Adolf Frederick of Sweden

Adolf Frederick of Sweden

Infobox Swedish Royalty|monarch
name = Adolf Frederick
title = King of Sweden

caption = Adolf Frederick of Sweden, painted by Lorens Pasch the Younger
reign = 26 March 175112 February 1771
coronation = 26 November 1751
otitles =
full name =
predecessor = Frederick I
successor = Gustav III
spouse = Louisa Ulrika of Prussia
issue = Gustav III Charles XIII Prince Frederick Adolf Princess Sophia Albertina
royal house = House of Holstein-Gottorp
royal motto = "Statens välfärd min välfärd" ("The welfare of the state – my welfare")
father = Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin
mother = Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach
date of birth = 14 May 1710
place of birth = Gottorp, Schleswig, Duchy of Schleswig
date of death = Death date and age|1771|2|12|1710|5|14|df=yes
place of death = Stockholm Palace, Stockholm, Sweden
date of burial = 26 February 1719
place of burial = Riddarholmen Church, Stockholm

Adolf Frederick ( _sv. Adolf Fredrik) (14 May 171012 February 1771) was King of Sweden from 1751 until his death. He was the son of Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin and Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach.


His father was Christian Augustus (1673—­1726) duke and a younger prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, prince-bishop of Lubeck, and administrator, during the Great Northern War, of the duchies of Holstein-Gottorp for his relative Charles Frederick. His mother was Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach.

On his mother's side, Adolf Frederick descended from king Gustav I of Sweden and from a sister of Charles X of Sweden. From both his parents he was descended from Holstein-Gottorp, a house with a number of medieval Scandinavian royal dynasties among its ancestors. Adolf Frederick was also a 13th-generation descendant of Erik V of Denmark; a 13th-generation descendant of Sophia of Denmark and Valdemar I of Sweden; and an 11th-generation descendant of Euphemia of Sweden, Duchess of Mecklenburg and her husband the duke Albrecht.


From 1727 to 1750 prince Adolf Frederick was prince-bishop of Lübeck (which meant the rulership of a fief around and including Eutin), and administrator of Holstein-Kiel during the minority of his nephew, Duke Charles Peter Ulrich, afterwards Peter III of Russia. In 1743 he was elected heir to the throne of Sweden by the Hat faction in order that they might obtain better conditions of Peace of Turku from Empress Elizabeth of Russia, who had adopted his nephew as her heir.

During his whole reign (1751-1771), Adolf Frederick was little more than a state decoration, the real power being lodged in the hands of an omnipotent riksdag, distracted by fierce party strife. Twice he endeavoured to free himself from the intolerable tutelage of the estates. The first occasion was in 1755 when, stimulated by his imperious consort Louisa Ulrika of Prussia (1720-82), sister of Frederick the Great, he tried to regain a portion of the attenuated prerogative, and nearly lost his throne in consequence. On the second occasion, under the guidance of his eldest son, the crown prince Gustavus, afterwards Gustav III of Sweden, he succeeded in overthrowing the tyrannous "Cap" senate, but was unable to make any use of his victory.

His mother, a widow princess, died in Hamburg on December 22, 1755. She was a descendant of earlier royal dynasties of Sweden, granddaughter of Christina Magdalena of Palatinate, Charles X's sister.


The king died of digestion problems on February 12, 1771 after having consumed a meal consisting of lobster, caviar, sauerkraut, kippers and champagne, which was topped off with 14 servings of his favourite dessert: "semla" served in a bowl of hot milk. [ [ The lowdown on Sweden's best buns] "The Local", February 2007] He is thus remembered by Swedish school children as "the king who ate himself to death." [ [ Semlor are Swedish treat for Lent] Sandy Mickelson, "The Messenger", February 27, 2008]

He was regarded, both during his time and in later times, as dependent on others, a weak ruler and lacking of any talents. But he was allegedly also a good husband, a caring father and a gentle master to his servants. His favourite pastime was to make snuff boxes, which he allegedly spent a great deal of time doing. His personal hospitality and friendliness were witnessed by many who deeply mourned him at his death.

