List of Polish monarchs


List of Polish monarchs
History of Poland
Coat of Arms of Poland
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List of Polish monarchs
Prehistory and protohistory
Stone Age
Bronze and Iron Age
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Early Middle Ages
Kingdom of the Piasts (966–1385)
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Early Modern
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The Deluge and Decline (1648–1764)
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Poland, or at least its nucleus, was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th-14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century). The longest-reigning dynasties were the Piasts (ca. 960 – 1370) and Jagiellons (1386–1572). Intervening and subsequent monarchs were often rulers of foreign countries or princes recruited from foreign dynasties.

During the latter period a tradition of free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electable position in Europe (16th-18th centuries). Polish independence ended with the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1795) and was restored at the end of World War I (1918) on a republican basis.

Contents

Legendary rulers

Ruler Tribe Reign Notes
Lech Lech 111.PNG Lechites 6th century a legendary founder of the Polish nation
Krakus Krak Lechites 8th century a legendary founder of Cracow
Wanda Chronica Polonorum Vanda.jpg Lechites 8th century a legendary daughter of Krakus and unknown Vandal woman
Abraham Prochownik Khazars 9th century a legendary Jew, nominated prince of Polans, after the death of prince Popiel in 842

Semi-legendary rulers of western Polans (Greater Poland)

Ruler Dynasty Reign Notes
Popiel PopielBis1581.jpg Popielids Duke the 9th century a semi-legendary ruler of the West Slavic ("proto-Polish") tribe of Goplans and Polans
Siemowit Siemowit.PNG Piast Duke the 9th century semi-legendary
son of Piast the Wheelwright
Lestek Lestek.PNG Piast Duke the 9th-10th century semi-legendary
son of Siemowit
Siemomysł Siemomysł.PNG Piast Duke the 10th century semi-legendary
son of Lestko

