I Ching

I Ching
Classic of Changes  
I Ching Song Dynasty print.jpg
The I Ching
Author(s) Fu Xi
Country China
Media type Book
I Ching
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Hanyu Pinyin Yì Jīng
Literal meaning "Classic of Changes"

The I Ching (Wade-Giles) or "Yì Jīng" (pinyin), also known as the Classic of Changes, Book of Changes and Zhouyi, is one of the oldest of the Chinese classic texts.[1] The book contains a divination system comparable to Western geomancy or the West African Ifá system; in Western cultures and modern East Asia, it is still widely used for this purpose.

Traditionally, the I Ching and its hexagrams were thought to pre-date recorded history,[2] and based on traditional Chinese accounts, its origins trace back to the 3rd to the 2nd millennium BC.[3] Modern scholarship suggests that the earliest layer of the text may date from the end of the 2nd millennium BC,[4] but place doubts on the mythological aspects in the traditional accounts.[4] Some consider the I Ching' as the oldest extant book of divination, dating from 1,000 BC and before.[5] The oldest manuscript that has been found, albeit incomplete, dates back to the Warring States Period.[6]

During the Warring States Period, the text was re-interpreted as a system of cosmology and philosophy that subsequently became intrinsic to Chinese culture. It centred on the ideas of the dynamic balance of opposites, the evolution of events as a process, and acceptance of the inevitability of change.

The standard text originated from the ancient text (古文經) transmitted by Fei Zhi (费直, c. 50 BC-10 AD) of the Han Dynasty. During the Han Dynasty this version competed with the bowdlerised new text (今文經) version transmitted by Tian He at the beginning of the Western Han. However, by the time of the Tang Dynasty the ancient text version, which survived Qin’s book-burning by being preserved amongst the peasantry, became the accepted norm among Chinese scholars.



Traditional view

Traditionally it was believed that the principles of the I Ching originated with the mythical Fu Xi (伏羲 Fú Xī).[7] In this respect he is seen as an early culture hero, one of the earliest legendary rulers of China (traditional dates 2800 BC-2737 BC), reputed to have had the 8 trigrams (八卦 bā guà) revealed to him supernaturally. By the time of the legendary Yu (禹 ) 2194 BC – 2149 BC, the trigrams had supposedly been developed into 64 hexagrams (六十四卦 lìu shí sì gùa), which were recorded in the scripture Lian Shan (《連山》 Lián Shān; also called Lian Shan Yi). Lian Shan, meaning "continuous mountains" in Chinese, begins with the hexagram Bound (艮 gèn), which depicts a mountain (¦¦|) mounting on another and is believed to be the origin of the scripture's name.

After the traditionally recorded Xia Dynasty was overthrown by the Shang Dynasty, the hexagrams are said to have been re-deduced to form Gui Cang (《歸藏》 Gūi Cáng; also called Gui Cang Yi), and the hexagram responding (坤 kūn) became the first hexagram. Gui Cang may be literally translated into "return and be contained", which refers to earth as the first hexagram itself indicates. At the time of Shang's last king, Zhou Wang, King Wen of Zhou is said to have deduced the hexagram and discovered that the hexagrams beginning with Initiating (乾 qián) revealed the rise of Zhou. He then gave each hexagram a description regarding its own nature, thus Gua Ci (卦辭 guà cí, "Explanation of Hexagrams").

When King Wu of Zhou, son of King Wen, toppled the Shang Dynasty, his brother Zhou Gong Dan is said to have created Yao Ci (爻辭 yáo cí, "Explanation of Horizontal Lines") to clarify the significance of each horizontal line in each hexagram. It was not until then that the whole context of I Ching was understood. Its philosophy heavily influenced the literature and government administration of the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC-256 BC).

