- Sino-Albanian split
The Sino-Albanian split (Chinese: 中阿破裂,
Pinyin: Zhōng-Ā pòliè) in 1978 saw the parting of the People's Republic of China(PRC) and Socialist People's Republic of Albania, which was the only Eastern Europeannation to side with the PRC in the Sino-Soviet splitof the early 1960s.
The relations between CPC and PPSh had stagnated by 1970. When the
Asian Giant began to reemerge from isolation in the early 1970s, Mao Zedongand other Communist Chinese leaders reassessed their commitment to Albania. In response, Tirana, led by Enver Hoxha, began broadening its international position. Albania opened trade negotiations with France, Italyand the newly independent Asian and African states, and later in 1971 it normalized relations with Yugoslaviaand Greece. Albania's leaders abhorred the PRC's alliance with the United Statesin the early 1970s. Tirana press and radio ignored President Richard Nixon's trip to Beijingin 1972. Still, Albania proposed the key resolution in the UN General Assembly which enabled the PRC to replace the Republic of Chinain the United Nations.
Albania actively worked to reduce its dependence on China by diversifying trade and improving
diplomaticand culturalrelations especially with Western Europe. However, Albania shunned the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europeand was the only European country (with the exception of Andorra) that refused to take part in the Helsinki Conferenceof July 1975.
Mao's death in 1976 and after the removal of the Gang of Fourof the Cultural Revolutionperiod, Hoxha condemned the new leadership as well as its Three Worlds Theory. The PRC's response was to invite Tito to Beijingin 1977, signaling the end of its assistance programs for Albania in 1978.
The break with the PRC left Albania without foreign protection. Tirana ignored calls by the United States and the
Soviet Unionto normalize relations. Instead, Albania expanded diplomatic ties with Western Europe and the developing nations and began stressing the principle of self-reliance as the keystone of the country's strategy for economic development.
Although of little importance in world politics, Sino-Albanian split and debates around
Three Worlds Theoryproduced a major split in the international Maoistmovement, with many anti-revisionist groups choosing to side with PPSh's orthodox stance, and other groups splitting over the issue. This tendency has occasionally been labeled as 'Hoxhaism' after Albanian leader Enver Hoxha. Main alliances of PPSh were in Africa, Turkeyand in Latin America. Most notable groups include the Communist Party of Brazilin its fight against the pro-American military government and the Marxist-Leninist League of Tigrayin its fight against the pro-Soviet government led by Mengistu Haile Mariam.
History of Communist Albania
Three Worlds Theory
International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations (Unity & Struggle)
* [http://marxists.org/reference/archive/hoxha/works/imp_rev/toc.htm "Imperialism and the Revolution" (1978), Hoxha's work condemning Maoism]
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