Monarchs of Poland

Ruler Dynasty Reign Notes
Mieszko I of Poland MieszkoDagome.jpg Piast Duke 960?–992 son of Siemomysł
first Christian monarch
Misico, dux Wandalorum
Boleslas I the Brave (Bolesław I Chrobry) Chrobry1.jpg Piast Duke 992–1025
King 1025
son of Mieszko I and Dobrawa of Bohemia
first to be crowned King
Regnum Sclavorum, Gothorum sive Polonorum
Mieszko II Lambert Mieszko II.jpg Piast King 1025–1031 son of Boleslas I and Emnilda of Lusatia
Bezprym Bezprym.jpeg Piast Duke 1031–1032 son of Boleslas I and Judith of Hungary (disputed)
Otto Bolesławowic Piast Duke 1032 son of Boleslas I and Emnilda
Dytryk
(Thiedric)
Piast Duke 1032 grandson of Mieszko I and Oda of Haldensleben
Mieszko II Lambert Mieszko II.jpg Piast Duke 1032–1034 restored
Bolesław the Forgotten
(Bolesław Zapomniany)
Piast Duke 1034-1039 son of Mieszko II and Richeza of Lotharingia
Casimir I the Restorer
(Kazimierz I Odnowiciel)
Odnowiciel.jpg Piast Duke 1039–1058 son of Mieszko II and Richeza of Lotharingia
Boleslas II the Bold
(Bolesław II Szczodry)
Bolesław II Śmiały 1234.PNG Piast Duke 1058–1076
King 1076–1079
son of Casimir I and Maria Dobroniega of Kiev
Ladislas I Herman
(Władysław I Herman)
Jan Matejko, Władysław I Herman.jpg Piast Duke 1079–1102 son of Casimir I and Maria Dobroniega
Vratislaus II of Bohemia
(Wratysław II Czeski) (disputed)
Vratislav II.PNG Přemyslid King of Bohemia and Poland 1085–1092 the royal title was a grant from Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Zbigniew Zbigniew.JPG Piast Duke 1098–1107 son of Ladislas I and Przecława, Prawdzic coat of arms (disputed)
first jointly with Ladislas I 1098-1102
Boleslas III Wrymouth
(Bolesław III Krzywousty)
Boleslav III of Poland.jpg Piast Duke 1107–1138 son of Ladislas I and Judith of Bohemia
first jointly with Ladislas 1098-1102
introduced senioral principle
Ladislas II the Exile
(Władysław II Wygnaniec)
Jan Matejko, Władysław II Wygnaniec.jpg Piast High Duke 1138–1146 son of Boleslas III and Zbyslava of Kiev
also Duke of Silesia
exiled by his brothers
Boleslas IV the Curly
(Bolesław IV Kędzierzawy)
Jan Matejko, Bolesław IV Kędzierzawy.jpg Piast High Duke 1146–1173 son of Boleslas III and Salomea of Berg
also Duke of Masovia
Mieszko III the Old
(Mieszko III Stary)
Mieszko stary.jpg Piast High Duke 1173–1177 son of Boleslas III and Salomea
also Duke of Greater Poland
Casimir II the Just
(Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy)
Kazimierz 2 Sprawiedliwy.jpg Piast High Duke 1177–1190 son of Boleslas III and Salomea
also Duke of Wiślica and Sandomierz
Mieszko III the Old
(Mieszko III Stary)
Mieszko stary.jpg Piast High Duke 1190 restored
Casimir II the Just
(Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy)
Kazimierz 2 Sprawiedliwy.jpg Piast High Duke 1190–1194 restored
Leszek I the White
(Leszek I Biały)
Jan Matejko, Leszek Biały.jpg Piast High Duke 1194–1198 son of Casimir II and Helen of Znojmo
also Duke of Sandomierz
Mieszko III the Old
(Mieszko III Stary)
Mieszko stary.jpg Piast High Duke 1198–1199 restored
Leszek I the White
(Leszek I Biały)
Jan Matejko, Leszek Biały.jpg Piast High Duke 1199 restored
Mieszko III the Old
(Mieszko III Stary)
Mieszko stary.jpg Piast High Duke 1199-1202 restored
Ladislas III Spindleshanks
(Władysław III Laskonogi)
Jan Matejko, Władysław Laskonogi.jpg Piast High Duke 1202 son of Mieszko III and Eudoxia of Kiev
also Duke of Greater Poland
Leszek I the White
(Leszek I Biały)
Jan Matejko, Leszek Biały.jpg Piast High Duke 1202–1210 restored
Mieszko IV Tanglefoot
(Mieszko IV Plątonogi)
Mieszko IV.JPG Piast High Duke 1210–1211 son of Ladislas II and Agnes of Babenberg
also Duke of Silesia
Leszek I the White
(Leszek I Biały)
Jan Matejko, Leszek Biały.jpg Piast High Duke 1211–1225 restored
Henry I the Bearded
(Henryk I Brodaty)
Jan Matejko, Henryk I Brodaty.jpg Piast High Duke 1225 grandson of Ladislas II, son of Bolesław I the Tall and Krystyna
also Duke of Silesia
Leszek I the White
(Leszek I Biały)
Jan Matejko, Leszek Biały.jpg Piast High Duke 1225–1227 restored
assassinated
Ladislas III Spindleshanks
(Władysław III Laskonogi)
Jan Matejko, Władysław Laskonogi.jpg Piast High Duke 1227–1229 restored
Conrad I of Masovia
(Konrad Mazowiecki)
Mazowiecki.jpg Piast High Duke 1229–1232 son of Casimir II and Helen of Znojmo
also Duke of Masovia
Henry I the Bearded
(Henryk I Brodaty)
Jan Matejko, Henryk I Brodaty.jpg Piast High Duke 1232–1238 restored
Henry II the Pious
(Henryk II Pobożny)
Henryk II Pobożny tomb effigy.PNG Piast High Duke 1238–1241 son of Henry I and Saint Hedwig of Andechs (Saint Hedwig of Silesia)
also Duke of Wroclaw and Greater Poland
fell at Battle of Legnica
Boleslas V the Bald
(Bolesław V Rogatka)
BolesławRogatka.JPG Piast High Duke 1241 son of Henry II and Anne of Bohemia
also Duke of Silesia
Conrad I of Masovia
(Konrad Mazowiecki)
Mazowiecki.jpg Piast High Duke 1241–1243 restored
Boleslas VI the Chaste
(Bolesław VI Wstydliwy)
Jan Matejko, Bolesław Wstydliwy.jpg Piast High Duke 1243–1279 son of Leszek the White and Grzymislawa of Luck
Leszek II the Black
(Leszek II Czarny)
Jan Matejko, Leszek Czarny.jpg Piast High Duke 1279–1288 paternal grandson of CI
maternal grandson of Henry II
son of Casimir I of Kuyavia and Constance of Wrocław
Boleslas VII
(Bolesław VII Siemowitowicz)
Bolesław II.jpg Piast High Duke 1288 grandson of Conrad of Masovia
Duke of Masovia
Henry III Probus
(Henryk III Prawy)
Henryk probus.jpg Piast High Duke 1288–1289 paternal grandson of Henry II
maternal grandson of Konrad I
son of Henry III the White and Judyta of Masovia
Duke of Lower Silesia
Boleslas VII
(Bolesław VII Siemowitowicz)
Bolesław II.jpg Piast High Duke 1289 restored
Ladislas IV/I the Elbow-high
(Władysław I Łokietek)
Wladyslaw Lokietek.jpg Piast High Duke 1289 grandson of Konrad I of Masovia
son of Casimir I of Kuyavia and Euphrosyne of Opole
Henry III Probus
(Henryk III Prawy)
Henryk probus.jpg Piast High Duke 1289–1290 restored
Przemysł II
(Premyslas II)
Jan Matejko, Przemysł II.jpg Piast High Duke 1290–1291
King 1295–1296
grandson of Henry II
son of Przemysł I and Elisabeth of Wrocław
also Duke of Poznań, Greater Poland and Pomerania
Wenceslaus II of Bohemia
(Wacław II Czeski)
Codex Manesse Wenzel II. von Böhmen.jpg Přemyslid High Duke 1291–1300
King 1300–1305
son of Ottokar II of Bohemia and Kunigunda of Slavonia
married Premyslas II's daughter Elisabeth Richeza of Poland
also King of Bohemia
Wenceslaus III of Bohemia
(Wacław III Czeski)
Wenzel3.jpg Přemyslid King 1305–1306 son of Wenceslaus II and Judith of Habsburg
uncrowned
assassinated
Rudolph I of Bohemia
(Rudolf Austriacki)
Rudolph III Habsburg.jpg Habsburg Titular King of Poland
1306–1307
Duke of Austria and Styria (as Rudolph III)
Henry of Bohemia
(Henryk Karyncki)
JindrichKorutansky pecet1303.jpg Meinhardin Titular King of Poland
1307–1310
Count of Tyrol and Duke of Carinthia and Carniola (as Henry VI)
John of Bohemia
(Jan Luksemburski)
John of Luxemburg.PNG Luxembourg Titular King of Poland
1310–1335
Count of Luxembourg (as John the Blind)
Ladislas IV/I the Elbow-high
(Władysław I Łokietek)
Wladyslaw Lokietek.jpg Piast High Duke 1306–1320
King 1320–1333
restored
re-united the Kingdom of Poland
Casimir III The Great
(Kazimierz III Wielki)
Kazimierz III sarcophagus figure.jpg Piast King 1333–1370 son of Ladislas IV/I and Hedwig of Kalisz
regarded as one of the greatest Polish monarchs
Louis I of Hungary
(Ludwik Węgierski)
Budapest Heroes square Nágy Lájos.jpg Anjou King 1370–1382 son of Charles I of Hungary and Elisabeth of Poland
nephew of Casimir III
elected King and crowned on 17 November
also King of Hungary
Jadwiga of Poland
(Jadwiga Andegaweńska)
Jadwiga Jan Matejko (Poczet).jpg Anjou King 1384–1399 daughter of Louis I and Elisabeth of Bosnia
crowned at 1384
reigned jointly with her husband
Ladislas II since 1386

