- Ping Pong Diplomacy
"Ping Pong Diplomacy" (zh-c|c=乒乓外交) refers to the exchange of ping pong players of the
United Statesand People's Republic of China(PRC) in the 1970s. The event marked a thaw in U.S.–China relations that paved the way to a visit to Beijing by President Richard Nixon.
The U.S. Table Tennis team was in
Japanin 1971 for the 31st World Table Tennis Championship when they received, on 6 April, an invitation to visit China. From the early years of the People's Republic, sports had played an important role in diplomacy, often incorporating the slogan "Friendship First, Competition Second". On 12 April 1971the team and accompanying journalists became the first American sports delegation to set foot in the Chinese capital since 1949. The meeting was facilitated by the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations. Prior to the visit by the American table tennis players, eleven Americans were admitted into the PRC for one week because they all professed affiliation with the international Black Panther Partyand China viewed the international organization as an American embassy. This was unusual, given that high-profile American citizens such as Senator Eugene McCarthyexpressed interest in visiting China after the 1968 presidential election, but even he could not have a trip arranged for him despite his office.
According to "History of U.S. Table Tennis" by American table tennis player
Tim Boggan, who went to China along with the U.S. Table Tennis Team, three incidents may have triggered the invitation from China. Welshman H. Roy Evans, then President of the International Table Tennis Federation, claimed that he visited China prior to the 31st World Table Tennis Championship and suggested to the Chinese sports authorities and Premier Zhou Enlaithat China should take steps to get in contact with the world through international sport events after the Cultural Revolution. Further, the American player Leah "Miss Ping" Neuberger, the 1956 World Mixed Doubles Champion and nine-time U.S. Open Women's Singles Champion, was traveling at the time with the Canadian Table Tennis Team that had been invited by China to visit the country. China diplomatically extended its approval of Leah Neuberger's application for a visa to the entire American team. The third incident, perhaps the most likely trigger, was the unexpected but dramatic meeting between the flamboyant American player Glenn Cowanand the Chinese player Zhuang Zedong, a three-time world champion and winner of many other table tennis events. Zhuang Zedong described the incident [http://uschina.usc.edu/ShowFeature.aspx?articleID=1067] in a 2007 talk at the USC U.S.-China Institute.
The events leading up to the encounter began when Glenn Cowan missed his team bus one afternoon after his practice in
Nagoyaduring the 31st World Table Tennis Championship. Cowan had been practicing for 15 minutes with the Chinese player, Liang Geliang, when a Japanese official came and wanted to close the training area. As Cowan looked in vain for his team bus, a Chinese player waved to him to get on his Chinese team bus. Moments after his casual talking through an interpreter to the Chinese players, Zhuang Zedong came up from his back seat to greet him and presented him with a silk-screen portrait of Huangshan Mountains, a famous product from Hangzhou. Cowan wanted to give something back, but all he could find from his bag was a comb. The American hesitantly replied, "I can't give you a comb. I wish I could give you something, but I can't." When it was time for them to get off the bus, hordes of photographers and journalists were waiting for them. In the political climate of the 1960s, the sight of an athlete of Communist China with an athlete of the United States was sure to garner attention. Glenn Cowan later bought a T-shirt with a red, white and blue, peace emblem flag and the words "Let It Be," which he presented to Zhuang Zedong at another chance meeting.
When a journalist asked Cowan, "Mr. Cowan, would you like to visit China?", he answered, "Well, I'd like to see any country I haven't seen before--Argentina, Australia, China, ... Any country I haven't seen before." "But what about China in particular? Would you like to go there?" "Of course," said Glenn Cowan.
