Charles XV of Sweden


Charles XV of Sweden
Charles XV & IV
King of Sweden and Norway
Charles XV in the 1860s
Reign 8 July 1859 – 18 September 1872
Coronation 3 May 1860 Stockholm, 5 August 1860 Trondheim
Predecessor Oscar I
Successor Oscar II
Spouse Louise of the Netherlands
Issue
Louise, Queen of Denmark
Prince Carl Oscar, Duke of Södermanland
Full name
Carl Ludvig Eugen
Father Oscar I
Mother Josephine of Leuchtenberg
Born 3 May 1826(1826-05-03)
Stockholm
Died 18 September 1872(1872-09-18) (aged 46)
Malmö
Burial Riddarholmskyrkan, Stockholm
Religion Lutheran
Swedish Royalty
House of Bernadotte
Bernadotte coa.svg
Charles XIV John
Children
   Oscar I
Oscar I
Children
   Charles XV
   Gustaf, Duke of Upland
   Oscar II
   Princess Eugenie
   August, Duke of Dalarna
Charles XV
Children
   Lovisa, Queen of Denmark
   Carl Oscar, Duke of Södermanland
Oscar II
Children
   Gustaf V
   Oscar, Duke of Gotland
   Eugén, Duke of Närke
   Carl, Duke of Västergötland
Grandchildren
   Princess Margaretha
   Märtha, Crown Princess of Norway
   Astrid, Queen of Belgium
   Carl, Duke of Östergötland
Gustaf V
Children
   Gustaf VI Adolf
   Vilhelm, Duke of Södermanland
   Erik, Duke of Västmanland
Gustaf VI Adolf
Children
   Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten
   Sigvard, Duke of Uppland
   Ingrid, Queen of Denmark
   Bertil, Duke of Halland
   Carl Johan, Duke of Dalarna
Grandchildren
   Princess Margaretha
   Princess Birgitta
   Princess Désirée
   Princess Christina
   Carl XVI Gustaf
Carl XVI Gustaf
Children
   Crown Princess Victoria
   Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland
   Madeleine, Duchess of Hälsingland and Gästrikland

Charles XV & IV also Carl (Carl Ludvig Eugen); Swedish and Norwegian: Karl (3 May 1826 – 18 September 1872) was King of Sweden (Charles XV) and Norway (Charles IV) from 1859 until his death.

Though known as King Charles XV in Sweden, he was actually the ninth Swedish king by that name, as his predecessor Charles IX (reigned 1604–1611) had adopted a numeral according to a fictitious history of Sweden.[1]

Contents

Biography

He was born in Stockholm Palace, Stockholm, and dubbed Duke of Skåne at birth. He was the eldest son of King Oscar I and Josephine of Leuchtenberg. He was given his first officer's commission in 1841 by his grandfather, Charles XIV John. After his father's accession to the throne in 1844, he was made a chancellor of the universities of Uppsala and Lund, and in 1853 chancellor of Royal Swedish Academy of Arts. On February 11, 1846, he was made an honorary member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

The Crown Prince was Viceroy of Norway briefly in 1856 and 1857. He became Regent on 25 September 1857, and king on the death of his father on 8 July 1859. As grandson of Augusta of Bavaria, he was a descendant of Gustav I of Sweden and Charles IX of Sweden, whose blood returned to the throne after being lost in 1818 when Charles XIII of Sweden died.

On 19 June 1850 he married in Stockholm Louise of the Netherlands, niece of William II of the Netherlands through her father and niece of William I of Prussia, German Emperor, through her mother. The couple were personally quite dissimilar; Princess Louise was in love with her husband, whereas he preferred other women. His well-known mistresses included the countess Josephine Sparre, Wilhelmine Schröder and the actresses Hanna Styrell and Elise Hwasser, the latter the most celebrated actress in Sweden during his reign, and the Crown Prince neglected his shy wife. On the other hand, his relationship to his only daughter, Louise, was warm and close.