Kings of Poland and Grand Dukes of Lithuania

Jagiellon Dynasty

Ruler Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Władysław II Jagiełło
(Ladislas II, Jogaila)
Jogaila (Władysław II).jpg Jagiellon 4 March 1386 1 June 1434 son of Algirdas of Lithuania and Uliana of Tver
Grand Duke of Lithuania 1377-1434
reigned jointly with his wife Jadwiga until 1399
the longest reigning king of Poland
Władysław III Warneńczyk
(Ladislas III, Vladislovas III)
Warnenczyk grob CP.jpg Jagiellon 25 July 1434 10 November 1444 son of Ladislas II and Sophia of Halshany
also king of Hungary (as Ulászló I)
fell at Varna, therefore surnamed "of Varna"
Kazimierz IV
(Casimir IV, Kazimieras Jogailaitis)
Giovanni da Capistrano and Polish King Casimir IV Jagiellon.PNG Jagiellon 25 June 1447 7 June 1492 son of Ladislas II and Sophia of Halshany
also Grand Duke of Lithuania 1440-1492
Jan I Olbracht
(John I Albert, Jonas Albrechtas)
Jan olbracht.jpg Jagiellon 23 September 1492 16 June 1501 son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria
Aleksander
(Alexander, Aleksandras)
Aleksa.jpg Jagiellon 12 December 1501 19 August 1506 son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria
also Grand Duke of Lithuania 1492-1506
Zygmunt I the Old
(Sigismund I, Žygimantas Senasis)
Zygmunt Stary.jpeg Jagiellon 8 December 1506 1 April 1548 son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria
also Grand Duke of Lithuania
forced Prussian Homage in 1525
annexed Duchy of Masovia in 1526
entered alliance with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Zygmunt II August I
(Sigismund II August I, Žygimantas Augustas)
Sigismund II Augustus.PNG Jagiellon 1 April 1548 7 July 1572 son of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza
also Grand Duke of Lithuania
replaced the personal union of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) in 1569