Later, during the time of Spring and Autumn Period (722 BC-481 BC), Confucius is traditionally said to have written the Shi Yi (十翼 shí yì, "Ten Wings"), a group of commentaries on the I Ching. By the time of Han Wu Di (漢武帝 Hàn Wǔ Dì) of the Western Han Dynasty (c. 200 BC), Shi Yi was often called Yi Zhuan (易傳 yì zhùan, "Commentary on the I Ching"). Together with the commentaries by Confucius, I Ching is also often referred to as Zhou Yi (周易 zhōu yì, "Changes of Zhou"). All later texts about Zhou Yi were explanations only, due to the classic's deep meaning.

Modernist view

Replica of an oracle turtle shell

In the past 50 years a "Modernist" history of the I Ching emerged based on research into Shang and Zhou dynasties' oracle bones, Zhou bronze inscriptions and other sources (Marshall 2001, Rutt 1996, Shaughnessy 1993, Smith 2008). In the 1970s, Chinese archaeologists discovered intact Han dynasty-era tombs in Mawangdui near Changsha, Hunan province. One of the tombs contained the Mawangdui Silk Texts, a 2nd century BC new text version of the I Ching, the Dao De Jing and other works, which are mostly similar yet in some ways diverge from the received, or traditional texts preserved historically. This version of the I Ching, despite its textual form, belongs to the same textual tradition as the standard text, which suggests it was prepared from an old text version for the use of its Han patron.

Rather than being the work of one or several legendary or historical figures, the core divinatory text is now thought to be an accretion of Western Zhou divinatory concepts. According to Daniel Woolf, the text would reached the form that we know it today at the end of the 2nd millennium BC.[8] As for the Shi Yi commentaries traditionally attributed to Confucius, scholars from the time of the 11th century AD scholar Ouyang Xiu onward have doubted this, based on textual analysis, and modern scholars date most of them to the Warring States period (475 BC-256 or 221 BC),[6] with some sections perhaps being as late as the Western Han period (206 BC-9 AD).


The text of the I Ching is a set of oracular statements represented by 64 sets of six lines each called hexagrams (卦 guà). Each hexagram is a figure composed of six stacked horizontal lines (爻 yáo), each line is either Yang (an unbroken, or solid line), or Yin (broken, an open line with a gap in the center). With six such lines stacked from bottom to top there are 26 or 64 possible combinations, and thus 64 hexagrams represented.

The hexagram diagram is composed of two three-line arrangements called trigrams (卦 guà). There are 23, hence 8, possible trigrams. The traditional view was that the hexagrams were a later development and resulted from combining the two trigrams. However, in the earliest relevant archaeological evidence, groups of numerical symbols on many Western Zhou bronzes and a very few Shang oracle bones, such groups already usually appear in sets of six. A few have been found in sets of three numbers, but these are somewhat later. Numerical sets greatly predate the groups of broken and unbroken lines, leading modern scholars to doubt the mythical early attributions of the hexagram system, (Shaugnessy 1993).

When a hexagram is cast using one of the traditional processes of divination with I Ching, each yin and yang line will be indicated as either moving (that is, changing), or fixed (unchanging). Sometimes called old lines, a second hexagram is created by changing moving lines to their opposite. These are referred to in the text by the numbers six through nine as follows:

  • Nine is old yang, an unbroken line (—θ—) changing into yin, a broken line (— —);
  • Eight is young yin, a broken line (— —) without change;
  • Seven is young yang, an unbroken line (———) without change;
  • Six is old yin, a broken line (—X—) changing into yang, an unbroken line (———).

The oldest method for casting the hexagrams, the yarrow stalk method, was gradually replaced during the Han Dynasty by the three coins method and the yarrow stalk method was lost.[9] With the coin method, the probability of yin or yang is equal while with the recreated yarrow stalk method of Zhu Xi (1130–1200),[10] the probability of old yang is three times greater than old yin.[11]

There have been several arrangements of the trigrams and hexagrams over the ages. The bā gùa is a circular arrangement of the trigrams, traditionally printed on a mirror, or disk. According to legend, Fu Xi found the bā gùa on the scales of a tortoise's back. They function like a magic square with the four axes summing to the same value, using 0 and 1 to represent yin and yang: 000 + 111 = 101 + 010 = 011 + 100 = 110 + 001 = 111.

