the center of higher education and scientific research in Southwest China.

Colleges and universities

West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University

Chengdu is the center of higher education and scientific research in Southwest China.

National universities include:

Important provincial universities include:

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

International schools

Secondary schools

  • Chengdu No.7 High School (成都七中)
  • Chengdu Liewu High School (成都列五中学)
  • Chengdu Shude High School (成都树德中学)
  • Shishi Middle School (成都石室中学)
  • The Affiliated High School of Sichuan University (四川大学附属中学)
  • The Affiliated High School of Sichuan Normal University (四川师范大学附属中学)
  • Chengdu Experimental Foreign Languages School(成都实验外国语学校)
  • Chengdu Foreign Languages School (成都外语学校)
  • Chengdu Shude Experimental School (成都树德实验中学)
  • Chengdu Shude Union School (成都树德联校)
  • Chengdu Shishi Union School (成都石室联中)
  • Chengdu Yulin Middle School (成都玉林中学)
  • Chengdu Guangya International School
  • Chengdu Yandaojie Junior and Senior Middle school 成都市盐道街中学初中部与高中部

Consulates

The United States Consulate General at Chengdu opened on October 16, 1985. It was the first foreign consulate in west-central China since 1949. Currently eight countries have consulates in Chengdu. The United Kingdom also has a visa application center in Chengdu.

Consulate Year Consular District
United States United States Consulate General Chengdu 1986 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou/Tibet Autonomous Region
Germany Germany Consulate General Chengdu 2003 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
South Korea Republic of Korea Consulate General Chengdu 2004 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
Thailand Thailand Consulate General Chengdu 2004 Sichuan/Chongqing
France France Consulate General Chengdu 2005 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
Singapore Singapore Consulate General Chengdu 2006 Sichuan/Chongqing/Shaanxi/
Pakistan Pakistan Consulate General Chengdu 2007 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Consulate Chengdu 2009 Sichuan/Chongqing/Shaanxi/Yunnan/Guizhou

