- Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Philippines|flagicon|Singapore Singapore|flagicon|Thailand Thailand|flagicon|Vietnam Vietnam
admin_center_type = nowrap|Seat of Secretariat
leader_title1 = Secretary General
Lee Hsien Loong
established_date1 = August 8, 1967
official_languages = Collapsible list |title=English |flagicon|Philippines flagicon|Singapore English |flagicon|Brunei flagicon|Malaysia flagicon|Singapore Malay |flagicon|Myanmar Burmese |flagicon|Singapore Chinese (Mandarin) |flagicon|Philippines Filipino |flagicon|Indonesia Indonesian |flagicon|Cambodia Khmer |flagicon|Laos Lao |flagicon|Singapore Tamil |flagicon|Thailand Thai |flagicon|Vietnam Vietnamese
area_magnitude = 1 E+12
area_km2 = 4464322
population_estimate = 575.5 million
population_estimate_year = 2007
population_density_km2 = 129
GDP_PPP = US$ 3,431.2 billion (2007)
GDP_PPP_year = 2007
GDP_PPP_per_capita = US$ 5,962
GDP_nominal = US$ 1,281.9 billion (2007)
GDP_nominal_year = 2007
GDP_nominal_per_capita = US$ 2,227
HDI = increase 0.742
HDI_year = 2007
HDI_rank = 100th¹
HDI_category = medium
currency = Collapsible list |title=10
time_zone = Collapsible list |title=ASEAN |flagicon|Myanmar |flagicon|Cambodia flagicon|Indonesia flagicon|Laos flagicon|Thailand flagicon|Vietnam
UTC+7|flagicon|Brunei flagicon|Indonesia flagicon|Malaysia flagicon|Philippines flagicon|Singapore UTC+8|flagicon|Indonesia UTC+9
official_website = http://www.asean.org/
footnote1 = If considered as a single entity.
footnote2 = [http://www.asean.org/stat/Table1.pdf Selected key basic ASEAN indicators]
footnote3 = Annual growth 1.6%
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, [ [http://www.aseansec.org/64.htm Overview] ] commonly referred to as ASEAN, pronEng|ˈɑːsiːɑːn "AH-see-ahn" in English (the
official languageof the bloc) [ [http://www.aseansec.org/2833.htm ASEAN-10: Meeting the Challenges, by Termsak Chalermpalanupap] , [http://www.aseansec.org/ ASEAN Secretariat official website] . Retrieved June 27, 2008] , is a geo- politicaland economic organizationof 10 countrieslocated in Southeast Asia, which was formed on August 8, 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singaporeand Thailand. [ . Wikisource. Retrieved March 14, 2007] Its aims include the acceleration of economic growth, social progress, cultural development among its members, the protection of the peace and stability of the region, and to provide opportunities for member countries to discuss differences peacefully. [ [http://www.aseansec.org/64.htm Overview] , [http://www.aseansec.org/ ASEAN Secretariat official website] . Retrieved June 12, 2006]
In 2005, the bloc spanned over 1.1 billion acres with a combined
GDP(Nominal/PPP) of about USD$896.5 billion/$2.728 billion growing at an average rate of around 5.6% per annum. Nominal GDP had grown to $1,073.9 billion in 2006.
██ ASEAN full members
██ ASEAN observers
██ ASEAN candidate members
██ ASEAN Plus Three
███ East Asia Summit
█████ ASEAN Regional Forum
ASEAN was preceded by an organization called the
Association of Southeast Asia, commonly called ASA, an allianceconsisting of the Philippines, Malaysia, and Thailand that was formed in 1961. The bloc itself, however, was established on August 8, 1967, when foreign ministersof five countriesndash Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailandndash met at the Thai Department of Foreign Affairs building in Bangkokand signed the ASEAN Declaration, more commonly known as the Bangkok Declaration. The five foreign ministersndash Adam Malikof Indonesia, Narciso Ramosof the Philippines, Abdul Razakof Malaysia, S. Rajaratnamof Singapore, and Thanat Khomanof Thailandndash are considered as the organization's Founding Fathers. [cite book |title=The Asia-Pacific Profile |author=Bernard Eccleston, Michael Dawson, Deborah J. McNamara |year=1998 |publisher=Routledge (UK) |url=http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0415172799&id=l07ak-yd6DAC&pg=RA1-PA311&lpg=RA1-PA311&ots=XgqmmGV3CC&dq=%22Bangkok+Declaration%22+ASEAN&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html&sig=u2ddDhzn-yVhEn5Fwu3d8iih0OA|id=ISBN 0415172799 ]
The motivations for the birth of ASEAN were the desire for a stable external environment (so that its members’ governing elite could concentrate on