As Crown Prince, Charles' brusque manner led many to regard his future accession with some apprehension, yet he proved to be one of the most popular of Scandinavian kings and a constitutional ruler in the best sense of the word. His reign was remarkable for its manifold and far-reaching reforms. Sweden's existing communal law (1862), ecclesiastical law (1863) and criminal law (1864) were enacted appropriately enough under the direction of a king whose motto was: Land skall med lag byggas - "With law shall the land be built". Charles also helped Louis De Geer to carry through his memorable reform of the Parliament of Sweden in 1866. He also declared the freedom of women by passing the law of legal majority for unmarried women in 1858 - his sister Princess Eugenie became the first woman who was declared mature.

Charles was an advocate of Scandinavianism and the political solidarity of the three northern kingdoms, and his friendship with Frederick VII of Denmark, it is said, led him to give half promises of help to Denmark on the eve of the war of 1864, which, in the circumstances, were perhaps misleading and unjustifiable. In view, however, of the unpreparedness of the Swedish army and the difficulties of the situation, Charles was forced to observe a strict neutrality. He died in Malmö on 18 September 1872.

Charles XV attained some eminence as a painter and as a poet. He was followed on both the thrones of Norway and Sweden by his brother Oscar II.

In 1855 he became the 990th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain.

A few weeks before Charles' death, his daughter Louise (then the Crown Princess of Denmark) gave birth to her second son. The young Prince of Denmark became christened as grandfather Charles' namesake. In 1905 this grandson, Prince Carl of Denmark, ascended the throne of Norway, becoming thus his maternal grandfather's successor in that country, and assumed the reign name Haakon VII. The present king, Harald V of Norway, is Charles' great-great-grandson, through his father and mother.

No subsequent king of Sweden to this day is Charles' descendant. However, his descendants are or have been on the thrones of Denmark, Luxembourg, Greece, Belgium and Norway.

Issue

Name Birth Death Notes
Louise Josephine Eugenie 31 October 1851 21 March 1926 married, 1869, Frederick VIII of Denmark; had issue
Carl Oscar Vilhelm Frederik 14 December 1852 13 March 1854 died in infancy
Carl Johan Bolander[2] 4 February 1854 28 July 1903 father of Bishop Nils Bolander; had issue

Ancestry

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Jean Bernadotte
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Jean Henri Bernadotte
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Marie du Pucheu
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Charles XIV John of Sweden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Jean de Saint Vincent
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Jeanne de Saint Vincent
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Marie d'Abbadie de Sireix
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Oscar I of Sweden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Joseph Clary
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. François Clary
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Françoise Agnes Ammoric
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Désirée Clary
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Joseph Ignace Somis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Françoise Rose Somis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Catherine Rose Soucheiron
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Charles XV of Sweden
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. François de Beauharnais, Marquess de La Ferté-Beauharnais
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Alexandre, vicomte de Beauharnais
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Marie Anne Henriette Françoise Pyvart de Chastulle
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Eugène de Beauharnais
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Joseph-Gaspard de Tascher de La Pagerie
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Joséphine de Tascher de La Pagerie
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Rose-Claire des Vergers de Sanois
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Duchess Josephine of Leuchtenberg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Count Palatine Frederick Michael of Zweibrücken
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Countess Palatine Maria Franziska of Sulzbach
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Princess Augusta of Bavaria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Prince Georg Wilhelm of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Princess Augusta Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Countess Marie Luise of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Heidesheim
 
 
 
 
 
 

References

  1. ^ Article Karl in Nordisk familjebok
  2. ^ Carl-Erik Sahlberg in Nils Bolander diktare och predikant ISBN 91-86112-39-2 p. 11

External links

Karl XV/IV
Born: 3 May 1826 Died: 18 September 1872
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Oscar I
King of Sweden and Norway
1859–1872
Succeeded by
Oscar II
Titles of nobility
New title Duke of Skåne
1826–1859
Vacant
Title next held by
Gustav Adolf
Political offices
Preceded by
Severin Løvenskiold
Prime Minister of Norway
1856
Succeeded by
Jørgen Herman Vogt
Preceded by
Jørgen Herman Vogt
Prime Minister of Norway
1857

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