- George Marshall
General of the Army
George Catlett Marshall
50th United States Secretary of State In office
January 21, 1947 – January 20, 1949
President Harry S. Truman Preceded by James F. Byrnes Succeeded by Dean Acheson 3rd United States Secretary of Defense In office
September 21, 1950 – September 12, 1951
President Harry S. Truman Preceded by Louis A. Johnson Succeeded by Robert A. Lovett 15th United States Army Chief of Staff In office
September 1, 1939 – November 18, 1945
Preceded by Malin Craig Succeeded by Dwight D. Eisenhower Personal details Born December 31, 1880
Died October 16, 1959(aged 78)
Political party Nonpartisan Spouse(s) Katherine Boyce Tupper
Elizabeth Carter Cole
Alma mater Virginia Military Institute Profession Soldier
Religion Episcopal Signature Military service Allegiance United States of America Service/branch United States Army Years of service 1902–1945 also through to 1959 (General of the Army regulations) Rank General of the Army Commands Chief of Staff of the United States Army Battles/wars Philippine–American War
World War I
World War II
Awards Distinguished Service Medal (2)
Nobel Peace Prize
George Catlett Marshall (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American military leader, Chief of Staff of the Army, Secretary of State, and the third Secretary of Defense. Once noted as the "organizer of victory" by Winston Churchill for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II, Marshall served as the United States Army Chief of Staff during the war and as the chief military adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. As Secretary of State, his name was given to the Marshall Plan, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953.
George Cattlet Marshall was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, the son of George C. Marshall, Sr. and Laura Bradford Marshall. Marshall was a scion of an old Virginia family, as well as a distant relative of former Chief Justice John Marshall. Marshall graduated from the Virginia Military Institute (VMI), where he was initiated into the Kappa Alpha Order, in 1901.
World War I
Following graduation from VMI, Marshall was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the U.S. Army. Until World War I, he was posted to various positions in the US and the Philippines and was trained in modern warfare. During the war, he had roles as a planner of both training and operations. He went to France in mid-1917 as the director of training and planning for the 1st Infantry Division. In mid-1918, he was promoted to American Expeditionary Forces headquarters, where he worked closely with his mentor General John J. Pershing and was a key planner of American operations. He was instrumental in the design and coordination of the Meuse-Argonne offensive, which contributed to the defeat of the German Army on the Western Front.
Between World War I and II
In 1919, he became an aide-de-camp to General John J. Pershing. Between 1920 and 1924, while Pershing was Army Chief of Staff, Marshall worked in a number of positions in the US Army, focusing on training and teaching modern, mechanized warfare. Between World Wars I and II, he was a key planner and writer in the War Department, commanded the 15th Infantry Regiment (United States) for three years in China, and taught at the Army War College. From June 1932 to June 1933 he was the Commanding Officer at Fort Screven, Savannah Beach, Georgia, now named Tybee Island. In 1934, Col. Marshall put Edwin F. Harding in charge of the Infantry School's publications, and Harding became editor:41 of Infantry in Battle, a book that codified the lessons of World War I. Infantry in Battle is still used as an officer's training manual in the Infantry Officer's Course and was the training manual for most of the infantry officers and leaders of World War II.
Marshall was promoted to Brigadier General in October 1936. He commanded the Vancouver Barracks in Vancouver, Washington from 1936–1938. Nominated by President Franklin Roosevelt to be Army Chief of Staff, Marshall was promoted to General and sworn in on September 1, 1939, the day German forces invaded Poland, which began World War II. He would hold this post until the end of the war in 1945.
World War II
As Chief of Staff, Marshall organized the largest military expansion in U.S. history, inheriting an outmoded, poorly-equipped army of 189,000 men and, partly drawing from his experience teaching and developing techniques of modern warfare as an instructor at the Army War College, coordinated the large-scale expansion and modernization of the U.S. Army. Though he had never actually led troops in combat, Marshall was a skilled organizer with a talent for inspiring other officers. Many of the American generals who were given top commands during the war were either picked or recommended by Marshall, including Dwight Eisenhower, Lloyd Fredendall, Leslie McNair, Mark Wayne Clark and Omar Bradley.
Expands military force forty fold
Faced with the necessity of turning an army of former civilians into a force of over eight million soldiers by 1942 (a fortyfold increase within three years), Marshall directed General Leslie McNair to focus efforts on rapidly producing large numbers of soldiers. With the exception of airborne forces, Marshall approved McNair's concept of an abbreviated training schedule for men entering Army land forces training, particularly in regards to basic infantry skills, weapons proficiency, and combat tactics. At the time, most U.S. commanders at lower levels had little or no combat experience of any kind; without the input of experienced British or Allied combat officers on the nature of modern warfare and enemy tactics, many of them resorted to formulaic training methods emphasizing static defense and orderly large-scale advances by motorized convoys over improved roads. In consequence, Army forces deploying to Africa suffered serious initial reverses when encountering German armored combat units in Africa at Kasserine Pass and other major battles. Even as late as 1944, U.S. soldiers undergoing stateside training in preparation for deployment against German forces in Europe were not being trained in combat procedures and tactics currently being employed there.
