Infobox Former Country
native_name = "Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel" "Kurfürstentum Hessen"
conventional_long_name = Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel
Electorate of Hesse
common_name = Hesse-Kassel
continent = Europe
region = Germany
country = Germany
status = Vassal
status_text = State of the
Holy Roman EmpireState of the German Confederation
empire = Holy Roman Empire
government_type = Principality
year_start = 1567
year_end = 1866
1567– 1806 1813– 1866
event_end = Annexed by Prussia
event1 = Raised to Electorate
date_event1 = 1803
event2 = Annexed by France
date_event2 = 1806
event3 = Reestablished
date_event3 = 1813
p1 = Landgraviate of Hesse
flag_p1 = Flag of Hesse.svg
s1 = Province of Hesse-Nassau
flag_s1 = Flagge Preußen - Provinz Hessen-Nassau.svg
symbol_type = Coat of arms (1818)
image_map_caption = Hesse-Kassel
capital = Kassel
common_languages = German
stat_year1 = 1864
stat_area1 = 9581
stat_pop1 = 745063
Hesse-Kassel thaler(to 1858) Hesse-Kassel vereinsthaler(1858-1873)
title_leader = Landgrave
leader1 = William IV of Hesse
year_leader1 = 1567–1592
Frederick I of Sweden
year_leader2 = 1730–1751
The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel ( _de. Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel) or Hesse-Cassel was a "
Reichsfrei" principalityof the Holy Roman Empirethat came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hessewas divided in 1567 upon the death of Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse. His eldest son William IV inherited the northern half and the capital of Kassel. The other sons received the Landgraviate of Hesse-Marburg, the Landgraviate of Hesse-Rheinfelsand the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt.
The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel was elevated to the Electorate of Hesse ("Kurfürstentum Hessen", or "Kurhessen") in 1803. It was then annexed by the
Kingdom of Prussiain 1866 after the Austro-Prussian Warand subsequently became the Province of Hesse-Nassau.
17th and 18th centuries
House of Hessewas a dynasty which descended from Catholic and Protestant luminaries. Landgraves Philip I, William V, and Maurice married descendants of King George of Bohemia. From William VI onwards, mothers of the heads of Hesse-Kassel were always descended from William the Silent, the leader of the Dutch to independence on basis of Calvinism.
The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel expanded in 1604 when
Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, inherited the Landgraviate of Hesse-Marburgfrom his childless uncle, Louis IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Marburg(1537-1604).
Thirty Years' War, Calvinist Hesse-Kassel proved to be Sweden's most loyal German ally. Landgrave William V and, after his death in 1637, his widow Amelia of Hanau, a granddaughter of William the Silent, as regentsupported the Protestant cause and the French and Swedes throughout the war and maintained an army, garrisoning many strongholds, while Hesse-Kassel itself was occupied by Imperial troops.
William V was succeeded by Landgraves William VI and William VII. Under King
Frederick I of Swedenthe Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel was in personal union with Sweden from 1730-51. But in fact the King's younger brother, William VIII, reigned in Kassel until 1760.
Although it was a fairly widespread practice at the time to rent out troops to other princes, it was the Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel who became infamous for hiring out contingents of their army as mercenaries during the 17th and 18th centuries. Frederick II, notably, hired out so many troops to his nephew King
George III of the United Kingdomfor use in the American Revolution, that "Hessian" has become an American slang term for all German soldiers in the Revolutionary War. Frederick used the revenue to finance his opulent lifestyle. One of these regiments that saw service in America was the Musketeer Regiment Prinz Carl.
During the 17th century, the landgraviate was internally divided for dynastic purposes, without allodial rights, into:
Landgraviate of Hesse-Rotenburg(1627–1834)
* Landgraviate of
Landgraviate of Hesse-Philippsthal
Landgraviate of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld
These were reunited with the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel when each particular branch died out without issue.
Following the reorganization of the German states during the
German mediatisationof 1803, the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel was raised to the Electorate of Hesse and Landgrave William IX was elevated to Imperial Elector, taking the title William I, Elector of Hesse. The principality thus became known as "Kurhessen", although still usually referred to as Hesse-Kassel.