The King Wen sequence is the traditional (i.e. "classical") sequence of the hexagrams used in most contemporary editions of the I Ching.


The eight trigrams

The solid line represents yang, the creative principle. The open line represents yin, the receptive principle. These principles are also represented in a common circular symbol (☯), known as taijitu (太極圖), but more commonly known in the west as the yin-yang (陰陽) diagram, expressing the idea of complementarity of changes: when Yang is at top, Yin is increasing, and the reverse.

In the following lists, the trigrams and hexagrams are represented using a common textual convention, horizontally from left-to-right, using '|' for yang and '¦' for yin, rather than the traditional bottom-to-top. In a more modern usage, the numbers 0 and 1 can also be used to represent yin and yang, being read left-to-right. There are eight possible trigrams (八卦 bāguà):

Trigram Figure Binary Value Name Translation: Wilhelm[12] Image in Nature (pp.l-li) Direction (p. 269) Family Relationship (p. 274) Body Part (p. 274) Attribute (p. 273) Stage/ State (pp.l-li) Animal (p. 273)
1 111
the Creative, Force heaven, sky
northwest father head strong creative
2 110
the Joyous, Open swamp, marsh
west third daughter mouth pleasure tranquil (complete devotion)
sheep, goat
3 101
the Clinging, Radiance fire
south second daughter eye light-giving, dependence clinging, clarity, adaptable
4 100
the Arousing, Shake thunder
east first son foot inciting movement initiative
5 011
the Gentle, Ground wind
southeast first daughter thigh penetrating gentle entrance
6 010
the Abysmal, Gorge water
north second son ear dangerous in-motion
7 001
Keeping Still, Bound mountain
northeast third son hand resting, stand-still completion
wolf, dog
8 000
the Receptive, Field earth
southwest mother belly devoted, yielding receptive

The first 3 lines of the hexagram, called the lower trigram, are seen as the inner aspect of the change that is occurring. The upper trigram (the last three lines of the hexagram), is the outer aspect. The change described is thus the dynamic of the inner (personal) aspect relating to the outer (external) situation. Thus, hexagram 04 ¦|¦¦¦| Enveloping, is composed of the inner trigram ☵ Gorge, relating to the outer trigram ☶ Bound.

Hexagram lookup table

Upper →

Lower ↓

乾 Qián

震 Zhèn

坎 Kǎn

艮 Gèn

坤 Kūn

巽 Xùn

離 Lí

兌 Duì

乾 Qián

01 ䷀ 34 ䷡ 05 ䷄ 26 ䷙ 11 ䷊ 09 ䷈ 14 ䷍ 43 ䷪

震 Zhèn

25 ䷘ 51 ䷲ 03 ䷂ 27 ䷚ 24 ䷗ 42 ䷩ 21 ䷔ 17 ䷐

坎 Kǎn

06 ䷅ 40 ䷧ 29 ䷜ 04 ䷃ 07 ䷆ 59 ䷺ 64 ䷿ 47 ䷮

艮 Gèn

33 ䷠ 62 ䷽ 39 ䷦ 52 ䷳ 15 ䷎ 53 ䷴ 56 ䷷ 31 ䷞

坤 Kūn

12 ䷋ 16 ䷏ 08 ䷇ 23 ䷖ 02 ䷁ 20 ䷓ 35 ䷢ 45 ䷬

巽 Xùn

44 ䷫ 32 ䷟ 48 ䷯ 18 ䷑ 46 ䷭ 57 ䷸ 50 ䷱ 28 ䷛

離 Lí

13 ䷌ 55 ䷶ 63 ䷾ 22 ䷕ 36 ䷣ 37 ䷤ 30 ䷝ 49 ䷰

兌 Duì

10 ䷉ 54 ䷵ 60 ䷻ 41 ䷨ 19 ䷒ 61 ䷼ 38 ䷥ 58 ䷹

The hexagrams

The text of the I Ching describes each of the 64 hexagrams, and later scholars added commentaries and analyses of each one; these have been subsumed into the text comprising the I Ching.