Kings of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Ruler Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Henryk Walezy
(Henry III)
Anjou 1570louvre.jpg Valois 21 February 1574 12 May 1575 son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici
abandoned the Polish-Lithuanian throne three months after his coronation in order to become King of France
Maksymilian II
(Maximilian I)
Nicolas Neufchâtel 002.jpg Habsburg 1575 1575 King of Bohemia, Germany, Hungary and Croatia, Archduke of Austria, Holy Roman Emperor
election contested after four days
Anna Martin Kober 002.jpg Jagiellon King 15 December 1575 12 December 1586 daughter of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza
reigned together with her husband Stephen Báthory
Stefan I Batory
(Stephen I Báthory)
King Stefan Batory.jpg Báthory 15 December 1575 12 December 1586 son of Stephen VIII Báthory and Catherine Telegdi
Prince of Transylvania
reigned together with his wife Anna
regarded as one of the greatest kings of Poland
Maksymilian III
(Maximilian II)
Justus Sustermans 012.jpg Habsburg 1587 1587 son of Maximilian II and Maria of Spain
Archduke of Austria
defeated by Zygmunt Vasa
Zygmunt III
(Sigismund III )
Martin Kober 001.jpg Vasa 18 September 1587 19 April 1632 grandson of Sigismund I
son of John III of Sweden and Catherine Jagellon
also King of Sweden 1592-1599, titular King 1599-1632
Władysław IV
(Ladislas IV)
Frans Luycx 006.jpg Vasa 8 November 1632 20 May 1648 son of Sigismund III and Anne of Austria
Titular Tsar of Russia 1610-1634, titular King of Sweden 1632-1648
Jan II Kazimierz
(John II Casimir)
Jankazimierz.jpg Vasa 20 November 1648 16 September 1668 son of Sigismund III and Constance of Austria
Titular King of Sweden 1648-1660
abdicated
Michał Korybut
(Michael I)
Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki.PNG Wiśniowiecki 19 June 1669 10 November 1673 son of a successful but controversial military commander, Jeremi Wiśniowiecki, and Gryzelda Konstancja Zamoyska
Jan III
(John III)
SiemiginowskiJerzy.1693.PortretJanaIIISobieskiego.jpg Sobieski 21 May 1674 17 June 1696 son of Jakub Sobieski and Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz
most famous for his brilliant victory over the Turks at the Battle of Vienna in 1683
Franciszek Ludwik Burbon-Conti
(François Louis, Prince of Conti)
Conti.jpg Bourbon 27 June 1697 ca. 20 July 1697 (withdrew) son of Armand de Bourbon-Conti and Anne Marie Martinozzi
elected king, obliged to return to France from Gdansk without the crown
August II Mocny
(Augustus II the Strong)
Friedrich August der Starke von Polen.jpg Wettin 15 September 1697 16 February 1704 (deposed)
24 September 1706 (abdicates)
son of John George III and Anna Sophie of Denmark
Elector of Saxony as Frederick Augustus I, 1694–1733
Stanisław I
(Stanislas I)
Stanislaw Leszczynski1.jpg Leszczyński 4 October 1705 8 August 1709 son of Rafał Leszczyński and Anna Jabłonowska
yielded to Augustus II
August II Mocny
(Augustus II the Strong)
Friedrich August der Starke von Polen.jpg Wettin 8 August 1709 1 February 1733 restored
Stanisław I
(Stanislas I)
Stanislaw Leszczynski1.jpg Leszczyński 12 September 1733 30 June 1734 (deposed)
27 January 1736 (abdicates)
restored
defeated in War of the Polish Succession
became Duke of Lorraine until his death
August III Sas
(Augustus III)
King Augustus III of Poland.jpg Wettin 17 January 1734 (in opposition)
30 June 1734 (effectively)
5 October 1763 son of Augustus II and Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
Stanisław II August
(Stanislas II August)
Stanislaus II Augustus of Poland.PNG Poniatowski 25 November 1764 7 January 1795 son of Stanisław Poniatowski and Konstancja Czartoryska
forced to abdicate when the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (the Polish Republic since May 3, 1791) ceased to exist