In 1806, William I was dispossessed by Napoleon Bonaparte for his support of the
Kingdom of Prussia, and Kassel became the capital of a new Kingdom of Westphaliaunder Napoleon's brother Jérôme Bonaparteas king. The elector was restored following Napoleon's defeat in 1813, and although the Holy Roman Empirewas now defunct, William retained his title of Elector, as it gave him pre-eminence over his cousin, the Grand Duke of Hesse. From 1813 onwards, the Electorate of Hesse was an independent country and, after 1815, a member of the German Confederation.
William's grandson, Elector Frederick William, sided with the
Austrian Empirein the Austro-Prussian War, and after the Prussian victory his lands were annexed by Prussia in 1866. Along with the annexed Duchy of Nassau and Free City of Frankfurt, Hesse-Kassel became part of the new Province of Hesse-Nassauof the Kingdom of Prussia.
In 1918, Hesse-Nassau became part of the
Free State of Prussiauntil 1944. From 1944-45 as part of Nazi Germany, it was divided into the Prussian provinces of Kurhessen and Nassau. From 1945-46, it was renamed Greater Hesse("Großhessen") and was part of the US occupation zone in Germany. From 1946 onwards, it was reorganised into the state of Hesse("Bundesland Hesse"), in the Federal Republic of Germany'.
Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse, younger brother of the head of the house and a brother-in-law of Emperor William II, was elected by the pro-German Finnish government to be King of Finland, but he never reigned.
In 1968, the head of the
House of Hesse-Kasselbecame the head of the entire House of Hessedue to the extinction of the House of Hesse-Darmstadt.
The village of
Hessen Cassel, Indiananear Fort Wayne, founded by German immigrants, is named for the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel.
Hesse-Kassel maintained 7 percent of its entire population under arms throughout the eighteenth century. This force served as a source of mercenaries for other European states. [Tilly, Charles "Coercion, Capital, and European States."]
* List of rulers of Hesse
List of Swedish monarchs
List of Finnish monarchs
Line of succession to the Hesse Throne
* [http://www.hoeckmann.de/germany/hesse-north.htm Map of Hesse in 1789 - Northern Part]
* [http://www.hoeckmann.de/germany/hesse-south.htm Map of Hesse in 1789 - Southern Part]
List of Swedish monarchs
years = 1720–51
House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
succeeded = House of Holstein-GottorpTemplate group
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Hesse-Kassel — Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. Puedes añadirlas así o avisar … Wikipedia Español
Hesse-Kassel — ▪ former landgraviate, Germany also spelled Hesse cassel, also called (1944–45) Electoral Hesse, German Hessen kassel, Hessen cassel, or Kurhessen, former landgraviate of Germany, formed in 1567 in the division of old Hesse. In … Universalium
Hesse-Kassel — noun A former german principality … Wiktionary
Hesse-Kassel thaler — The Thaler was the currency of the Landgravate, then Electorate of Hesse Kassel (or Hesse Cassel) until 1858. Until 1807, the Thaler was subdivided into 32 Albus , each of 12 Heller . It was worth three quarters of a Conventionsthaler.Between… … Wikipedia
Hesse-Kassel vereinsthaler — The Vereinsthaler was the currency of the Electorate of Hesse Kassel (or Hesse Cassel) between 1858 and 1873. It replaced the Thaler at par and was replaced by the German Mark at a rate of 1 Vereinsthaler = 3 Mark.The Vereinsthaler was subdivided … Wikipedia
Marie Sophie of Hesse-Kassel — Queen consort of Denmark and Norway Queen Marie Sophie of Denmark, with the Order of Christian VII portrait by Jens Juel Que … Wikipedia
Prince Charles of Hesse-Kassel — Charles Charles of Hesse Spouse Princess Louise of Denmark Issue Marie Sophie, Queen of Denmark and Norway Wilhelm, Prince of Hesse Prince Frederik of Hesse Juliane, Princess of Hesse … Wikipedia
Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel — Maurice Landgrave of Hesse Kassel Portrait of Maurice of Hesse Kassel from the work Theatrum Europaeum (1662). Spouse(s) Agnes of Solms L … Wikipedia
Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel — Marie Louise of Hesse Kassel Princess consort of Orange A portrait of Marie Louise, c. 1710. Painted by Louis Volders. Spouse John William Friso, Prince of Orange Issue Amalia, Hereditary Princess of Baden Durlach … Wikipedia
Charles I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel — Charles I Landgrave of Hesse Kassel Spouse Maria Amalia of Courland Issue Wilhelm Karl Frederick I of Sweden Christian … Wikipedia