Replacement system criticized
Originally, Marshall had planned a 200-division Army with a system of unit rotation such as practiced by the British and other Allies. By mid-1943, however, after pressure from government and business leaders to preserve manpower for industry and agriculture, he had abandoned this plan in favor of a 90-division Army using individual replacements sent via a circuitous process from training to divisions in combat. The individual replacement system (IRS) devised by Marshall and implemented by McNair greatly exacerbated problems with unit cohesion and effective transfer of combat experience to newly-trained soldiers and officers. In Europe, where there were few pauses in combat with German forces, the individual replacement system had broken down completely by late 1944. Hastily-trained replacements or service personnel re-assigned as infantry were given six weeks' refresher training and thrown into battle with Army divisions locked in front-line combat. The new men were often not even proficient in the use of their own rifles or weapons systems, and once in combat, could not receive enough practical instruction from veterans before being killed or wounded, usually within the first three or four days. Under such conditions, many replacements suffered a crippling loss of morale, while veteran soldiers were kept in line units until they were killed, wounded, or incapacitated by battle fatigue or physical illness. Incidents of soldiers AWOL from combat duty as well as battle fatigue and self-inflicted injury rose rapidly during the last eight months of the war with Germany. As one historian later concluded, "Had the Germans been given a free hand to devise a replacement system..., one that would do the Americans the most harm and the least good, they could not have done a better job."
Marshall's abilities to pick competent field commanders during the early part of the war was decidedly mixed. While he had been instrumental in advancing the career of the able Dwight D. Eisenhower, he had also recommended the swaggering Lloyd Fredendall to Eisenhower for a major command in the American invasion of North Africa during Operation Torch. Marshall was especially fond of Fredendall, describing him as "one of the best" and remarking in a staff meeting when his name was mentioned, "I like that man; you can see determination all over his face." Eisenhower duly picked him to command the 39,000-man Central Task Force (the largest of three) in Operation Torch. Both men would later come to regret that decision after the U.S. Army debacle at Kasserine Pass.
Plans invasion of Europe
During World War II, Marshall was instrumental in preparing the U.S. Army and Army Air Forces for the invasion of the European continent. Marshall wrote the document that would become the central strategy for all Allied operations in Europe. He initially scheduled Operation Overlord for April 1, 1943, but met with strong opposition from Winston Churchill, who convinced Roosevelt to commit troops to Operation Husky for the invasion of Italy. Some authors think that World War II could have been terminated one year earlier if Marshall had had his way, others think that such invasion would have meant utter failure. But it is true that the German Army in 1943 was overstretched, and defense works in Normandy were not ready.
It was assumed that Marshall would become the Supreme Commander of Operation Overlord, but Roosevelt selected Dwight Eisenhower as Supreme Commander. While Marshall enjoyed considerable success in working with Congress and President Franklin D. Roosevelt, he refused to lobby for the position. President Roosevelt didn't want to lose his presence in the states. He told Marshall, "I didn't feel I could sleep at ease if you were out of Washington." When rumors circulated that the top job would go to Marshall, many critics viewed the transfer as a demotion for Marshall, since he would leave his position as Chief of Staff of the Army and lose his seat on the Combined Chiefs of Staff.
On December 16, 1944, Marshall became the first American general to be promoted to five-star rank, the newly created General of the Army. He was the second American to be promoted to a five-star rank, as William Leahy was promoted to fleet admiral the previous day. This position is the American equivalent rank to field marshal.
Throughout the remainder of World War II, Marshall coordinated Allied operations in Europe and the Pacific. He was characterized as the organizer of Allied victory by Winston Churchill. Time Magazine named Marshall Man of the Year for 1943. Marshall resigned his post of Chief of Staff in 1945, but did not retire, as regulations stipulate that Generals of the Army remain on active duty for life.
Analysis of Pearl Harbor intelligence failure
After World War II ended, the Congressional Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack received testimony on the intelligence failure. It amassed 25,000 pages of documents, 40 volumes, and included nine reports and investigations, eight of which had been previously completed. Among these documents was a report critical of Marshall for his delay in sending General Walter Short, the Army commander in Hawaii, important information concerning a possible attack on December 6 and 7. The report also criticized Marshall’s admitted lack of knowledge of the readiness of the Hawaiian Command during November and December 1941. Ten days after the attack, Lt. General Short and Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, commander of the Navy at Pearl Harbor, were both relieved of their duties. The final report of the Joint Committee did not single out and fault Marshall. While the report was critical of the overall situation, the committee noted that subordinates had failed to pass on important information to their superiors, including Marshall. The report noted that once General Marshall received information about the impending attack, he immediately passed it on.
