- Imre Nagy
Imre Nagy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Hungary In office
4 July 1953 – 18 April 1955
( 1 year, 288 days)
Preceded by Mátyás Rákosi Succeeded by András Hegedűs In office
24 October 1956 – 4 November 1956
( 0 years, 11 days)
Preceded by András Hegedűs Succeeded by János Kádár Personal details Born 7 June 1896
Died 16 June 1958(aged 62)
Budapest, People's Republic of Hungary
Nationality Hungarian Political party Hungarian Communist Party,
Hungarian Working People's Party
Spouse(s) Mária Égető
Imre Nagy (7 June 1896 – 16 June 1958) was a Hungarian communist politician who was appointed Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Hungary on two occasions. Nagy's second term ended when his non-Soviet-backed government was brought down by Soviet invasion in the failed Hungarian Revolution of 1956, resulting in Nagy's execution on charges of treason two years later.
Early life and career
Nagy (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈnɒɟ]) was born in Kaposvár, to a peasant family and was apprenticed to a locksmith. He enlisted in the Austro-Hungarian Army during World War I and served on the Eastern Front. He was taken prisoner in 1915. He became a member of the Russian Communist Party, and joined the Red Army.
Nagy returned to Hungary in 1921. In 1930 he travelled to the Soviet Union and joined the communist party. He was engaged in agricultural research, and also worked in the Hungarian section of the Comintern. He was expelled from the party in 1936 and later worked for the Soviet Statistical Service. Rumours that he was an agent of the Soviet secret service surfaced later, begun by Hungarian party-leader Károly Grósz in 1989 in an attempt to discredit Nagy. There is evidence, however, that Nagy did serve as an informant for the NKVD during his time in Moscow and provided names to the secret police as a way to prove his loyalty (not an uncommon tactic for foreign communists in the Soviet Union at the time).
After the war Nagy returned to Hungary. He was the Minister of Agriculture in the government of Béla Miklós de Dálnok, delegated by the Hungarian Communist Party. He distributed land among the peasant population. In the next government, led by Tildy, he was the Minister of Interior. At this period he played an active role controlling the expulsion of Germans.
In the Communist government, he served as Minister of Agriculture and in other posts. He was also Speaker of the National Assembly of Hungary 1947–1949.
After two years as Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Hungary (1953–1955), during which he promoted his "New Course" in Socialism, Nagy fell out of favour with the Soviet Politburo. He was deprived of his Hungarian Central Committee, Politburo and all other Party functions and on 18 April 1955, he was sacked as Chairman of the Council of Ministers.
Nagy became Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Hungary again, this time by popular demand, during the anti-Soviet revolution in 1956. Soon he moved toward a multiparty political system.
On 1 November, he announced Hungary's withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact and appealed through the UN for the great powers, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, to recognize Hungary's status as a neutral state. Throughout this period, Nagy remained steadfastly committed to Marxism; but his conception of Marxism was as "a science that cannot remain static", and he railed against the "rigid dogmatism" of "the Stalinist monopoly".
When the revolution was crushed by the Soviet invasion of Hungary, Nagy, with a few others, was given sanctuary in the Yugoslav Embassy. In spite of a written safe conduct of free passage by János Kádár, on 22 November, Nagy was arrested by the Soviet forces as he was leaving the Yugoslav Embassy, and taken to Snagov, Romania.
Secret trial and execution
Subsequently, the Soviets returned him to Hungary, where he was secretly charged with organizing to overthrow the Hungarian people's democratic state and with treason. Nagy was secretly tried, found guilty, sentenced to death and executed by hanging in June 1958. His trial and execution were made public only after the sentence was carried out. According to Fedor Burlatsky, a Kremlin insider, Nikita Khrushchev had Nagy executed, "as a lesson to all other leaders in socialist countries."