nation building), the common fear of communism, reduced faith in or mistrust of external powers in the 1960s, as well as the aspiration for national economic development; not to mention Indonesia’s ambition to become a regional hegemonthrough regional cooperation and the hopeon the part of Malaysia and Singapore to constrain Indonesia and bring it into a more cooperative framework. Unlike the European Union, ASEAN was designed to serve nationalism. [cite book |title=Asian Security Practice: Material and Ideational Influences|author=Muthiah Alagappa|year=1998 |publisher=Stanford: Stanford University Press (US)|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=1t2DRZeDVx8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Asian+Security+Practice:+Material+and+Ideational&sig=5k92m6QGTHi32zipCdcnX7woEv0|id=ISBN-10: 0804733473]
In 1976, the
Melanesianstate of Papua New Guineawas accorded observer status. [ [http://www.aseansec.org/3839.htm ASEAN secretariat] ] Throughout the 1970s, the organization embarked on a program of economic cooperation, following the BaliSummit of 1976. This floundered in the mid-1980s and was only revived around 1991 due to a Thai proposal for a regional free trade area. The bloc then grew when Brunei Darussalambecame the sixth member after it joined on January 8, 1984, barely a week after the country became independent on January 1. [cite web |title=Background Note:Brunei Darussalam/Profile:/Foreign Relations |publisher=United States State Department |url=http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2700.htm |accessdate=2007-03-06 ]
On July 28, 1995,
Vietnambecame the seventh member. Laosand Myanmarjoined two years later in July 23, 1997.cite book|title=ASEAN Enlargement: impacts and implications|author=Carolyn L. Gates, Mya Than|year= 2001|publisher=Institute of Southeast Asian Studies|id=ISBN 9812300813] Cambodiawas to have joined together with Laos and Myanmar, but was deferred due to the country's internal political struggle. The country later joined on April 30, 1999, following the stabilization of its government.
During the 1990s, the bloc experienced an increase in both membership as well as in the drive for further integration. In 1990, Malaysia proposed the creation of an
East Asia Economic Caucus[http://www.aseansec.org/9303.htm East Asia Economic Caucus] . ASEAN Secretariat. Retrieved March 14, 2007.] composing the then-members of ASEAN as well as the People's Republic of China, Japan, and South Korea, with the intention of counterbalancing the growing influence of the United Statesin the APEC as well as in the Asian region as a whole. [ [http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs//data/1993/upl-meta-crs-66/93-633f_1993Jun30.txt?PHPSESSID=f7a7ec622077fa19bfce9ec9def6f3d9 Asia's Reaction to NAFTA] Nancy J. Hamilton. CRS - Congressional Research Service. Retrieved March 14, 2007.] This proposal, however, failed since it faced heavy opposition from Japan and the United States. [http://www.asiaviews.org/?content=ger53rger567664&voices=20060125184254 Whither East Asia?] Asian Views. Retrieved March 14, 2007.] [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/1994/07/26/caucus.php Japan Straddles Fence on Issue of East Asia Caucus] International Herald tribune. Retrieved March 14, 2007.] Despite this failure, member states continued to work for further integration. In 1992, the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) scheme was signed as a schedule for phasing tariffsand as a goal to increase the "region’s competitive advantage as a production base geared for the world market". This law would act as the framework for the ASEAN Free Trade Area. After the East Asian Financial Crisisof 1997, a revival of the Malaysian proposal was established in Chiang Mai, known as the Chiang Mai Initiative, which calls for better integration between the economies of ASEAN as well as the +3 countries (China, Japan, and South Korea). [cite web |title=Regional Financial Cooperation among ASEAN+3
Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs|url=http://www.mof.go.jp/english/if/regional_financial_cooperation.htm#CMI|accessdate=2008-09-29]
Aside from improving each member state's economies, the bloc also focused on peace and stability in the region. On December 15, 1995, the
Southeast Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treatywas signed with the intention of turning Southeast Asiainto a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone. The treaty took effect on March 28, 1997 after all but one of the member states have ratified it. It became fully effective on June 21, 2001, after the Philippinesratified it, effectively banning all nuclear weaponsin the region. [http://disarmament.un.org/TreatyStatus.nsf/Bangkok%20Treaty%20(in%20alphabetical%20order)?OpenView Bangkok Treaty (in alphabetical order) At UNODA] United Nations. Retrieved on September 4, 2008.]