Post War: China, Secretary of State, Nobel Peace Prize
In December 1945, President Harry Truman sent Marshall to China to broker a coalition government between the Nationalist allies under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and Communists under Mao Zedong. Marshall had no leverage over the Communists, but he threatened to withdraw American aid essential to the Nationalists. Both sides rejected his proposals and the Chinese Civil War escalated, with the Communists winning in 1949. His mission a failure, he returned to the United States in January 1947. As Secretary of State in 1947–48, Marshall seems to have disagreed with strong opinions in The Pentagon and State department that Chiang's success was vital to American interests, insisting that U.S. troops not become involved.
After Marshall's return to the U.S. in early 1947, Truman appointed Marshall Secretary of State. He became the spokesman for the State Department's ambitious plans to rebuild Europe. On June 5, 1947 in a speech at Harvard University, he outlined the American plan. The European Recovery Program, as it was formally known, became known as the Marshall Plan. Clark Clifford had suggested to Truman that the plan be called the Truman Plan, but Truman immediately dismissed that idea and insisted that it be called the Marshall Plan. The Marshall Plan would help Europe quickly rebuild and modernize its economy along American lines. The Soviet Union forbade its satellites to participate.
Marshall was again named TIME's Man of the Year for 1947 and received the Nobel Peace Prize for his post-war work in 1953. He was the only U.S. Army General to have received this honor.
As Secretary of State, Marshall strongly opposed recognizing the State of Israel. Marshall felt that if the state of Israel was declared that a war would break out in the Middle East (which it did in 1948 one day after Israel declared independence). Marshall saw recognizing the Jewish state as a political move to gain Jewish support in the up coming election, in which Truman was expected to lose to Dewey. He told President Truman in May 1948, "If you (recognize the state of Israel) and if I were to vote in the election, I would vote against you."
Marshall resigned from the State Department because of ill health on January 7, 1949, and the same month became chairman of American Battle Monuments Commission. In September 1949, Marshall was named president of the American National Red Cross.
Secretary of Defense
When the early months of the Korean War showed how poorly prepared the Defense Department was, Truman fired Secretary Louis A. Johnson and named Marshall as Secretary of Defense in September 1950. On September 30, Defense Secretary George Marshall sent an eyes-only message to MacArthur instructing MacArthur to escalate the war in Korea "We want you to feel unhampered tactically and strategically to proceed north of the 38th parallel." His main role was to restore confidence and rebuild the armed forces from the post-war state of demobilization. He served in that post for one year, retiring from public office for good in September 1951. In 1953, he represented America at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.
Impact of McCarthyism
U.S. Senator Joe McCarthy, whose hearings and black lists later spawned the term McCarthyism, gave a speech titled America's Retreat from Victory: The Story of George Catlett Marshall (1951), in which he argued that General Albert Coady Wedemeyer had prepared a wise plan that would keep China a valued ally, but that it had been sabotaged. He concluded that "If Marshall were merely stupid, the laws of probability would dictate that part of his decisions would serve this country's interest." He suggested that Marshall was old and feeble and easily duped but did not charge Marshall with treason. McCarthy specifically alleged:"When Marshall was sent to China with secret State Department orders, the Communists at that time were bottled up in two areas and were fighting a losing battle, but that because of those orders the situation was radically changed in favor of the Communists. Under those orders, as we know, Marshall embargoed all arms and ammunition to our allies in China. He forced the opening of the Nationalist-held Kalgan Mountain pass into Manchuria, to the end that the Chinese Communists gained access to the mountains of captured Japanese equipment. No need to tell the country about how Marshall tried to force Chiang Kai-shek to form a partnership government with the Communists."
Marshall died on Friday, October 16, 1959. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
After leaving office, in a television interview, Harry Truman was asked who he thought was the American who made the greatest contribution of the last thirty years. Without hesitation, Truman picked Marshall, adding "I don't think in this age in which I have lived, that there has been a man who has been a greater administrator; a man with a knowledge of military affairs equal to General Marshall."
Orson Welles, in an interview with Dick Cavett, called Marshall "...the greatest human being who was also a great man... He was a tremendous gentlemen, an old fashioned institution which isn't with us anymore."
