Adolf Frederick of Sweden


Adolf Frederick of Sweden

Infobox Swedish Royalty|monarch
name = Adolf Frederick
title = King of Sweden


caption = Adolf Frederick of Sweden, painted by Lorens Pasch the Younger
reign = 26 March 175112 February 1771
coronation = 26 November 1751
otitles =
full name =
predecessor = Frederick I
successor = Gustav III
spouse = Louisa Ulrika of Prussia
issue = Gustav III Charles XIII Prince Frederick Adolf Princess Sophia Albertina
royal house = House of Holstein-Gottorp
royal motto = "Statens välfärd min välfärd" ("The welfare of the state – my welfare")
father = Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin
mother = Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach
date of birth = 14 May 1710
place of birth = Gottorp, Schleswig, Duchy of Schleswig
date of death = Death date and age|1771|2|12|1710|5|14|df=yes
place of death = Stockholm Palace, Stockholm, Sweden
date of burial = 26 February 1719
place of burial = Riddarholmen Church, Stockholm

Adolf Frederick ( _sv. Adolf Fredrik) (14 May 171012 February 1771) was King of Sweden from 1751 until his death. He was the son of Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin and Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach.

Ancestry

His father was Christian Augustus (1673—­1726) duke and a younger prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, prince-bishop of Lubeck, and administrator, during the Great Northern War, of the duchies of Holstein-Gottorp for his relative Charles Frederick. His mother was Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach.

On his mother's side, Adolf Frederick descended from king Gustav I of Sweden and from a sister of Charles X of Sweden. From both his parents he was descended from Holstein-Gottorp, a house with a number of medieval Scandinavian royal dynasties among its ancestors. Adolf Frederick was also a 13th-generation descendant of Erik V of Denmark; a 13th-generation descendant of Sophia of Denmark and Valdemar I of Sweden; and an 11th-generation descendant of Euphemia of Sweden, Duchess of Mecklenburg and her husband the duke Albrecht.

Reign

From 1727 to 1750 prince Adolf Frederick was prince-bishop of Lübeck (which meant the rulership of a fief around and including Eutin), and administrator of Holstein-Kiel during the minority of his nephew, Duke Charles Peter Ulrich, afterwards Peter III of Russia. In 1743 he was elected heir to the throne of Sweden by the Hat faction in order that they might obtain better conditions of Peace of Turku from Empress Elizabeth of Russia, who had adopted his nephew as her heir.

During his whole reign (1751-1771), Adolf Frederick was little more than a state decoration, the real power being lodged in the hands of an omnipotent riksdag, distracted by fierce party strife. Twice he endeavoured to free himself from the intolerable tutelage of the estates. The first occasion was in 1755 when, stimulated by his imperious consort Louisa Ulrika of Prussia (1720-82), sister of Frederick the Great, he tried to regain a portion of the attenuated prerogative, and nearly lost his throne in consequence. On the second occasion, under the guidance of his eldest son, the crown prince Gustavus, afterwards Gustav III of Sweden, he succeeded in overthrowing the tyrannous "Cap" senate, but was unable to make any use of his victory.

His mother, a widow princess, died in Hamburg on December 22, 1755. She was a descendant of earlier royal dynasties of Sweden, granddaughter of Christina Magdalena of Palatinate, Charles X's sister.

Death

The king died of digestion problems on February 12, 1771 after having consumed a meal consisting of lobster, caviar, sauerkraut, kippers and champagne, which was topped off with 14 servings of his favourite dessert: "semla" served in a bowl of hot milk. [ [http://www.thelocal.se/6470/20070220/ The lowdown on Sweden's best buns] "The Local", February 2007] He is thus remembered by Swedish school children as "the king who ate himself to death." [ [http://www.messengernews.net/page/content.detail/id/503630.html?nav=5007 Semlor are Swedish treat for Lent] Sandy Mickelson, "The Messenger", February 27, 2008]

He was regarded, both during his time and in later times, as dependent on others, a weak ruler and lacking of any talents. But he was allegedly also a good husband, a caring father and a gentle master to his servants. His favourite pastime was to make snuff boxes, which he allegedly spent a great deal of time doing. His personal hospitality and friendliness were witnessed by many who deeply mourned him at his death.

His portrait is included with the 16-sheet series of "Princely Persons on Horseback" by Johann Elias Ridinger.

Ancestors


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1= 1. Adolf Frederick of Sweden
2= 2. Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin
3= 3. Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach
4= 4. Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
5= 5. Frederikke Amalie of Denmark
6= 6. Frederick VII, Margrave of Baden-Durlach
7= 7. Augusta Marie of Holstein-Gottorp
8= 8. Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
9= 9. Marie Elisabeth of Saxony
10= 10. Frederick III of Denmark
11= 11. Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
12= 12. Frederick VI, Margrave of Baden-Durlach
13= 13. Christina Magdalena of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
14= 14. Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (= 8)
15= 15. Marie Elisabeth of Saxony (= 9)
16= 16. John Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
17= 17. Augusta of Denmark
18= 18. John George I, Elector of Saxony
19= 19. Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia
20= 20. Christian IV of Denmark
21= 21. Anne Catherine of Brandenburg
22= 22. George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
23= 23. Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt
24= 24. Frederick V, Margrave of Baden-Durlach
25= 25. Barbara of Württemberg
26= 26. John Casimir, Count Palatine of Kleeburg
27= 27. Catharina of Sweden
28= 28. John Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (= 16)
29= 29. Augusta of Denmark (= 17)
30= 30. John George I, Elector of Saxony (= 18)
31= 31. Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia (= 19)

Children

By his marriage to Louisa Ulrika (which took place on August 18, 1744), he had the following children:

#(Stillborn) (1745)
#Gustav III (1746-1792)
#Charles XIII (1748-1818)
#Frederick Adolf (1750-1803)
#Sofia Albertina (1753-1829)

References

*1911
* Herman Lindqvist, "Historien om Sverige, Nyttan och Nöjet" (In Swedish)

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