He was buried along with his co-defendants in the prison yard where the executions were carried out and years later moved to a distant corner (section 301) of the Municipal Cemetery of Budapest., face-down, and with his hands and feet tied with a barbed wire. Next to his grave stands a memorial bell inscribed in Latin, Hungarian, German and English. The Latin reads: "Vivos voco / Mortuos plango / Fulgura frango," which is translated as: "I call the living, I mourn the dead, I master (lit. "break") the lightning."
Memorials and political rehabilitation
During the time when the Communist leadership of Hungary would not permit his death to be commemorated, or permit access to his burial place, a cenotaph in his honor was erected in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris.
In 1989, Imre Nagy was rehabilitated and his remains reburied on the 31st anniversary of his execution in the same plot after a funeral organized in part by opponents of the country's communist regime. Over 100,000 people are estimated to have attended Nagy's reinterment. The occasion of Nagy's funeral was an important factor in the end of the Communist government in Hungary.
The collected writings of Nagy, most of which he wrote after his dismissal as Chairman of the Council of Ministers in April 1955, were smuggled out of Hungary and published in the West under the title "Imre Nagy on Communism".
Nagy was married to Mária Égető. The couple had one daughter, Erzsébet Nagy (1927–2008), a Hungarian writer and translator. Erzsébet Nagy married Ferenc Jánosi. Imre Nagy did not object to his daughter's romance and eventual marriage to a Protestant minister, attending their religious wedding ceremony in 1946 without Politburo permission. In 1982, Erzsébet Nagy married János Vészi.
Nagy in film and the arts
Nagy is mentioned and seen in the movie Children of Glory.
Imre Nagy's home in Budapest
- ^ János Rainer: Nagy Imre, (Budapest, 2002), 26.
- ^ a b Gati, Charles (2006). Failed Illusions: Moscow, Washington, Budapest and the 1956 Hungarian Revolt, p. 42. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-5606-6.
- ^ (hu) Imre Nagy's unknown life, in Magyar Narancs
- ^ Gyorgy Litvan, The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, (Longman House: New York, 1996), 55–59
- ^ Stokes, Gale. From Stalinism to Pluralism. p. 82-3
- ^ Richard Solash, "Hungary: U.S. President To Honor 1956 Uprising", Radio Free Europe, 20 June 2006
- ^ The Counter-revolutionary Conspiracy of Imre Nagy and his Accomplices White Book, published by the Information Bureau of the Council of Ministers of the Hungarian People's Republic (No date).
- ^ David Pryce-Jones, "What the Hungarians wrought: the meaning of October 1956", National Review, 23 October 2006
- ^ Kamm, Henry (8 February 1989). "Budapest Journal; The Lasting Pain of '56: Can the Past Be Reburied?". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE4D8143FF93BA35751C0A96F948260. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- ^ Kamm, Henry (17 June 1989). "Hungarian Who Led '56 Revolt Is Buried as a Hero". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE5DD1530F934A25755C0A96F948260. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- ^ "Erzsebet Nagy, only child of Hungary's 1956 revolution prime minister Imre Nagy, dies". Associated Press (PR-inside.com). 29 January 2008. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080215050041/http://www.pr-inside.com/erzsebet-nagy-only-child-of-hungary-s-r410622.htm. Retrieved 14 February 2008.
- Gyula Háy (Julius Hay). Born 1900: memoirs. Hutchinson: 1974.
- Granville, Johanna. "Imre Nagy aka 'Volodya' – A Dent in the Martyr's Halo?", "Cold War International History Project Bulletin", no. 5 (Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars, Washington, DC), Spring, 1995, pp. 28, and 34–37.
- Granville, Johanna, The First Domino: International Decision Making During the Hungarian Crisis of 1956, Texas A & M University Press, 2004. ISBN 1585442984
- KGB Chief Vladimir Kryuchkov to CC CPSU, 16 June 1989 (trans. Johanna Granville). Cold War International History Project Bulletin 5 (1995): 36 [from: TsKhSD, F. 89, Per. 45, Dok. 82.]