In spite of world-wide acclaim, dozens of national and international awards and honors and the Nobel Peace prize, public opinion became bitterly divided along party lines on Marshall's record. While campaigning for president in 1952, Eisenhower denounced the Truman administration's failures in Korea, campaigned alongside McCarthy, and refused to defend Marshall's policies. Marshall, who assisted Eisenhower in his promotions, and stood aside, turning down the opportunity to command the allied forces to allow Eisenhower to take that role, was surprised at the lack of a positive statement supporting him from Eisenhower during the McCarthy hearings.
He married Elizabeth Carter Cole of Lexington, Virginia, in 1902. She died in 1927. In 1930, he married Katherine Boyce Tupper. Marshall's stepson with Tupper, Army Lt. Allen Tupper Brown, was killed by a German sniper in Italy in 1944. George Marshall maintained a home, known as Dodona Manor (now restored), in Leesburg, Virginia. Actress Kitty Winn is his step-granddaughter.
- Marshall was played by Donald Eugene McCoy in the Chinese movie Founding of a Republic.
- Marshall was played by Harris Yulin in the television drama Truman.
- Marshall was played by Scott Wilson in the 2001 film Pearl Harbor.
- Marshall was played by Harve Presnell in the 1998 film Saving Private Ryan.
- Marshall was played by Keith Andes in the 1970 film Tora! Tora! Tora!.
- Marshall was played by Ward Costello in the 1977 film MacArthur.
Dates of rank
No pin insignia in 1902 Second Lieutenant, United States Army: February 2, 1902 First Lieutenant, United States Army: March 7, 1907 Captain, United States Army: July 1, 1916 Major, National Army: August 5, 1917 Lieutenant Colonel, National Army: January 5, 1918 Colonel, National Army: August 27, 1918 Captain, Regular Army (reverted to peacetime rank): June 30, 1920 Major, Regular Army : July 1, 1920 Lieutenant Colonel, Regular Army: August 21, 1923 Colonel, Regular Army: September 1, 1933 Brigadier General, Regular Army: October 1, 1936 Major General, Regular Army: July 1, 1939 Lieutenant General, Regular Army: August 1, 1939 General, Regular Army, for service as Army Chief of Staff: September 1, 1939 General of the Army, Army of the United States: December 16, 1944 General of the Army rank made permanent in the Regular Army: April 11, 1946
Awards and decorations
U.S. military honors
Distinguished Service Medal with one Oak Leaf Cluster Silver Star Philippine Campaign Medal World War I Victory Medal with four battle clasps Army of Occupation of Germany Medal American Defense Service Medal American Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal
Foreign military honors
- Brazilian Order of Military Merit
- British Order of the Bath (Knight Grand Cross)
- Chilean Order del Merito
- Colombian Grand Cross of the Order of Boyacá Cherifien (Given by President Ospina Perez as he opened the IX Panamerican Conference)
- Cuban Order of Military Merit, First Class
- Ecuadorian Star of Abdon Calderon, First Class
- French Croix de Guerre
- French Legion of Honor
- Greek Grand Cross Order of George I with swords
- Liberian Centennial Medal
- Montenegro Silver Medal for Bravery
- Netherlands Grand Cross with Swords in the Order of Orange Nassau
- Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Italy)
- Order of the Crown of Italy
- Moroccan Grand Cross of Ouissam Alaouite
- Soviet Grand Cross Order of Military Merit
- Soviet Order of Suvorov
- Panamanian Medal of La Solidaridad, Second Class
- Peruvian Gran Official del Sol del Peru
- In 1948, he was awarded the Distinguished Achievement Award for his role and contributions during and after World War II.
- Nobel Peace Prize 1953 for the Marshall Plan.
- The United States Postal Service honored him with a Prominent Americans series (1965–1978) 20¢ postage stamp.
- 1959 Karlspreis (International Charlemagne Prize of the city of Aachen).
- 1960 George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, originally the Army Ballistics Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville Alabama, became a NASA field center and was renamed.
- The British Parliament established the Marshall Scholarship in recognition of Marshall's contributions to Anglo-American relations.
- Many buildings and streets throughout the U.S. and other nations are named in his honor.
- George C. Marshall Award, the highest award given to a chapter in Kappa Alpha Order.
- George C. Marshall High School, founded in 1962 and located in Falls Church, Virginia, is the only public high school in the United States named for Marshall. The nickname of the school – "The Statesmen" – appropriately reflects his life and contributions.
- The Marshall Elementary School is in the Laurel Highlands School District, Uniontown, Pennsylvania.
- George C. Marshall Elementary School: located in Vancouver, Washington.
The George C. Marshal European Center for Security Studies in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
- Cray, Ed. General of the Army: George C. Marshall, Soldier and Statesman. Norton, 1990. 847 pp.
