- Charles August, Crown Prince of Sweden
Charles August Crown Prince of Sweden Charles August as Crown Prince of Sweden Reign 7 January 1810 – 28 May 1810 Predecessor Crown Prince Gustav of Sweden
(vacant since 1809)
Successor Crown Prince Charles John
(vacant until late 1810)
Spouse none House House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg Father Friedrich Christian I, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg Mother Charlotte of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön Born 9 July 1768
Augustenborg Palace, Augustenborg, Denmark
Died 28 May 1810(aged 41)
Burial Riddarholmen Church, Stockholm
Charles August (9 July 1768 – 28 May 1810) was a German prince. He is best known for serving as Crown Prince of Sweden briefly in 1810, adopted by Charles XIII, before his sudden death from stroke. Earlier, he had been a general in the Royal Danish Army as well as the Danish Governor-general of Norway. His name before assuming the Swedish title in 1810 was Christian August of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenborg; Christian August of Augustenborg for short.
He was born at Augustenborg Palace in July 1768 as the son of Friedrich Christian I, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (1721–1794) and Princess Charlotte of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön (1744–1770). He was a younger brother of Frederik Christian II, Duke of Augustenborg, brother-in-law of Princess Louise Auguste of Denmark and an uncle of Caroline Amalie of Augustenburg, Queen consort of Denmark and Christian August, Duke of Augustenborg. He did not marry.
Career in Denmark and Norway
Christian August studied in Leipzig, and returned from there to Denmark in 1785. He was appointed Lieutenant Colonel, and was promoted to Colonel in 1787 and Major General in 1790. From 1797 he was stationed in Austria, joining the fight against Napoleon. He left Austria when the Treaty of Lunéville ended the War of the Second Coalition in 1801. In 1803 Christian August was named commander of Fredriksten Fortress in Norway, assuming the position in 1804.
In 1807 he once again became involved in the Napoleonic Wars, this time on the side of Napoleon as Napoleon's enemy Great Britain assaulted Denmark. The Danish-Norwegian part of the Napoleonic Wars is called the Gunboat War. Sweden joined forces against Denmark-Norway in 1808. Christian August was a central figure in the war, and led forces to victories in the Battle of Prestebakke and the Battle of Toverud, ousting Swedish forces from Norway. In 1808 Christian August was promoted to Field Marshal, and in 1809 he became Governor-general of Norway.
On 6 June 1809 the Duke-regent of Sweden was proclaimed King, after Gustav IV Adolf was deposed. The new king Charles XIII accepted the new, liberal Constitution, which was ratified by the Riksdag of the Estates the same day. The new king was in no way likely to interfere with the liberal revolution which had placed him on the throne. Peace was what the exhausted nation now required.
Charles XIII was childless, so in order to secure the succession to the throne, someone had to be he adopted as his heir. Georg Adlersparre, the main orchestrator of the 1809 coup, preferred Frederick VI of Denmark as the new Swedish monarch, but when Frederick refused, Adlersparre looked to Norway. He tried to persuade Christian August, first through the Swedish Baron C. H. Anckarsvärd, and although Christian August did not show up to meet Anckarsvärd personally, he gradually accepted the offer of adoption. His loyalty to his ruler Frederick VI ultimately became a lesser obstacle. The choice of Christian August was supported by Charles XIII as well as three of the estates of the realm; the Clergy, Burghers and Peasants. However, the Nobility was more reluctant due to the influence of so-called Gustavians (Gustavianerna), supporting the deposed King Gustav IV Adolf and his then-underage son. The decision to adopt Charles August became definitive on 15 July 1809. His great popularity in Norway was considered an advantage to the Swedish plans for the acquisition of that country. In addition, he had demonstrated his interest in a rapprochement between the two countries by refraining from invading Sweden during the Finnish War with Russia.
After the Treaty of Fredrikshamn between Sweden and Russia on 17 September 1809 which concluded the Finnish War, Sweden was ready for the inauguration of Charles August. He finally left Norway for Sweden on 7 January 1810. As Crown Prince of Sweden, he changed his name to Charles August (Swedish: Carl August). Honors were lavished upon him on his arrival, he was for example made an honorary member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on April 18, 1810, and was the first person to enjoy this status in that academy. However, he did not live long enough to make a historical impact in Sweden. He suddenly died on 28 May 1810, when he fell off his horse during a military practice in Kvidinge. His autopsy confirmed that he had died of a stroke, but at the same time rumours went that he had been poisoned by Gustavians. Specifically, the Marshal Count Axel von Fersen was openly accused of having killed Charles August, and was lynched on 20 June 1810 during the funeral procession of Charles August. Charles August was buried in Riddarholmen Church, the burial church of Swedish monarchs.