In the table below, each hexagram's translation is accompanied by a form of R. Wilhelm translation (which is the source for the Unicode names), followed by a retranslation.

Hexagram R. Wilhelm Modern Interpretation
01. |||||| ䷀ Force (乾 qián) The Creative Possessing Creative Power & Skill [hex 1]
02. ¦¦¦¦¦¦ ䷁ Field (坤 kūn) The Receptive Needing Knowledge & Skill; Do not force matters and go with the flow [hex 2], [hex 3]
03. |¦¦¦|¦ ䷂ Sprouting (屯 zhūn) Difficulty at the Beginning [hex 4] Sprouting [hex 5]
04. ¦|¦¦¦| ䷃ Enveloping (蒙 méng) Youthful Folly Detained, Enveloped and Inexperienced [hex 6], [hex 7]
05. |||¦|¦ ䷄ Attending (需 xū) Waiting Uninvolvement (Wait for now), Nourishment [hex 8]
06. ¦|¦||| ䷅ Arguing (訟 sòng) Conflict Engagement in Conflict [hex 9]
07. ¦|¦¦¦¦ ䷆ Leading (師 shī) The Army Bringing Together, Teamwork [hex 10]
08. ¦¦¦¦|¦ ䷇ Grouping (比 bǐ) Holding Together Union [hex 11]
09. |||¦|| ䷈ Small Accumulating (小畜 xiǎo chù) Small Taming Accumulating Resources
10. ||¦||| ䷉ Treading (履 lǚ) Treading (Conduct) Continuing with Alertness
11. |||¦¦¦ ䷊ Pervading (泰 tài) Peace Pervading
12. ¦¦¦||| ䷋ Obstruction (否 pǐ) Standstill Stagnation
13. |¦|||| ䷌ Concording People (同人 tóng rén) Fellowship Fellowship, Partnership
14. ||||¦| ䷍ Great Possessing (大有 dà yǒu) Great Possession Independence, Freedom
15. ¦¦|¦¦¦ ䷎ Humbling (謙 qiān) Modesty Being Reserved, Refraining
16. ¦¦¦|¦¦ ䷏ Providing-For (豫 yù) Enthusiasm Inducement, New Stimulus
17. |¦¦||¦ ䷐ Following (隨 suí) Following Following
18. ¦||¦¦| ䷑ Corrupting (蠱 gǔ) Work on the Decayed Repairing
19. ||¦¦¦¦ ䷒ Nearing (臨 lín) Approach Approaching Goal, Arriving [hex 12]
20. ¦¦¦¦|| ䷓ Viewing (觀 guān) Contemplation The Withholding
21. |¦¦|¦| ䷔ Gnawing Bite (噬嗑 shì kè) Biting Through Deciding
22. |¦|¦¦| ䷕ Adorning (賁 bì) Grace Embellishing
23. ¦¦¦¦¦| ䷖ Stripping (剝 bō) Splitting Apart Stripping, Flaying
24. |¦¦¦¦¦ ䷗ Returning (復 fù) Return Returning
25. |¦¦||| ䷘ Without Embroiling (無妄 wú wàng) Innocence Without Rashness
26. |||¦¦| ䷙ Great Accumulating (大畜 dà chù) Great Taming Accumulating Wisdom
27. |¦¦¦¦| ䷚ Swallowing (頤 yí) Mouth Corners Seeking Nourishment
28. ¦||||¦ ䷛ Great Exceeding (大過 dà guò) Great Preponderance Great Surpassing
29. ¦|¦¦|¦ ䷜ Gorge (坎 kǎn) The Abysmal Water Darkness, Gorge