- Harold I. Gullan; "Expectations of Infamy: Roosevelt and Marshall Prepare for War, 1938–41." Presidential Studies Quarterly Volume: 28#3 1998. pp 510+ online edition
- May, Ernest R. "1947–48: When Marshall Kept the U.S. out of War in China." Journal of Military History 2002 66(4): 1001–1010. Issn: 0899-3718
- Levine, Steven I. "A New Look at American Mediation in the Chinese Civil War: the Marshall Mission and Manchuria." Diplomatic History 1979 3(4): 349–375. Issn: 0145-2096
- Parrish, Thomas. Roosevelt and Marshall: Partners in Politics and War. 1989. 608 pp.
- Steele, Richard W. The First Offensive, 1942: Roosevelt, Marshall, and the Making of American Strategy. 1973. 239 pp.
- Mark C. Stoler, George C. Marshall: Soldier-Statesman of the American Century. (1989) 252pp
- Forrest Pogue, Viking, (1963–87) Four-volume authorized biography: complete text is online
- German Marshall Fund
- George C. Marshall Center for European Security Studies
- George C. Marshall High School
- Marshall Mission to China
- Marshall Scholarship
- Marshall Space Flight Center
- Task Force Marshall a training organization of the South Carolina Army National Guard, was named in his honor
- The George C. Marshall Foundation
- USS George C. Marshall (SSBN-654)
- ^ Marshall Papers Pentagon Office Selected Correspondence Box 69 Folder 18 George C. Marshall Foundation http://www.marshallfoundation.org
- ^ George Catlett Marshall, General of the Army
- ^ "George Catlett Marshall, U.S. Army Chief of Staff, Secretary of State". CNN. Archived from the original on 2007-11-13. http://web.archive.org/web/20071113061529/http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/marshall/. Retrieved 2007-12-12.
- ^ W. Del Testa, David; Florence Lemoine and John Strickland (2001). Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists. pp. 120.
- ^ George Marshall Childhood
- ^ Uldrich, Jack (2005). Soldier, Statesman, Peacemaker: Leadership Lessons From George C. Marshall. pp. 14–15.
- ^ Lengel, Edward G. (2008). To Conquer Hell.. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 0805079319..
- ^ Campbell, James (September 30, 2008). The Ghost Mountain Boys: Their Epic March and the Terrifying Battle for New Guinea—The Forgotten War of the South Pacific. Three Rivers Press. pp. 400. ISBN 978-0307335975.
- ^ Bland, Larry I., George C. Marshall and the Education of Army Leaders, Military Review 68 (October 1988) 27–51, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas
- ^ a b Ossad, Steven L., Command Failures: Lessons Learned from Lloyd R. Fredendall, Army Magazine, March 2003
- ^ Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers: The U.S. Army from the Normandy Beaches to the Bulge to the Surrender of Germany June 7, 1944 – May 7, 1945, New York: Simon & Schuster (1997), pp. 271–284
- ^ Keast, William R. (Maj), Provision of Enlisted Replacements, Army Ground Forces Study No. 7, Washington, D.C.: Historical Section – Headquarters Army Ground Forces, 314.7(1 Sept 1946)GNHIS September 1, 1945
- ^ George, John B. (Lt. Col), Shots Fired In Anger, NRA Press (1981), ISBN 0-935998-42-X, pp. 13–21
- ^ a b c d Keast, William R. (Maj), Provision of Enlisted Replacements
- ^ Hanford, William B., A Dangerous Assignment, Stackpole Books, ISBN 978-0-8117-3485-1, p. viii
- ^ a b Vandergriff, Donald E., Seven Wars and a Century Later, a Failed System, Article
- ^ a b Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers, pp. 277–284
- ^ Henry, Mark R., The US Army in World War II: Northwest Europe, Osprey Publishing (2001), ISBN 1-84176-086-2, 9781841760865, pp. 12–14
- ^ a b c Henry, Mark R., The US Army in World War II: Northwest Europe, Osprey Publishing (2001), ISBN 1-84176-086-2, 9781841760865, pp. 12–14
- ^ Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers, pp. 271–284
- ^ Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers, p. 277
- ^ Buell, Thomas B.; John H. Bradley. The Second World War: Europe and the Mediterranean. pp. 258.
- ^ Hearings before the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, Congress of the United States, Seventy-Ninth Congress (Washington, D.C.), Part 39, P 144-145.
- ^ Conclusions and Recommendations of the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, Congress of the United States, Seventy-Ninth Congress (Washington, D.C.)P. 252, 265
- ^ Stoler, Mark A. (1989). George C. Marshall. pp. 145–51.
- ^ Tsou, Tang (1963). America's Failure in China, 1941–50.