His portrait is included with the 16-sheet series of "Princely Persons on Horseback" by Johann Elias Ridinger.


style=font-size: 90%; line-height: 110%;
boxstyle=padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;
boxstyle_1=background-color: #fcc;
boxstyle_2=background-color: #fb9;
boxstyle_3=background-color: #ffc;
boxstyle_4=background-color: #bfc;
boxstyle_5=background-color: #9fe;
1= 1. Adolf Frederick of Sweden
2= 2. Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin
3= 3. Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach
4= 4. Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
5= 5. Frederikke Amalie of Denmark
6= 6. Frederick VII, Margrave of Baden-Durlach
7= 7. Augusta Marie of Holstein-Gottorp
8= 8. Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
9= 9. Marie Elisabeth of Saxony
10= 10. Frederick III of Denmark
11= 11. Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
12= 12. Frederick VI, Margrave of Baden-Durlach
13= 13. Christina Magdalena of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
14= 14. Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (= 8)
15= 15. Marie Elisabeth of Saxony (= 9)
16= 16. John Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
17= 17. Augusta of Denmark
18= 18. John George I, Elector of Saxony
19= 19. Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia
20= 20. Christian IV of Denmark
21= 21. Anne Catherine of Brandenburg
22= 22. George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
23= 23. Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt
24= 24. Frederick V, Margrave of Baden-Durlach
25= 25. Barbara of Württemberg
26= 26. John Casimir, Count Palatine of Kleeburg
27= 27. Catharina of Sweden
28= 28. John Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (= 16)
29= 29. Augusta of Denmark (= 17)
30= 30. John George I, Elector of Saxony (= 18)
31= 31. Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia (= 19)


By his marriage to Louisa Ulrika (which took place on August 18, 1744), he had the following children:

#(Stillborn) (1745)
#Gustav III (1746-1792)
#Charles XIII (1748-1818)
#Frederick Adolf (1750-1803)
#Sofia Albertina (1753-1829)


* Herman Lindqvist, "Historien om Sverige, Nyttan och Nöjet" (In Swedish)


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Adolf Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz — Infobox Monarch name =Adolf Friedrich II title =Duke of Mecklenburg [ Strelitz] reign =1701 12 May 1708 predecessor =Friedrich Wilhelm successor =Adolf Friedrich III consort =Maria of Mecklenburg Gustrow Johanna of Saxe Gotha Christiane Emilie of …   Wikipedia

  • Adolf Frederick — ▪ king of Sweden German  Adolf Friedrich,  Swedish  Adolf Fredrik  born May 14, 1710, Gottorp, Schleswig died Feb. 12, 1771, Stockholm, Swed.  king of Sweden from 1751 to 1771. He was the son of Christian Augustus (1673–1726), Duke of Schleswig… …   Universalium

  • Adolf — Infobox Given Name Revised name = Adolf imagesize= caption= pronunciation = gender = Male meaning = Noble wolf region = origin = German related names = wiktionary entry = Adolf popularity = Adolf articles = Adolf footnotes = Adolf, also spelled… …   Wikipedia

  • Adolf Fredriks kyrka — ( The Church of Adolf Frederick ) is a church in central Stockholm, Sweden. It was built in 1768 1774, replacing a wooden chapel from 1674, which was dedicated to Saint Olof.Its cemetery is where René Descartes was first buried in 1650, before… …   Wikipedia

  • Sweden — /sweed n/, n. a kingdom in N Europe, in the E part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. 8,946,193; 173,732 sq. mi. (449,964 sq. km). Cap.: Stockholm. Swedish, Sverige. * * * Sweden Introduction Sweden Background: A military power during the 17th… …   Universalium

  • Frederick I of Sweden — Infobox Swedish Royalty|monarch name = Frederick I title = Prince consort of Sweden King of Sweden Landgrave of Hesse Kassel caption = Frederick I reign = 24 March 1720 – 25 March 1751 coronation = 3 May 1720 full name = predecessor = Ulrika… …   Wikipedia

  • Frederick VIII of Denmark — Frederick VIII King of Denmark Reign 29 January 1906 – 14 May 1912 Predecessor Christian IX Successor …   Wikipedia

  • Frederick IX of Denmark — Frederick IX redirects here. For the article about the Margrave of Brandenburg, see Frederick IX, Margrave of Brandenburg. Frederick IX King of Denmark Reign …   Wikipedia

  • Frederick II of Denmark — Frederick II Frederick II in a painting attributed to Melchior Lorck King of Denmark and Norway Reign 1559–1588 Predecessor …   Wikipedia

  • Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp — Frederick III of Holstein Gottorp (22 December 1597 ndash; 10 August 1659) was a Duke of Holstein Gottorp.He was the elder son of Duke Johann Adolf of Holstein Gottorp and Augusta of Denmark. His mother was a daughter of King Frederick II of… …   Wikipedia