At the turn of the 21st century, issues shifted to involve a more environmental prospective. The organization started to discuss
environmental agreements. These included the signing of the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollutionin 2002 as an attempt to control hazepollution in Southeast Asia. [ASEAN Secretariat. [http://www.aseansec.org/8914.htm ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution] . Extracted October 12, 2006] Unfortunately, this was unsuccessful due to the outbreaks of the 2005 Malaysian hazeand the 2006 Southeast Asian haze. Other environmental treaties introduced by the organization include the Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security, [ [http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/nation/view_article.php?article_id=43618 East Asian leaders to promote biofuel] , Philippine Daily Inquirer, March 13, 2007.] the ASEAN-Wildlife Enforcement Network in 2005, [ [http://www.aseansec.org/17933.htm ASEAN Statement on Launching of the ASEAN Wildlife Law Enforcement Network (ASEAN-WEN)] ] and the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, both of which are responses to Global Warmingand the negative effects of climate change.
Through the Bali Concord II in 2003, ASEAN has subscribed to the notion of
democratic peace, which means all member countries believe democratic processes will promote regional peace and stability. Also the non-democratic members all agreed that it was something all member states should aspire to. [ cite news |title=Asean: Changing, but only slowly |publisher=BBC |date= 2003-10-08|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/3173458.stm ]
The leaders of each country, particularly
Mahathir Mohamadof Malaysia, also felt the need to further integrate the region. Beginning in 1997, the bloc began creating organizations within its framework with the intention of achieving this goal. ASEAN Plus Threewas the first of these and was created to improve existing ties with the People's Republic of China, Japan, and South Korea. This was followed by the even larger East Asia Summit, which included these countries as well as India, Australia, and New Zealand. This new grouping acted as a prerequisite for the planned East Asia Community, which was supposedly patterned after the now-defunct European Community. The ASEAN Eminent Persons Groupwas created to study the possible successes and failures of this policy as well as the possibility of drafting an ASEAN Charter. In 2006, ASEAN was given observer status at the United Nations General Assembly. [ [http://globalnation.inquirer.net/news/news/view_article.php?article_id=28822 RP resolution for observer status in UN assembly OK’d] , Philippine Daily Inquirer, March 13, 2007.] As a response, the organization awarded the status of "dialogue partner" to the United Nations. [cite news |title=Philippines to Represent Asean in Un Meetings in Ny, Geneva |url=http://asia.news.yahoo.com/070307/4/2ykdn.html |publisher=Yahoo! News |date= 2007-03-07|accessdate=2007-03-13 ] Furthermore, on July 23 that year, José Ramos-Horta, then Prime Minister of East Timor, signed a formal request for membership and expected the accession process to last at least five years before the then-observer state became a full member. [cite news |title=East Timor ASEAN bid |url=http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/east-timor-asean-bid/2006/07/22/1153166635002.html |work=The Sun-Herald |publisher=The Sydney Morning Herald |date= 2007-01-28|accessdate=2007-09-20 ] [cite news |title=East Timor Needs Five Years to Join ASEAN: PM |publisher=ASEAN Secretariat |date= July 26, 2006|url=http://www.aseansec.org/afp/154.htm |accessdate=2007-03-03 ]
In 2007, ASEAN celebrated its 40th anniversary since its inception, and 30 years of diplomatic relations with the United States. [cite news |first=Pearl |last=Forss |title=US and ASEAN seeking to enhance relationship: Dr Balaji |url=http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/296251/1/.html |publisher=Channel NewsAsia |date=
2007-08-27|accessdate=2007-08-27 ] On August 26, 2007, ASEAN stated that it aims to complete all its free trade agreements with China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand by 2013, in line with the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community by 2015. [cite news |title=ASEAN to complete free trade agreements by 2013 |url=http://www.forbes.com/afxnewslimited/feeds/afx/2007/08/26/afx4054320.html |publisher=Forbes |date=2007-08-26 |accessdate=2007-08-27 ] [cite news |first=Christine |last=Ong |title=ASEAN confident of concluding FTAs with partners by 2013 |url=http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/economicnews/view/296149/1/.html |publisher=Channel NewsAsia |date= 2007-08-27|accessdate=2007-08-27 ] In November 2007 the ASEAN members signed the ASEAN Charter, a constitution governing relations among the ASEAN members and establishing ASEAN itself as an international legal entity.Fact|date=September 2008 During the same year, the Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Securityin Cebuon January 15, 2007, by ASEAN and the other members of the EAS ( Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea), which promotes energy securityby finding energy alternatives to conventional fuels.