30. |¦||¦| ䷝ Radiance (離 lí) The Clinging Clinging, Attachment
31. ¦¦|||¦ ䷞ Conjoining (咸 xián) Influence Attraction
32. ¦|||¦¦ ䷟ Persevering (恆 héng) Duration Perseverance
Hexagram R. Wilhelm Modern Interpretation
33. ¦¦|||| ䷠ Retiring (遯 dùn) Retreat Withdrawing
34. ||||¦¦ ䷡ Great Invigorating (大壯 dà zhuàng) Great Power Great Boldness
35. ¦¦¦|¦| ䷢ Prospering (晉 jìn) Progress Expansion, Promotion
36. |¦|¦¦¦ ䷣ Brightness Hiding (明夷 míng yí) Darkening of the Light Brilliance Injured
37. |¦|¦|| ䷤ Dwelling People (家人 jiā rén) The Family Family
38. ||¦|¦| ䷥ Polarising (睽 kuí) Opposition Division, Divergence
39. ¦¦|¦|¦ ䷦ Limping (蹇 jiǎn) Obstruction Halting, Hardship
40. ¦|¦|¦¦ ䷧ Taking-Apart (解 xiè) Deliverance Liberation, Solution
41. ||¦¦¦| ䷨ Diminishing (損 sǔn) Decrease Decrease
42. |¦¦¦|| ䷩ Augmenting (益 yì) Increase Increase
43. |||||¦ ䷪ Parting (夬 guài) Breakthrough Separation
44. ¦||||| ䷫ Coupling (姤 gòu) Coming to Meet Encountering
45. ¦¦¦||¦ ䷬ Clustering (萃 cuì) Gathering Together Association, Companionship
46. ¦||¦¦¦ ䷭ Ascending (升 shēng) Pushing Upward Growing Upward
47. ¦|¦||¦ ䷮ Confining (困 kùn) Oppression Exhaustion
48. ¦||¦|¦ ䷯ Welling (井 jǐng) The Well Replenishing, Renewal
49. |¦|||¦ ䷰ Skinning (革 gé) Revolution Abolishing the Old
50. ¦|||¦| ䷱ Holding (鼎 dǐng) The Cauldron Establishing the New
51. |¦¦|¦¦ ䷲ Shake (震 zhèn) Arousing Mobilizing
52. ¦¦|¦¦| ䷳ Bound (艮 gèn) The Keeping Still Immobility
53. ¦¦|¦|| ䷴ Infiltrating (漸 jiàn) Development Auspicious Outlook, Infiltration
54. ||¦|¦¦ ䷵ Converting The Maiden (歸妹 guī mèi) The Marrying Maiden Marrying
55. |¦||¦¦ ䷶ Abounding (豐 fēng) Abundance Goal Reached, Ambition Achieved
56. ¦¦||¦| ䷷ Sojourning (旅 lǚ) The Wanderer Travel
57. ¦||¦|| ䷸ Ground (巽 xùn) The Gentle Subtle Influence
58. ||¦||¦ ䷹ Open (兌 duì) The Joyous Overt Influence
59. ¦|¦¦|| ䷺ Dispersing (渙 huàn) Dispersion Dispersal
60. ||¦¦|¦ ䷻ Articulating (節 jié) Limitation Discipline
61. ||¦¦|| ䷼ Centre Confirming (中孚 zhōng fú) Inner Truth Staying Focused, Avoid Misrepresentation
62. ¦¦||¦¦ ䷽ Small Exceeding (小過 xiǎo guò) Small Preponderance Small Surpassing
63. |¦|¦|¦ ䷾ Already Fording (既濟 jì jì) After Completion Completion
64. ¦|¦|¦| ䷿ Not-Yet Fording (未濟 wèi jì) Before Completion Incompletion

