- Liu Feng
Liu Feng (192 - 220) was the adopted son of
Liu Bei, and served as a general in Liu Bei's army during the end of the Eastern Han Dynastyof China.
Born with the surname of Kou (寇), he was connected to the royal Liu family in
Changshaby marriage. Liu Feng was adopted by Liu Bei while the latter was in the Jing province(荊州) as he had no son at the time. Liu Bei's eventual successor, his biological son Liu Shan, was born later.
Liu Feng was sent as reinforcements alongside
Zhuge Liangand Zhang Feiwhen Liu Bei was fighting against Liu Zhang in the Yi province. He was in his twenties at this stage, and was described as being strong and possessing good martial skill. On pacification of Shu, he was appointed General of the Gentlemen of the Household Who Assists the Army (副軍中郎將).
In 219 AD, Liu Feng was sent from the
Mian River(沔水) to assist Meng Da, who Liu Bei did not fully trust, to capture Shangyong(上庸). Shen Dan(申耽), Grand Administer of Shangyong, quickly surrendered. Liu Feng and Meng Da continued to be stationed within this region after the campaign. Later in the same year, Guan Yu, while fighting Cao Weiin the Battle of Fancheng, repeatedly requested troops from Liu Feng and Meng Da to help take the fortress. They refused the requests on the basis that their area had only been recently settled, and hence troops could not be sent. Guan Yu's death at the hands of Eastern Wuafterwards resulted in Liu Bei feeling great hatred towards Liu Feng and Meng Da for their failure to send troops earlier.
At the same time, the two men also had a falling out, which played a part in Meng Da's decision to defect to Wei. The Wei emperor,
Cao Pi, then ordered Meng Da to take Shangyong with Xu Huangand Xiahou Shang. Meng Da wrote Liu Feng a letter persuading him to surrender to Wei, warning him that his position was more tenuous now that Liu Bei has biological sons, and promising that the Wei government would give him the succession to the Kou family fief. Liu Feng would not hear of the offer. Shen Dan's brother Shen Yi(申儀) then betrayed Liu Feng and defeated him, forcing him to return to Chengdu.
In Chengdu, Liu Bei was angered at Liu Feng's part in Guan Yu's death and failure to prevent Meng Da's defection. At the same time, the advisor Zhuge Liang was concerned that Liu Feng might not obey the state after the heir Liu Shan takes the throne, and so suggested that Liu Feng should be gotten rid of. Liu Bei then forced him to commit suicide, before which Liu Feng sighed: "I regret not to have listened to Meng Zidu (Meng Da)!" Liu Bei wept for him afterwards.
In "Romance of the Three Kingdoms"
In the historical novel "
Romance of the Three Kingdoms" by Luo Guanzhong, Liu Feng was adopted after Liu Shan was born, which proved controversial, as Liu Bei already had a legitimate son at the time who was far younger than Liu Feng. Guan Yu in particular voiced his opposition, citing the family feud with Liu Biao's sons. However, Liu Feng showed his worth in battle and proved to be a valuable asset to the army.
In 219, when Guan Yu was being surrounded by Wu forces in Maicheng (麥城), Liu Feng refused to provide reinforcements partly because Meng Da reminded Liu Feng of Guan Yu's disapproval. When the general
Liao Huatold Liu Bei that Guan Yu died because Liu Feng and Meng Da did not send reinforcements, Liu Bei began to resent the two and even plotted their arrest. Meng Da became afraid and defected to Cao Wei, and sent Liu Feng a message urging him to defect as well. Angrily, Liu Feng executed the messenger and went to battle Meng Da, who was now aided by Xu Huang and Xiahou Shang. As Liu Feng was out of the city, the defender Shen Dan surrendered to Wei and shot arrows at Liu Feng's men. Defeated, Liu Feng returned to Chengdu with only a few more than a hundred horsemen.
Liu Feng sought an interview with Liu Bei, but he gained scant sympathy, for in response to his petition Liu Bei bade the executioners expel Liu Feng and put him to death. Liu Bei felt some regret later when he heard of Liu Feng's treatment to the messenger who had brought Meng Da's letter inviting him to become a traitor. This, adding to the recent death of Guan Yu, made Liu Bei grieve until he fell ill.
*Chen Shou. "San Guo Zhi (Records of Three Kingdoms)".
*Luo Guanzhong. "San Guo Yan Yi (Romance of the Three Kingdoms)".
Personages of the Three Kingdoms
Records of Three Kingdoms"
Romance of the Three Kingdoms"
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