During an interview in 2002 with the famous TV personality
Chen Luyu, Zhuang Zedongtold more of the story: "The trip on the bus took 15 minutes, and I hesitated for 10 minutes. I grew up with the slogan 'Down with the American imperialism!' And during the Cultural Revolution, the string of class struggle was tightened unprecedentedly, and I was asking myself, 'Is it okay to have anything to do with your No. 1 enemy?'" Zhuang recalled remembering that Chairman Mao Zedongmet Edgar Snowon the Rostrum of Tiananmenon the National Dayin 1970 and said to Snow that China should now place its hope on American people.Zhuang looked in his bag and first went through some pins, badges with Mao's head, silk handkerchiefs, and fans. But he felt these were not decent enough to be a good gift. He finally picked the said silk portrait of Huangshan Mountains. On the following day, many Japanese newspapers carried photographs of Zhuang Zedong and Glenn Cowan.
When the Chinese Department of Foreign Affairs received a report that the U.S. Table Tennis Team hoped to get invited to visit China, as usual, the Department declined.
Zhou Enlaiand Mao Zedonginitially agreed with the decision, but when Mao Zedongsaw the news in " Dacankao", a newspaper accessible only to high-ranking government officials, he decided to invite the U.S. Table Tennis Team. It was reported that Mao Zedong said, "This Zhuang Zedong not only plays table tennis well, but is good at foreign affairs, and he has a mind for politics." On April 10, 1971, nine American players, four officials, and two spouses stepped across a bridge from Hong Kongto the Chinese mainland and then spent their time during April 11–17 playing exhibition matches, touring the Great Walland Summer Palace, and watching a ballet.
In February 1972, U.S. President
Richard Nixonpaid his historic visit to China. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/21/newsid_2728000/2728761.stm On This Day, 1972: Nixon Makes Historic Visit to China, BBC.co.uk, accessed on June 12, 2008] ] Two months after Richard Nixon's visit, Zhuang Zedongvisited the U.S. as the head of a Chinese table-tennis delegation, April 12–30, 1972. Also on the itinerary were Canada, Mexicoand Peru. However, China's attempts to reach out to countries through "ping pong diplomacy" were not always successful, such as when the All Indonesia Table Tennis Association (PTMSI) refused China's invitation in October 1971, claiming that accepting the PRC's offer would improve the PRC's reputation. Because neither Soviet athletes nor journalists appeared in China following the appearance of the American players and journalists, one speculation is that the act showed the equal scorn of both countries towards the USSR.
During the week of June 9, 2008, the Ping Pong Diplomacy event was commemorated at a three-day event held at the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California.
* Boggan, Tim. [http://www.usatt.org/articles/ppoddity01.shtml "History of U.S. Table Tennis"]
*Bradsher, Henry S. “China: The Radical Offensive.” Asian Survey 13 (1973): 989-1009. JSTOR. UCLA Young Research Library, Los Angeles, CA. 25 Jan. 2008
*Mathews, Jay. “The Strange Tale of American Attempts to Leap the Wall of China:The Strange History of American Attempts...To Breach the great Wall of China.” New York Times 18 Apr. 1971: ProQuest. UCLA Young Research Library, Los Angeles, CA. 25 Jan. 2008
*Schwartz, Harry. “Triangular Politics and China.” New York Times 19 Apr. 1971: 37. ProQuest. UCLA Young Research Library, Los Angeles, CA. 25 Jan. 2008
*Van der Kroef, Justus M. “Before the Thaw: Recent Indonesian Attitudes toward People's China.” Asian Survey 13 (1973): 513-30. JSTOR. UCLA Young Research Library, Los Angeles, CA. 25 Jan. 2008
*Wu, Eugene. “Recent Developments in Chinese Publishing.” The China Quarterly 53 (1973): 134-138. JSTOR. UCLA Young Research Library, Los Angeles, CA. 25 Jan. 2008
* [http://uschina.usc.edu/ShowFeature.aspx?articleID=1067 Zhuang Zedong 2007 talk about the 1971 encounter]
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/china/peopleevents/pande07.html PBS article]
* [http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/pingpong.html Smithsonian Magazine article]
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/jun/10/china.usa New round of ping pong diplomacy]
The GuardianTuesday June 10, 2008
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