The ASEAN Way
In the 1960s, the push for
decolonizationpromoted the sovereignty of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore, among others. Since nation building is often messy and vulnerableto foreign intervention, the governing elite wanted to be free to implement independent policieswith the knowledgethat neighbors would refrain from interfering in their domestic affairs. Territorially small members such as Singapore and Brunei were consciously fearful of forceand coercive measures from much bigger neighbors like Indonesia and Malaysia. As a result, non-interference, consensus, non-use of force and non-confrontation became the key principles of the organization.
surface, the processof consultations and consensus is supposed to be a democratic approach to decision making, but the ASEAN process has been managed through close interpersonal contacts among the top leaders only, who often share a reluctance to institutionalize and legalize co-operation which can undermine their regime’s control over the conduct of regional co-operation.
All of these features, namely non-interference, informality, minimal institutionalization, consultation and consensus, non-use of force and non-confrontation have constituted what is called the ASEAN Way.
Since the late 1990s, many scholars have argued that the principle of non-interference has blunted ASEAN efforts in handling the problem of Myanmar,
human rightsabuses and haze pollutionin the region. Meanwhile, with the consensus-based approach, every member in fact has a vetoand decisionsare usually reduced to the lowest common denominator. There has been a widespread belief that ASEAN members should have a less rigid viewon these two cardinal principles when they wish to be seen as a cohesive and relevant community.
Apart from consultations and consensus, ASEAN’s agenda-setting and decision-making processes can be usefully understood in terms of the so-called Track I and Track II. Track I refers to the practice of
diplomacyamong governmentchannels. The participants stand as representatives of their respective statesand reflect the official positions of their governments during negotiationsand discussions. All official decisions are made in Track I. Track II on the other hand refers to diplomatic activities that are unofficial and includes participants from both government and non-government institutions such as the academic, economic communities and NGOs. This track enables governments to discuss controversial issues and test new ideas without making official statements or binding commitments, and, if necessary, backtrack on positions.
Although Track II dialogues are sometimes cited as
examplesof the involvement of civil societyin regional decision-making process by governments and other second track actors, NGOs have rarely got access to this track, meanwhile participants from the academic community are a dozen think-tanks. However, these think-tanks are, in most cases, very much linked to their respective governments, and dependent on government funding for their academic and policy-relevant activities. Their recommendations, especially in economic integration, are often closer to ASEAN’s decisions than the rest of civil society’s positions.
The track that acts as a forum for civil society in Southeast Asia is called Track III, which is essentially people-to-people diplomacy undertaken mainly by CSOs. Track III
networksclaim to represent communities and people who are largely marginalised from political power centers and unable to achieve positive change without outside assistance. This track tries to influence government policies indirectly by lobbying, generating pressure through the media. Third-track actors also organise and/or attend meetings as well as conferencesto get access to Track I officials.
While Track II meetings and
interactionswith Track I actors have increased and intensified, rarely has the rest of civil society had the opportunity to interface with Track II. Those with Track I have been even rarer. In other words, the participation of the big majorityof CSOs has been excluded from ASEAN’s agenda-setting and decision-making.
Looking at the three tracks, it is clear that until now, ASEAN has been run by government officials who, as far as ASEAN matters are concerned, are accountable only to their governments and not the people. In a
lectureon the occasion of ASEAN’s 38th anniversary, the incumbent Indonesian President Dr. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono admitted:
“All the decisions about
treatiesand free trade areas, about declarations and plans of action, are made by Heads of Government, ministers and senior officials. And the fact that among the masses, there is little knowledge, let alone appreciation, of the large initiativesthat ASEAN is taking on their behalf.”
The organization holds meetings, known as the
ASEAN Summit, where heads of government of each member meet to discuss and resolve regional issues, as well as to conduct other meetings with other countries outside of the bloc with the intention of promoting external relations.
The ASEAN Leaders' Formal Summit was first held in Bali, Indonesia in 1976. Its third meeting was held in
Manilain 1987 and during this meeting, it was decided that the leaders would meet every five years. [http://www.summit99.ops.gov.ph/asean_structure.htm ASEAN Structure] , "ASEAN Primer"] Consequently, the fourth meeting was held in Singapore in 1992 where the leaders again agreed to meet more frequently, deciding to hold the summit every three years. In 2001, it was decided to meet annually to address urgent issues affecting the region. Member nations were assigned to be the summit host in alphabetical order except in the case of Myanmar which dropped its 2006 hosting rights in 2004 due to pressure from the United States and the European Union. [cite book |title=Roadmap to an Asean Economic Community |author=Denis Hew |year=2005 |publisher=Institute of Southeast Asian Studies |id=ISBN 9812303472 ]
The formal summit meets for three days. The usual itinerary is as follows:
* Leaders of member states would hold an internal organization meeting.