Legacy and aftermath
A monument to Charles August was commissioned by Prince Frederik of Hesse and erected in 1810 in the royal park at Bygdøy near Oslo. Before his departure from Oslo, a grand farewell party was held in his honour, and a group of wealthy citizens formed the charitable foundation Prinds Christian Augusts Minde. It acquired a large town house which still bears his name. A street in Oslo, Kristian Augusts gate, was named after him in 1852.
Charles August's successor as adopted Crown Prince, who was accepted by the Riksdag of the Estates in August, was Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte.
Ancestors of Charles August, Crown Prince of Sweden 16. Ernest Günther, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg 8. Prince Frederick William of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenborg 17. Auguste of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg 4. Christian August I, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenborg 18. Friedrich, Count of Ahlefeldt-Rixingen zu Langeland 9. Countess Sofie Amalie of Ahlefeld-Langeland 19. Countess Marie Elisabeth Leiningen-Dagsburg 2. Frederik Christian I, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenborg 20. Christian V of Denmark 10. Christian Gyldenløve, Count of Samsø 21. Sofie Amalie Moth 5. Countess Friederike Louise of Danneskiold-Samsøe 22. Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, Count of Laurvig 11. Countess Charlotte Amalie of Danneskjold-Laurvig 23. Countess Antoinette Augusta of Aldenburg 1. Charles August, Crown Prince of Sweden 24. August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg 12. Prince Christian Charles of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön 25. Princess Elisabeth Charlotte of Anhalt-Bernburg-Harzgerode 6. Frederick Charles, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön 26. Johann Franz von Aichelburg 13. Dorothea Christine von Aichelburg 27. Anne Sophie von Trautenburg 3. Princess Charlotte of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön 28. Conrad, Count Reventlow 14. Christian Detlev, Count Reventlow 7. Countess Christiane Armgardis of Reventlow 15. Benedikte Margarethe Brockdorff Princes of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg 1st GenerationFrederick • Prince Philipp Ernest • Ernest August • Prince Frederick William 2nd GenerationChristian I • Prince Frederick Charles 3rd GenerationFrederick Christian I • Prince Emil August • Prince Christian Ulrich 4th GenerationFrederick Christian II • Prince Frederick Charles Emil • Charles August, Crown Prince of Sweden • Prince Charles William 5th GenerationChristian II • Prince Frederick • Frederick, Prince of Noer • Prince George Eric • Prince August Constantine • Prince Julius Alexander • Prince Valdemar 6th Generation 7th Generation * also a prince of Schleswig-Holstein
** only a prince of Schleswig-Holstein in the UK
Swedish princes The generations indicate descent from Gustav I, of the House of Vasa, and continues through the Houses of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, Holstein-Gottorp; and the Bernadotte, the adoptive heirs of the House of Holstein-Gottorp, who were adoptive heirs of the Palatinate-Zweibrückens'. 1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generationWładysław IV Vasa, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania# · Prince Christopher# · Prince John Casimir# · John II Casimir Vasa, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania# · Prince Alexander Charles# · John Albert, Prince-Bishop of Warmia and Kraków# · Prince Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Opole# 4th generationPrince Sigismund Casimir# · Prince John Sigismund# · Charles XI 5th generation 6th generationAdolf Frederick* 7th generation 8th generation 9th generation 10th generation 11th generation 12th generation 13th generation 14th generation 15th generation *prince through adoption or election
**also prince of Norway
^lost his title due to an unequal marriage
#also prince of Poland and Lithuania
~also prince by marriage
