- Oscar II of Sweden
Oscar II (21 January 1829 – 8 December 1907), baptised Oscar Fredrik was King of Sweden from 1872 until his death and King of Norway from 1872 until 1905. The third son of King Oscar I of Sweden and Josephine of Leuchtenberg, he was a descendant of Gustav I of Sweden through his mother.
At his birth in Stockholm, Oscar Fredrik was created Duke of Östergötland. He entered the navy at the age of eleven, and was appointed junior lieutenant in July 1845. Later he studied at Uppsala University, where he distinguished himself in mathematics. On 13 December 1848, he was made an honorary member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
From 1859, when his father died, he was first in line to the Swedish throne after his oldest brother King Charles, who then had no male heirs (his son had died in infancy in 1854). His middle brother Gustaf had died in 1852.
King of Sweden and Norway
He succeeded his brother Charles XV on 18 September 1872, and was crowned as king of Norway in the Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim on 18 July 1873. At the accession he adopted as his motto Brödrafolkens väl / Broderfolkenes Vel ("The Welfare of the Brother Peoples"). While the King and the Royal Court resided mostly in Sweden, Oscar made the effort of learning to be fluent in Norwegian and from the very beginning he realized the essential difficulties in the maintenance of the union between the two countries. The political events which led up to the peaceful dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905 could hardly have been attained but for the tact and patience of the king himself. He was dethroned on 7 June 1905 by the Norwegian Parliament and renounced the Norwegian throne on 26 October. He declined, indeed, to permit any prince of his house to become king of Norway, but better relations between the two countries were restored before his death, which occurred in Stockholm on 8 December 1907.
His acute intelligence and his aloofness from the dynastic considerations affecting most European sovereigns gave the king considerable weight as an arbitrator in international questions. At the request of the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States in 1889 he appointed the chief justice of Samoa, and he was again called in to arbitrate in Samoan affairs in 1899. In 1897 he was empowered to appoint a fifth arbitrator if necessary in the Venezuelan dispute, and he was called in to act as umpire in the Anglo-American arbitration treaty that was quashed by the United States Senate. He won many friends in the United Kingdom by his outspoken and generous support of Britain at the time of the Second Boer War (1899–1902), expressed in a declaration printed in The Times of the 2 May 1900, when continental opinion was almost universally hostile.
Science and arts
Himself a distinguished writer and musical amateur, King Oscar proved a generous friend of learning, and did much to encourage the development of education throughout his dominions. In 1858 a collection of his lyrical and narrative poems, Memorials of the Swedish Fleet, published anonymously, obtained the second prize of the Swedish Academy. His "Contributions to the Military History of Sweden in the Years 1711, 1712, 1713," originally appeared in the Annals of the Academy, and were printed separately in 1865. His works, which included his speeches, translations of Herder's Cid and Goethe's Torquato Tasso, and a play, Castle Cronberg, were collected in two volumes in 1875–76, and a larger edition, in three volumes, appeared in 1885–88. His Easter hymn and some other of his poems are familiar throughout the Scandinavian countries. His Memoirs of Charles XII of Sweden were translated into English in 1879. In 1881 he founded the World's first open-air museum at his summer residence near Christiania, now Oslo. In 1885 he published his Address to the Academy of Music, and a translation of one of his essays on music appeared in Literature in May 1900. He had a valuable collection of printed and manuscript music, which was readily accessible to the historical student of music.
Being a theater lover, he commissioned a new opera house to be build by Axel Anderberg for the Royal Swedish Opera which was inaugurated on September 19, 1898. It is until today the current home of that institution. Oscar II told Henrik Ibsen that his Ghosts was "not a good play". As he was dying, he requested that the theatres not be closed on account of his death. His wishes were respected.
King Oscar II was an enthusiast of Arctic exploration. Along with Swedish millionaire Oscar Dickson and Russian magnate Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Sibiryakov, he was the patron of a number of pioneering Arctic expeditions in the 1800s. Among the ventures the king sponsored, the most important are Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld's explorations to the Russian Arctic and Greenland, as well as Fridtjof Nansen's Polar journey on the Fram.
King Oscar II was married to Sophia of Nassau. Their children were:
- 1. King Gustaf V (1858–1950)
- 2. Prince Oscar, Duke of Gotland, later Count Oscar Bernadotte af Wisborg (1859–1953)
- 3. Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötland (1861–1951)
- 4. Prince Eugén, Duke of Närke (1865–1947)
Oscar also is alleged to have had several extramarital children, among them:
Oscar II (unlike his father) never officially recognized any illegitimate children of his. He is also alleged to have had two sons with the actress Marie Friberg, Nils and August Ekstam (the latter born 1878).
His eldest son, Oscar Gustaf Adolf, duke of Värmland, succeeded him as King Gustaf V of Sweden. His second son, Oscar, resigned his royal rights on his marriage in 1888 with a lady-in-waiting, Miss Ebba Munck, when he assumed the title of Prince Bernadotte and from 1892 he was known as Count Wisborg. The king's other sons were Charles, duke of Västergötland, who married Princess Ingeborg of Denmark; and Eugén, duke of Närke, well-known as an artist.
As King of Norway, he was, after the events of 1905, succeeded by his grandnephew Prince Carl of Denmark, grandson of his late elder brother King Charles, who ascended the Norwegian throne in 1905 with reign name Haakon VII.
Harald V of Norway, the great-grandson of Oscar II (grandson of his third son duke of Västergötland), succeeded in 1991 to the throne of Norway once held by his great-grandfather, Oscar II.