- Alajos Dornbach, The Secret Trial of Imre Nagy, Greenwood Press, 1995. ISBN 0-275-94332-1
- Peter Unwin, Voice in the Wilderness: Imre Nagy and the Hungarian Revolution, Little, Brown, 1991. ISBN 0-356-20316-6
- Karl Benziger, Imre Nagy, Martyr Of The Nation: Contested History, Legitimacy, and Popular Memory in Hungary. Lexington Books, 2008. ISBN 0-7391-2330-0
- Michael Walsh and Luke Etherton, Vizilabda es Szocializmus or Water Polo and Socialism Classics Section Publishing, 1984. ISBN 6161984195
- Johanna Granville, trans., "Soviet Archival Documents on the Hungarian Revolution, 24 October – 4 November 1956",
Cold War International History Project Bulletin, no. 5 (Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars, Washington, DC), Spring, 1995, pp. 22–23, 29–34.
Political offices Preceded by
Minister of Agriculture
Minister of the Interior
Speaker of the National Assembly
Prime Minister of Hungary
Prime Minister of Hungary
Minister of Foreign Affairs
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Imre Nagy — Naissance 1896 Décès 1958 Nationalité … Wikipédia en Français
Imre Nagy — (7 de junio de 1896 16 de junio de 1958). Político húngaro, nacido de una familia campesina pobre. Militó en el Partido Social Demócrata de Hungría para adherirse más adelante a la ideología marxista. En 1944 tras la derrota de los nazis regresa… … Wikipedia Español
Imre Nagy — Imre Nagy, político húngaro. Nació en Kaposvár el 7 de junio de 1896 y murió ejecutado por fuerzas rusas el 16 de junio de 1958. Encabezó la revuelta anticomunista húngara de 1956 que pretendía la democratización del país y la independencia con… … Enciclopedia Universal
Imre Nagy — Denkmal in Szeged Imre Nagy [ˈimrɛ ˈnɒɟ] (* 7. Juni 1896 in Kaposvár, Ungarn; † 16. Juni 1958 in Budapest) war ein ungarischer Politiker und Agrarökonom. Innerhalb der kommunistischen Part … Deutsch Wikipedia
Imre-Nagy-Plakette — Imre Nagy [ˈimrɛ ˈnɒɟ] (* 7. Juni 1896 in Kaposvár, Ungarn; † 16. Juni 1958 in Budapest) war ein ungarischer Politiker und Agrarökonom. Innerhalb der kommunistischen Partei fungierte er teilweise als Dissident, war aber zweimal Regierungschef.… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Imre Nagy (pentathlete) — Imre Nagy (born February 21, 1933) is a Hungarian modern pentathlete and Olympic champion. He participated on the Hungarian team that won the gold medals at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, and he also received an individual silver medal at the… … Wikipedia
Imre Madách — Naissance 21 janvier 1823, Dolná Strehová, Hongrie Décès 5 octobre … Wikipédia en Français
Nagy — is the most popular Hungarian surname, meaning great . It is pronounced [nɒɟ], roughly like nawdge. It may refer, among others, to the following people: Andrea Nagy (born 1971), Hungarian basketball player Andrej Prean Nagy (born 1923), Hungarian … Wikipedia
Nagy — (/nɒɟ/) ist ein ungarischer Familienname mit der Bedeutung „groß“. Bekannte Namensträger Alexander Nagy (* 1974), slowakischer Wasserballspieler Ambrus Nagy (1927–1998), ungarischer Fechter András Nagy, Haiduckenführer Anikó Nagy (* 1970),… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Imre — ist ein häufig vorkommender ungarischer männlicher Vorname. Herkunft und Bedeutung Imre ist die ungarische Form des germanischen männlichen Vornamens Emmerich. Bekannte Namensträger Imre Földes (1881–1948), ungarischer Maler und… … Deutsch Wikipedia