- ^ "The Marshall Plan". http://www.georgecmarshall.org/learn/index.asp?L=17. Retrieved 2009-02-17. [dead link]
- ^ McCullough, David (1992). Truman. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 717. ISBN 0-671-86920-5.
- ^ Behrman, Greg (2007). The Most Noble Adventure: The Marshall Plan and the Time When America Helped Save Europe. Free Press. ISBN 0743282639.
- ^ "President Truman's Decision to Recognize Israel". http://www.jcpa.org/JCPA/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DBID=1&LNGID=1&TMID=111&FID=376&PID=0&IID=2203. Retrieved 2009-02-17.
- ^ "Truman Adviser Recalls May 14, 1948 US Decision to Recognize Israel". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. May/June 1991. pp. 17. http://www.wrmea.com/backissues/0591/9105017.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-17.
- ^ "Recognition of Israel". The Truman Library. http://www.trumanlibrary.org/hst/h.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-17.
- ^ New York Times: January 8, 1949, p. 1.
- ^ Weintraub, Stanley. MacArthur’s war: Korea and the Undoing of an American Hero, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-684-83419-7. p.157:158.
- ^ McCarthy, Joe (1951). Major Speeches and Debates. pp. 264.
- ^ McCarthy, Joe (1951). Major Speeches and Debates. pp. 191, from speech of March 14, 1951.
- ^ Reeves, Thomas C. (1982). The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy. pp. 371–374.
- ^ "The David Susskind Show: Interview with President Harry S. Truman". http://www.hulu.com/watch/46482/the-david-susskind-show-interview-with-president-harry-s-truman#s-p2-so-i0.
- ^ "Orson Welles talks about Cornelia Lunt". YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1fauAc48tA&feature=related.
- ^ "American Experience: The Presidents: Dwight D. Eisenhower". http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/34_eisenhower/printable.html.
- ^ "American Experience: The Presidents: Dwight D. Eisenhower (Film Script". http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/34_eisenhower/filmmore/filmscript.html.
- The Papers of George Catlett Marshall: (Larry I. Bland and Sharon Ritenour Stevens, eds.)
- Vol. 1: The Soldierly Spirit," December 1880 – June 1939. (1981)
- Vol. 2: "We Cannot Delay," July 1, 1939 – December 6, 1941. (1986)
- Vol. 3: The Right Man for the Job, December 7, 1941 – May 31, 1943. (1991)
- Vol. 4: "Aggressive and Determined Leadership," June 1, 1943 – December 31, 1944. (1996)
- Vol. 5: "The Finest Soldier," January 1, 1945 – January 7, 1947. (2003)
- Bland, Larry; Jeans, Roger B.; and Wilkinson, Mark, ed. George C. Marshall's Mediation Mission to China, December 1945 – January 1947. Lexington, Va.: George C. Marshall Found., 1998. 661 pp.
- Marshall, George C. George C. Marshall: Interviews and Reminiscences for Forrest C. Pogue. Lexington, Va.: George C. Marshall Found., 1991. 698 pp. online edition
- George Catlett Marshall. Memoirs of My Services in the World War, 1917–1918 (1976)
- Greg Behrman. The Most Noble Adventure: The Marshall Plan and the Time When America Helped Save Europe Free Press, 2007.
- The Infantry Journal Incorporated (1939). Infantry in Battle. Washington, DC: Garrett and Massey. ISBN 0940328046. http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/download/csipubs/infantry/inf_intro_cvii.pdf.
- Brief biography at the official Nobel Prize site
- The Marshall Foundation
- George C. Marshall Center, Garmisch Germany
- The Marshall Plan Speech MP3
- The Marshall Films Collection
- Marshall Scholarships
- The Marshall Plan Speech
- Dodona Manor
- "George C. Marshall: Soldier of Peace" (Smithsonian Institution)
- "George Marshall and the American Century" (Documentary Film)
- Annotated bibliography for George Marshall from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues
- The Last Salute: Civil and Military Funeral, 1921–1969, CHAPTER XIX, General of the Army George C. Marshall, Special Military Funeral, 16 – October 20, 1959 by B. C. Mossman and M. W. Stark. United States Army Center of Military History, 1991. CMH Pub 90-1.