Sports

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

In 1979, Chengdu signed a sister city agreement with Montpellier, France, the first pair of Sino-French sister cities. Later Chengdu signed sister city agreements with cities in ten countries, as well as signing a friendly region agreement with the Dalarna province in Sweden. Chengdu has had many friendly exchanges with the sister cities. Montpellier, for example, has a Chengdu Street and a Chengdu Plaza. The soccer team Chengdu Blades is owned by Sheffield United F.C.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "我市2010年第六次全国人口普查数据公报" (in Chinese). Government of Chengdu. 2011-05-13. http://www.chengdu.gov.cn/govAffairInfo/detail.jsp?id=425258. Retrieved 2011-08-04. 
  2. ^ "Chengdu's June News". All Roads Lead To China. 2007-07-08. http://www.allroadsleadtochina.com/index.php/2007/07/08/chengdus-june-news/. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  3. ^ Jing, Fu (2006-01-03). "Beijing drops out of top 10 'best city' list". China Daily. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2006-01/03/content_508828.htm. 
  4. ^ Chinese: “以周太王从梁王止岐山,一年成邑,二年成都,因名之成都” (太平寰宇记)
  5. ^ Quian, Jack, Chengdu: A City of Paradise, 2006. Cf. p.109
  6. ^ Marco Polo referred to Chengdu as Sindafu (variously spelled in different editions as "Sin-din-fu". &c.) which was certainly Ch'eng-Tu-Fu (Chengdu), the capital of Sichuan province. Cf. Polo, Chapter XLIV: Concerning the Province and City of Sindafu. See Henry Yule; Henri Cordier (translators and editors), The Travels of Marco Polo, v.2, the complete Yule-Cordier edition. "Let us now speak of a great Bridge which crosses this River within the city. This bridge is of stone; it is seven paces in width and half a mile in length (the river being that much in width as I told you); and all along its length on either side there are columns of marble to bear the roof, for the bridge is roofed over from end to end with timber, and that all richly painted. And on this bridge there are houses in which a great deal of trade and industry is carried on. But these houses are all of wood merely, and they are put up in the morning and taken down in the evening. Also there stands upon the bridge the Great Kaan's _Comercque_, that is to say, his custom-house, where his toll and tax are levied."
  7. ^ Mayhew, Bradley; Miller, Korina; English, Alex, South-West China, Lonely Planet Publications, 1998 (2nd edition 2002). Cf. p.19 on the Mongul Reign: Yuan Dynasty.
  8. ^ "Casualties in Wenchuan Earthquake" (in Chinese). Sina.com. 2008-05-24. http://news.sina.com.cn/pc/2008-05-13/326/651.html. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  9. ^ "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". http://www.mherrera.org/temp.htm. Retrieved 2010-12-02. 
  10. ^ Lee, Don (2006-02-08). "People's Party Animals". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/la-fi-chinaparty8feb08,1,6127459,full.story. 
  11. ^ a b c "Chengdu Leading the West (in Chinese)". 2009-10-21. http://finance.ifeng.com/city/cd/20091021/1357840.shtml. 
  12. ^ "Chengdu Eyes a ¥90b Biopharma Industry (in Chinese)". 2009-10-20. http://thechinaperspective.com/articles/chengdueyesa90bbiopharmindustry6624/index.html. 
  13. ^ "Branches of Fortune 500 Businesses in Chengdu". 2007-10-29. http://www.investchengdu.gov.cn/investcden/12/4/200710/t20071029_6519.htm. 
  14. ^ "Dell To Build Flagship Manufacturing and Customer Support Center In Chengdu To Support Western China Growth; Expands Xiamen Operations". Dell. 16 September 2010. http://content.dell.com/us/en/gen/d/secure/2010-09-16-chengdu.aspx?c=us&l=en&s=gen. Retrieved 24 September 2010. 
  15. ^ "IBM Expands Global Delivery Capabilities to Inland China". IBM Press Room. 2006-11-27. http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/20680.wss. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 
  16. ^ "IBM 成都分公司" (in Mandarin). IBM Press Room. http://www-900.ibm.com/cn/chengdu/brief.shtml. 
  17. ^ "IBM to Further Investment in Chengdu". People's Government of Sichuan Province. http://english.sc.gov.cn/news/briefs/200806/t20080603_286242.shtml. 
  18. ^ "WCG 2009 in Chengdu, China". http://www.sk-gaming.com/content/16573-WCG_2009_in_Chengdu_China. 
  19. ^ "Chengdu Economic & Technological Development Zone". RightSite.asia. http://rightsite.asia/en/industrial-zone/chengdu-economic-technology-development-zone/. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  20. ^ "Chengdu Export Processing Zone". RightSite.asia. http://rightsite.asia/en/industrial-zone/chengdu-export-processing-zone/. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  21. ^ "Chengdu Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone". RightSite.asia. http://rightsite.asia/en/industrial-zone/chengdu-hi-tech-industrial-development-zone/. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  22. ^ "High-speed rail to bring in new era for Chengdu after quake". Chinadaily.com.cn. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/regional/2010-05/12/content_9842320.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  23. ^ "Chengdu Metro Chengdu Metro Company website". http://www.cdmetro.cn/. 
  24. ^ "我国中西部地区第一条地铁开通_新闻中心_新浪网". News.sina.com.cn. http://news.sina.com.cn/o/2010-09-28/074818170533s.shtml. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  25. ^ a b "Agreement to build an airport hub in Chengdu". People's Net. 2009-05-26. http://politics.people.com.cn/GB/14562/9368961.html. 
  26. ^ "Chengdu airport". Sina. 2009-05-26. http://finance.sina.com.cn/roll/20090527/11072864377.shtml. 
  27. ^ "Chengdu connection". China Daily. 2008-01-21. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bw/2008-01/21/content_6407282.htm. 
  28. ^ "Chengdu city info southwest china". http://21asiantravelguide.info/chengdu/index.html. Retrieved 2010-03-05. 
  29. ^ "Chengdu University of Traditional chinese Medicine website". Cdutcm.org. 2009-11-09. http://www.cdutcm.org/Html/university/162858441.html. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  30. ^ Chendy Medical College website (English)
  31. ^ "Sichuan Agricultural University". Ghc.sicau.edu.cn. 2010-03-10. http://ghc.sicau.edu.cn/en/. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 

Further reading

External links


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  • Chengdu — (chino: 成都, pinyin: Chéngdū, forma tradicional: Chengtu) es la capital de la provincia de Sichuan. Está situada en el sudoeste de China. Tiene una población aproximada de 10 millones de habitantes en un área de 12.300 Km². * * * (Ch´eng tu) ► C.… …   Enciclopedia Universal

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