Claim made by foreign states after Partitions of Poland

Tsars of the Tsardom of Poland

Ruler Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Alexander I Alexander I of Russia.PNG Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 9 June 1815 1 December 1825 The Kingdom of Poland created at the Congress of Vienna and therefore dubbed "Congress Poland".
Nicholas I Tsar Nicholas I -3.jpg Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1 December 1825 2 March 1855 deposed by the Polish Parliament (Sejm) on 25 January 1831 during November Uprising (1830–1831), autonomy abolished in 1832.
Alexander II Makovsky Alexander II of Russia.jpg Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 2 March 1855 13 March 1881 "Congress Poland" annexed into the Russian Empire after January Uprising (1863–1864), and the name of the kingdom was changed to Vistula Land (1867–1915)
Alexander III Kramskoy Alexander III.jpg Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 13 March 1881 1 November 1894
Nicholas II Nicholas II of Russia painted by Earnest Lipgart.jpg Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1 November 1894 15 March 1917 during World War I "Congress Poland" was looted and abandoned by the retreating Russian army in 1915; abdicated in 1917

Kings and Queens of Galicia and Lodomeria (Galicja)

Ruler English Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Maria Teresa Maria Theresa Habsburg 22 September 1772 29 November 1780 the area annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy in the First Partition of Poland (the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth); Empress Maria Theresa of Austria (who was also Queen of Hungary, Queen of Bohemia, etc.) recalled the old Hungarian claims to the Regnum Galiciæ et Lodomeriæ, and Czech claims to the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator
Józef II Joseph II Habsburg-Lorraine 29 November 1780 20 February 1790
Leopold II Leopold II Habsburg-Lorraine 20 February 1790 1 March 1792
Franciszek II Francis II Habsburg-Lorraine 1 March 1792 2 March 1835
Ferdynand I Ferdinand I Habsburg-Lorraine 2 March 1835 2 December 1848 after the unsuccessful Cracow Uprising of 1846, the Free City of Cracow was annexed by Austria on 16 November 1846 as the Grand Duchy of Cracow; the full official name of the province was extended to Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, and the Grand Duchy of Cracow with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator
Franciszek Józef I Francis Joseph I Habsburg-Lorraine 2 December 1848 21 November 1916 after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, and the reorganization of the Empire as the Dual Monarchy, a broad autonomy was granted to Galicia and Lodomeria within Cisleithania, the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary
Karol I Charles I Habsburg-Lorraine 21 November 1916 11 November 1918 renounced all participation in affairs of state but did not abdicate

Dukes of Warsaw (Warszawa)

Ruler English Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Fryderyk August Frederick August I Wettin 9 July 1807 14 March 1813 grandson of Augustus III
King of Saxony 1805–1827
Duchy of Warsaw established by Napoleon I in 1807 as a protectorate of the French Empire, dissolved at the Congress of Vienna and divided into the Kingdom of Poland, protectorate of the Russian Empire, and the Grand Duchy of Posen, protectorate of the Kingdom of Prussia

Grand Dukes of Posen (Poznań)

Ruler English Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Fryderyk Wilhelm III Frederick William III Hohenzollern 9 June 1815 7 June 1840 The Grand Duchy of Posen created at the Congress of Vienna; represented by Duke-Governor Antoni Radziwiłł until 1831.
Fryderyk Wilhelm IV Frederick William IV Hohenzollern 7 June 1840 2 January 1861 autonomy abolished on June 28, 1848; the Grand Duchy was formally replaced by the Province of Posen in the Prussian constitution of 5 December 1848.
Wilhelm I William I Hohenzollern 2 January 1861 9 March 1888 The Province of Posen, within the Kingdom of Prussia, became a part of the German Empire (1871–1918)
Fryderyk III Frederick III Hohenzollern 9 March 1888 15 June 1888
Wilhelm II William II Hohenzollern 15 June 1888 9 November 1918 abdicated in 1918

See also

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