16. Jean Bernadotte 8. Jean Henri Bernadotte 17. Marie du Pucheu 4. Charles XIV John of Sweden 18. Jean de Saint Vincent 9. Jeanne de Saint Vincent 19. Marie d'Abbadie de Sireix 2. Oscar I of Sweden 20. Joseph Clary 10. François Clary 21. Françoise Agnes Ammoric 5. Désirée Clary 22. Joseph Ignace Somis 11. Françoise Rose Somis 23. Catherine Rose Soucheiron 1. Oscar II of Sweden 24. François de Beauharnais, Marquess de la La Ferté-Beauharnais 12. Alexandre, vicomte de Beauharnais 25. Marie Anne Henriette Françoise Pyvart de Chastulle 6. Eugène de Beauharnais 26. Joseph-Gaspard de Tascher de La Pagerie 13. Joséphine de Tascher de La Pagerie 27. Rose-Claire des Vergers de Sanois 3. Duchess Josephine of Leuchtenberg 28. Count Palatine Frederick Michael of Zweibrücken 14. Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria 29. Countess Palatine Maria Franziska of Sulzbach 7. Princess Augusta of Bavaria 30. Prince Georg Wilhelm of Hesse-Darmstadt 15. Princess Augusta Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt 31. Countess Marie Luise of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Heidesheim
- ^ Stockholm City Archives, archive of the Court parish, birth and baptism records, volume C I:5
- ^ Aho, Maire (1/1999), "AE Nordenskiöld Collection included in the Unesco Memory of the World Program", Tietolinja News, FI: Helsinki, http://www.lib.helsinki.fi/tietolinja/0199/nordensk.html .
- ^ Anna Hofmann - varietéstjärna och filmregissör, catalogue of exhibition by that name at Stockholms Stadsmuséum 1998 with essays by Åke Abrahamsson and Marika Lagercrantz/Lotte Wellton.
- ^ Ristesson Files
- ^ Throne of a Thousand Years p. 277
- ^ Sherlock Holmes and the King of Scandinavia The Swedish Pathological Society
- ^ Var är den försvunne kungasonen August? Aftonbladet 24 May 2010
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Oscar IIBorn: 21 January 1829 Died: 8 December 1907
- Ducal House of Nassau
- The Royal Norwegian Order of St Olav - H.M. King Oscar II the former Grand Master of the Order
Regnal titles Preceded by
King of Sweden
King of Norway
VacantTitle next held byHaakon VII Swedish princes 1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generationWładysław IV Vasa, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania# · Prince Christopher# · Prince John Casimir# · John II Casimir Vasa, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania# · Prince Alexander Charles# · John Albert, Prince-Bishop of Warmia and Kraków# · Prince Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Opole# 4th generationPrince Sigismund Casimir# · Prince John Sigismund# · Charles XI 5th generation 6th generationAdolf Frederick* 7th generation 8th generation 9th generation 10th generation 11th generation 12th generation 13th generation 14th generation 15th generation*prince through adoption or election
**also prince of Norway
^lost his title due to an unequal marriage
#also prince of Poland and Lithuania
~also prince by marriage
Monarchs of Norway Fairhair dynasty · rival
rulers of other housesc. 870–985
1035–1319Harald I Fairhair · Eric Bloodaxe · Haakon I the Good · Harald II Greycloak · Haakon Sigurdsson 1 · Olaf I Tryggvason · Eiríkr Hákonarson 1 & Sveinn Hákonarson 1 & Hákon Eiríksson 1 · Sweyn Forkbeard · Olaf II the Saint · Hákon Eiríksson 1 · Canute the Great · Sveinn Álfífuson 1 · Magnus I the Good · Harald III Hardrada · Magnus II Haraldsson · Olaf III Kyrre · Haakon Magnusson & Magnus III Barefoot · Olaf Magnusson · Eystein I Magnusson · Sigurd I the Crusader · Magnus IV the Blind · Harald IV Gille · Sigurd the Noisy · Sigurd II Munn · Eystein II Haraldsson · Inge I Haraldsson the Hunchback · Haakon II Broadshoulder · Magnus Erlingsson · Sigurd Markusfostre · Olav the Unlucky · Eystein the Maiden · Sverre Sigurdsson · Jon Kuvlung · Sigurd Magnusson · Inge Magnusson · Haakon III Sverresson · Guttorm Sigurdsson · Inge II Bårdsson · Erling Stonewall · Philip Simonsson · Haakon IV Haakonsson · Haakon the Young · Magnus VI the Law-mender · Eric II Magnusson · Haakon V Magnusson
Bjelbo1319–1387 The Kalmar union1387–1448 Oldenburg1448–1814 Holstein-Gottorp
Monarchs of Sweden Munsöc.970–c.1060 Stenkilc.1060–c.1130
Sverker · Ericc.1130–1250 Bjelbo1250–1364 Mecklenburg1364–1389Albert Kalmar UnionItalics indicate
regents1389–1523Margaret I of Denmark4 / Eric of Pomerania4 · Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson · Eric of Pomerania4 · Charles Canutesson · Eric of Pomerania4 · Charles Canutesson · Christopher of Bavaria4 · Bengt Jönsson (Oxenstierna) / Nils Jönsson (Oxenstierna) · Charles Canutesson3 · Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna / Erik Axelsson Tott · Christian I4 · Kettil Karlsson (Vasa) · Charles Canutesson · Kettil Karlsson (Vasa) · Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna · Erik Axelsson Tott · Charles Canutesson · Sten Sture the Elder · John II4 · Sten Sture the Elder · Svante Nilsson · Eric Trolle · Sten Sture the Younger · Christian II4 · Gustaf Eriksson (Vasa)
Holstein-Gottorp1751–1818 Bernadottesince 1818
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