- The George C. Marshall Index at the Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, Part 1 and Part 2
- City of Vancouver, Washington's "General George C. Marshall and Vancouver" page
- Task Force Marshall Information Page
- Joint Committee on The Investigation of Pearl Harbor, 79th Congress
Military offices Preceded by
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
1939 – 1945
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Political offices Preceded by
James F. Byrnes
United States Secretary of State
Served under: Harry S. Truman
Louis A. Johnson
United States Secretary of Defense
Served under: Harry S. Truman
Robert A. Lovett
Awards and achievements Preceded by
Cover of Time Magazine
July 29, 1940
Sir Alan F. Brooke
Cover of Time Magazine
October 19, 1942
John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort
Patriarch Sergius I of Moscow
Cover of Time Magazine
January 3, 1944
Erich von MansteinLeaders of the United States Army
Senior Officer /
Chiefs of StaffYoung · Chaffee · Bates · Bell · Wood · Wotherspoon · Scott · Bliss · March · Pershing · Hines · Summerall · MacArthur · Craig · Marshall · Eisenhower · Bradley · Collins · Ridgway · Taylor · Lemnitzer · Decker · Wheeler · Johnson · Westmoreland · Palmer · Abrams · Weyand · Rogers · Meyer · Wickham · Vuono · Sullivan · Reimer · Shinseki · Schoomaker · Casey · Dempsey · Odierno Vice Chiefs of Staff United States Secretary of State Secretary of Foreign Affairs
1781–1789R. Livingston • Jay
Secretary of State
1789–presentJefferson • Randolph • Pickering • J. Marshall • Madison • Smith • Monroe • Adams • Clay • Van Buren • E. Livingston • McLane • Forsyth • Webster • Upshur • Calhoun • Buchanan • Clayton • Webster • Everett • Marcy • Cass • Black • Seward • Washburne • Fish • Evarts • Blaine • Frelinghuysen • Bayard • Blaine • Foster • Gresham • Olney • Sherman • Day • Hay • Root • Bacon • Knox • Bryan • Lansing • Colby • Hughes • Kellogg • Stimson • Hull • Stettinius • Byrnes • G Marshall • Acheson • Dulles • Herter • Rusk • Rogers • Kissinger • Vance • Muskie • Haig • Shultz • Baker • Eagleburger • Christopher • Albright • Powell • Rice • ClintonNotable figures of the Cold War
Soviet Union United States People's Republic of China Japan West Germany United Kingdom Italy France Finland Spain People's Republic of Poland Canada Philippines Africa Eastern Bloc Latin AmericaJuan Domingo Perón · Jorge Rafael Videla · Leopoldo Galtieri (Argentina) · Getúlio Vargas · Luís Prestes · Leonel Brizola · João Goulart · Castelo Branco (Brazil) · Salvador Allende · Augusto Pinochet (Chile) · Fidel Castro · Che Guevara (Cuba) · Daniel Ortega (Nicaragua) · Rómulo Betancourt (Venezuela) Middle East South and East AsiaSheikh Mujibur Rahman (Bangladesh) · U Nu · Ne Win (Burma) · Pol Pot (Cambodia) · Indira Gandhi · Jawaharlal Nehru (India) · Sukarno · Suharto · Mohammad Hatta · Adam Malik (Indonesia) · Kim Il-sung (North Korea) · Syngman Rhee · Park Chung-hee (South Korea) · Muhammad Ayub Khan · Zulfikar Ali Bhutto · Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (Pakistan) · Chiang Kai-shek · Chiang Ching-kuo (Taiwan) · Ho Chi Minh (North Vietnam) · Ngo Dinh Diem (South Vietnam) Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize (1951–1975)
- Léon Jouhaux (1951)
- Albert Schweitzer (1952)
- George Marshall (1953)
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (1954)
- Lester B. Pearson (1957)
- Georges Pire (1958)
- Philip Noel-Baker (1959)
- Albert Lutuli (1960)
- Dag Hammarskjöld (1961)
- Linus Pauling (1962)
- International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies (1963)
- Martin Luther King, Jr. (1964)
- UNICEF (1965)
- René Cassin (1968)
- International Labour Organization (1969)
- Norman Borlaug (1970)
- Willy Brandt (1971)
- Henry Kissinger / Le Duc Tho (declined award) (1973)
- Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō (1974)
- Andrei Sakharov (1975)
- Complete list
Time Persons of the Year 1927–1950
- Charles Lindbergh (1927)
- Walter Chrysler (1928)
- Owen D. Young (1929)
- Mahatma Gandhi (1930)
- Pierre Laval (1931)
- Franklin D. Roosevelt (1932)
- Hugh Samuel Johnson (1933)
- Franklin D. Roosevelt (1934)
- Haile Selassie I (1935)
- Wallis Simpson (1936)
- Chiang Kai-shek / Soong May-ling (1937)
- Adolf Hitler (1938)
- Joseph Stalin (1939)
- Winston Churchill (1940)
- Franklin D. Roosevelt (1941)
- Joseph Stalin (1942)
- George Marshall (1943)
- Dwight D. Eisenhower (1944)
- Harry S. Truman (1945)