Hexagram table references

  1. ^ Wilhelm (trans.), Richard; Cary Baynes (trans.). "The I Ching or Book of Changes". http://deoxy.org/iching/1. Retrieved 30 March 2010. 
  2. ^ Xiaochun, Tan (1993). The I Ching: An Illustrated Guide to the Chinese Art of Divination. http://books.google.com.au/books?id=GQblA-A0LcUC&pg=PA80&lpg=PA80&dq=The+Receptive+%22Hexagram+2%22&source=web&ots=azZJRpTSV-&sig=b4-YqdcUw8xiVi_nyzRre_2OS8k&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result#PPA80,M1. Retrieved 16 October 2008. 
  3. ^ Legge, James. "The I Ching". http://www.sacred-texts.com/ich/. Retrieved 16 October 2008. 
  4. ^ Wilhelm, R.. "The I Ching on the Net". http://pacificcoast.net/~wh/Index.html. Retrieved 16 October 2008. 
  5. ^ Kinnes, Tormod. "I Ching Hexagram Drawings". http://oaks.nvg.org/q5.html. Retrieved 16 October 2008. 
  6. ^ Benson, Robert G. (2003). I Ching for a New Age. http://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=hDtupOjFjAoC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=%22hexagram+5%22+%22I+Ching%22&ots=xUD4D-tXxG&sig=OjaucJ-FHS2tgAPV7BQlwLg2umA#PPA72,M1. Retrieved 16 October 2008. 
  7. ^ Merritt, Dennis L.. "Use of the I Ching in the Analytic Setting". http://www.dennismerrittjungiananalyst.com/China_paper.htm. Retrieved 16 October 2008. 
  8. ^ Lofting, Chris J.. "05 Waiting (Nourishment)". http://members.iimetro.com.au/~lofting/IChingPlus/x010111.html. Retrieved 16 October 2008. 
  9. ^ Michael Drake, Michael Drake (1997). I Ching: The Tao of Drumming. http://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=GI8ne8iqQjwC&oi=fnd&pg=PA5&dq=%22hexagram+6%22+%22I+Ching%22&ots=vuHmGwIpgO&sig=7a3QJ4KivkAUfwoLWEKp2vWoH0Y#PPA79,M1. Retrieved 16 October 2008. 
  10. ^ Secter, Mondo; Chung-Ying Cheng (2002). The I Ching Handbook: Decision-Making with and Without Divination. http://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=l_P6ZWF7X3wC&oi=fnd&pg=PR13&dq=%22hexagram+6%22+%22I+Ching%22&ots=CoouSSuwTA&sig=qQOrkoWoz1OWyhhkwQbrKPDIscI#PPA100,M1. Retrieved 16 October 2008. 
  11. ^ Sloane, Sarah Jane (2005). The I Ching for Writers: Finding the Page Inside You. http://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=nVXAf7zQSicC&oi=fnd&pg=PR13&dq=%22hexagram+6%22+%22I+Ching%22&ots=F51T3kxqW0&sig=8iAm4MIKYLFlW4ZG-cwRyCZNgpQ#PPA48,M1. Retrieved 16 October 2008. 
  12. ^ Moran, Elizabeth; Joseph Yu (2001). The Complete Idiot's Guide to the I Ching. http://books.google.com.au/books?id=1CK2efLIY7sC&pg=PA104&dq=%22hexagram+9%22+%22I+Ching%22+%22Idiot%27s%22&lr=#PPA124,M1. Retrieved 16 October 2008. 

The hexagrams, though, are mere mnemonics for the philosophical concepts embodied in each one. The philosophy centres around the ideas of balance through opposites and acceptance of change.


I Ching trigrams were added to the Unicode Standard in June, 1993 with the release of version 1.1. The other encoded I Ching symbols were added to the Unicode Standard in April, 2003 with the release of version 4.0.

The symbols are spread out between Unicode blocks:

  • Miscellaneous Symbols (U+2600–U+26FF):
    • Monograms: U+268A (⚊) and U+268B (⚋)
    • Digrams: U+268C–U+268F (⚌ ⚍ ⚎ ⚏)
    • Trigrams: U+2630–U+2637 (☰ ☱ ☲ ☳ ☴ ☵ ☶ ☷)
  • Yijing Hexagram Symbols (U+4DC0–U+4DFF):
    • Hexagrams: U+4DC0–U+4DFF
Yijing Hexagram Symbols[1]
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+4DFx ䷿
1.^ As of Unicode version 6.0

There is an extension of the "Yi Jing" Unicode characters for the Tài Xuán Jīng (: Cannon of Supreme Mystery) by Yáng Xióng (揚雄/扬雄; 53 BC-18 AD), from U+1D300 through U+1D356. Their Chinese aliases most accurately reflect their interpretation;[13] for example, the Chinese alias of code point U+1D300 (

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