Governors-general of Norway appointed by the Danish crown• 1572 - 1577 Pouel Ottesen Huitfeldt • 1577 - 1583 Ludvig Ludvigsson Munk til Norlund • 1583 - 1588 Ove Juel • 1588 - 1601 Aksel Gyldenstjerne • 1601 - 1608 Jørgen Friis • 1608 - 1618 Enevold Kruse • 1618 - 1629 Jens Hermansson Juel • 1629 - 1642 Christopher Knudsson Urne • 1642 - 1651 Hannibal Sehested • 1651 - 1655 Gregers Krabbe • 1656 - 1661 Nils Trolle • 1661 - 1664 Iver Tageson Krabbe • 1664 - 1699 Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, Count of Laurvig • 1669 - 1675 Ove Juel (Vice Governor) • 1675 - 1682 Jens Juel (Vice Governor) • 1682 - 1694 Just Högh til Fultofte (Vice Governor) • 1699 - 1708 Frederik Gabel • 1708 - 1710 Johan Vibe • 1710 - 1712 Ulrik Frederik Valdemar, baron Løvendal • 1712 - 1713 Claus Henrik Vieregg • 1713 - 1722 Frederik Krag • 1722 - 1731 Ditlev Vibe • 1731 - 1733 Patroclus Rømeling • 1733 - 1739 Christian greve Rantzau • 1739 -1750 Hans Jakob Arnold (acting) • 1750 - 1771 Jacob von Benzon • 1766 - 1768 Landgrave Charles of Hesse-Kassel • 1771 - 1809 Vacant • 1809 -1810 Christian von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg- Augustenburg • 1810 -1813 Friedrich Landgraf zu Hessen-Kassel • 1813 - 1814 Christian Frederik af Danmark •
- ^ Burke's Royal Families of the World I ISBN: 0 85011 023 9 p. 278
- ^ Christian August, Prins af Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Augustenborg (Dansk biografisk Lexikon)
- ^ a b c d e f g Mykland, Knut. "Christian August". In Helle, Knut (in Norwegian). Norsk biografisk leksikon. Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. http://www.snl.no/.nbl_biografi/Christian_August/utdypning. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- ^ Karl 2 – utdypning (Store norske leksikon)
- ^ The Union's Last War: The Russian-Swedish War of 1808-09 (The Napoleon Series)
- Blomberg, Wenche (2006) Prinds Christian Augusts Minde - historie og visjoner om de fattiges kvartal Norwegian
- Sandström, Allan (1994) Sveriges sista krig - de dramatiska åren 1808-1809 (Bokförlaget Libris, Örebro) Swedish
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Gustavus, Crown Prince of Sweden — Crown Prince Gustav of Sweden (November 9, 1799 at Stockholm – August 5, 1877 at Pillnitz), later Gustaf Gustafsson von Holstein Gottorp, Prince of Vasa) was the son of Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden and Frederica of Baden. When he was ten years old,… … Wikipedia
Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden — Victoria Crown Princess of Sweden Duchess of Västergötland The Duke and Duchess of Västergötland after their wedding in June 2010 Spouse … Wikipedia
Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark — Frederik Crown Prince of Denmark The Crown Prince at the wedding of Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden on 19 June 2010 Spouse … Wikipedia
Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway — Haakon Crown Prince of Norway The Crown Prince at the World Economic Forum, 28 January 2010 Sp … Wikipedia
Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece — Pavlos Crown Prince of Greece (more) Spouse Marie Chantal Miller Issue Princess Maria Olympia Prince Constantine Alexios Prince Achileas Andreas Prince Odysseas Kimon Prince Aristidis Stavros House House of Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Glü … Wikipedia
Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia — Alexander Александар Crown Prince of Yugoslavia The Crown Prince at the celebrations of the wedding of Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden, and Daniel Westling, 18 June 2010 … Wikipedia
Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein — For other princes named Christian, see Prince Christian (disambiguation). Prince Christian Prince Christian of Schleswig Holstein Spouse Princess Helena of the United Kingdom Issue … Wikipedia
Sweden — /sweed n/, n. a kingdom in N Europe, in the E part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. 8,946,193; 173,732 sq. mi. (449,964 sq. km). Cap.: Stockholm. Swedish, Sverige. * * * Sweden Introduction Sweden Background: A military power during the 17th… … Universalium
Charles XIV John — Swedish Karl Johan orig. Jean Baptiste Bernadotte born Jan. 26, 1763, Pau, France died March 8, 1844, Stockholm, Swed. King of Sweden and Norway (1818–44). He became an ardent supporter of the French Revolution and rose rapidly in the army ranks… … Universalium
Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland — For the 17th century Carl Philip, see Duke Carl Philip. For other Swedish Princes with the name Carl, see Prince Carl of Sweden. Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland (Carl Philip Edmund Bertil; born 13 May 1979) is the second child of three… … Wikipedia