- James F. Byrnes (1946)
- George Marshall (1947)
- Harry S. Truman (1948)
- Winston Churchill (1949)
- The American Fighting-Man (1950)
- Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951)
- Elizabeth II (1952)
- Konrad Adenauer (1953)
- John Foster Dulles (1954)
- Harlow Curtice (1955)
- Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956)
- Nikita Khrushchev (1957)
- Charles de Gaulle (1958)
- Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959)
- U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg / Willard Libby / Linus Pauling / Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè / William Shockley / Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen / Robert Woodward (1960)
- John F. Kennedy (1961)
- Pope John XXIII (1962)
- Martin Luther King, Jr. (1963)
- Lyndon B. Johnson (1964)
- William Westmoreland (1965)
- The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966)
- Lyndon B. Johnson (1967)
- The Apollo 8 Astronauts: William Anders / Frank Borman / Jim Lovell (1968)
- The Middle Americans (1969)
- Willy Brandt (1970)
- Richard Nixon (1971)
- Henry Kissinger / Richard Nixon (1972)
- John Sirica (1973)
- King Faisal (1974)
- American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly / Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford / Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King / Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)
- Jimmy Carter (1976)
- Anwar Sadat (1977)
- Deng Xiaoping (1978)
- Ayatollah Khomeini (1979)
- Ronald Reagan (1980)
- Lech Wałęsa (1981)
- The Computer (1982)
- Ronald Reagan / Yuri Andropov (1983)
- Peter Ueberroth (1984)
- Deng Xiaoping (1985)
- Corazon Aquino (1986)
- Mikhail Gorbachev (1987)
- The Endangered Earth (1988)
- Mikhail Gorbachev (1989)
- George H. W. Bush (1990)
- Ted Turner (1991)
- Bill Clinton (1992)
- The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat / F. W. de Klerk / Nelson Mandela / Yitzhak Rabin (1993)
- Pope John Paul II (1994)
- Newt Gingrich (1995)
- David Ho (1996)
- Andrew Grove (1997)
- Bill Clinton / Ken Starr (1998)
- Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999)
- George W. Bush (2000)
- Rudolph Giuliani (2001)
- The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley / Sherron Watkins (2002)
- The American Soldier (2003)
- George W. Bush (2004)
- The Good Samaritans: Bono / Bill Gates / Melinda Gates (2005)
- You (2006)
- Vladimir Putin (2007)
- Barack Obama (2008)
- Ben Bernanke (2009)
- Mark Zuckerberg (2010)
Cabinet of President Harry S. Truman (1945–1953) Vice PresidentNone (1945–1949) • Alben W. Barkley (1949–1953) Secretary of State Secretary of War Secretary of Defense Secretary of the Treasury Attorney General Postmaster General Secretary of the NavyJames Forrestal (1945–1947) Secretary of the Interior Secretary of the Agriculture Secretary of Commerce Secretary of Labor Recipients of the Charlemagne Prize
Richard Nikolaus Graf Coudenhove-Kalergi (1950) · Hendrik Brugmans (1951) · Alcide de Gasperi (1952) · Jean Monnet (1953) · Konrad Adenauer (1954) · Sir Winston S. Churchill (1956) · Paul Henri Spaak (1957) · Robert Schuman (1958) · George C. Marshall (1959) · Joseph Bech (1960) · Walter Hallstein (1961) · Edward Heath (1963) · Antonio Segni (1964) · Jens Otto Krag (1966) · Joseph Luns (1967) · The European Commission (1969) · François Seydoux de Clausonne (1970) · Roy Jenkins (1972) · Don Salvador de Madariaga (1973) · Leo Tindemans (1976) · Walter Scheel (1977) · Konstantinos Karamanlis (1978) · Emilio Colombo (1979) · Simone Veil (1981) · King Juan Carlos of Spain (1982) · The People of Luxembourg (1986) · Henry A. Kissinger (1987) · François Mitterrand and Helmut Kohl (1988) · Frère Roger (1989) · Gyula Horn (1990) · Václav Havel (1991) · Jacques Delors (1992) · Felipe González Márquez (1993) · Gro Harlem Brundtland (1994) · Franz Vranitzky (1995) · Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands (1996) · Roman Herzog (1997) · Bronisław Geremek (1998) · Anthony (Tony) Charles Lynton Blair (1999) · William Jefferson (Bill) Clinton (2000) · György Konrád (2001) · The euro (2002) · Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (2003) · Pat Cox (2004) · Extraordinary prize: Pope John Paul II (2004) · Carlo Azeglio Ciampi (2005) · Jean-Claude Juncker (2006) · Javier Solana (2007) · Angela Merkel (2008) · Andrea Riccardi (2009) · Donald Tusk (2010) · Jean-Claude Trichet (2011)
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