* Leaders of member states would hold a conference together with foreign ministers of the ASEAN Regional Forum.
* A meeting, known as ASEAN Plus Three, is set for leaders of three Dialogue Partners (People's Republic of China, Japan, South Korea)
* A separate meeting, known as ASEAN-CER, is set for another set of leaders of two Dialogue Partners (Australia, New Zealand).
██ ASEAN full members
██ ASEAN observers
██ ASEAN candidate members
██ ASEAN Plus Three
███ East Asia Summit
██████ ASEAN Regional Forum
The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) is a formal, official, multilateral dialogue in Asia Pacific region. As of July 2007, it is consisted of 27 participants. ARF objectives are to foster dialogue and consultation, and promote confidence-building and preventive diplomacy in the region. [ [http://www.aseanregionalforum.org/Default.aspx?tabid=49 About Us] , [http://www.aseanregionalforum.org/ ASEAN Regional Forum official website] . Retrieved June 12, 2006] The ARF met for the first time in 1994. The current participants in the ARF are as follows: all the ASEAN members,
Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, the People's Republic of China, the European Union, India, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Russia, Timor-Leste, United Statesand Sri Lanka. [ [http://www.dfat.gov.au/arf/ Official Website of Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade] Retrived August 3, 2008] The Republic of China (also known as Taiwan) has been excluded since the establishment of the ARF, and issues regarding the Taiwan Strait is neither discussed at the ARF meetings nor stated in the ARF Chairman's Statements.
Aside from the ones above, other regular [http://www.aseansec.org/11-2006.htm ASEAN Calendar of Meetings and Events November 2006] , ASEAN Secretariat. Retrieved March 13, 2007.] meetings are also held. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/country_profiles/4114415.stm#leaders BBC country profile/Asean leaders] , BBC. Retrieved March 13, 2007.] These include the annual ASEAN Ministerial Meeting [http://www.aseansec.org/89.htm ASEAN Ministerial Meetings] , ASEAN Secretariat. Retrieved March 13, 2007.] as well as other smaller committees, such as the
Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. [ [http://www.aseansec.org/73.htm] , ASEAN Secretariat. Retrieved March 16, 2007.] Meetings mostly focus on specific topics, such as defense or the environment, [cite news |title=Malaysians have had enough of haze woes |url=http://www.malaysianbar.org.my/content/view/4967/2/ |publisher=The Malaysian Bar |accessdate=2007-03-13 ] and are attended by Ministers, instead of heads of government.
ASEAN Plus Threeis a meeting between ASEAN, China, Japan, and South Korea, and is primarily held during each ASEAN Summit.
Asia-Europe Meeting(ASEM) is an informal dialogue process initiated in 1996, bringing together the European Union and the ASEAN Plus Three groupings. [cite book |title=Asia and Europe: the development and different dimensions of ASEM |author=Lay Hwee Yeo |year=2003 |publisher=Routledge (UK) |id=ISBN 0415306973 ] The soco-cultural non-profit organization, Asia-Europe Foundation, is associated with this meeting.
The ASEAN-Russia Summit is a meeting between leaders of member states and the President of Russia.
ASEAN has emphasized regional cooperation in the “three pillars” of security, sociocultural and economic integration. The regional grouping has made the most progress in economic integration, aiming to create an ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015. The AEC would have a combined population of over 566 million and a GDP exceeding US$ 1.173 trillion.
Free Trade Area
The foundation of the AEC is the
ASEAN Free Trade Area(AFTA), a common external preferential tariff scheme to promote the free flow of goods within ASEAN. The ASEAN Free Trade Area(AFTA) is an agreement by the member nations of ASEAN concerning local manufacturing in all ASEAN countries. The AFTA agreement was signed on January 28, 1992 in Singapore. When the AFTA agreement was originally signed, ASEAN had six members, namely, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Vietnam joined in 1995, Laos and Myanmar in 1997, and Cambodia in 1999. The latecomers have not fully met the AFTA's obligations, but they are officially considered part of the AFTA as they were required to sign the agreement upon entry into ASEAN, and were given longer time frames in which to meet AFTA's tariff reduction obligations.
The AIA will encourage the free flow of investment within ASEAN. The main principles of the AIA are as follows:Fact|date=September 2008
* All industries are to be opened up for investment, with exclusions to be phased out according to schedules
* National treatment is granted immediately to ASEAN investors with few exclusions
* Elimination of investment impediments
* Streamlining of investment process and procedures
* Enhancing transparency
* Undertaking investment facilitation measuresFull realization of the AIA with the removal of temporary exclusion lists in manufacturing agriculture, fisheries, forestry and mining is scheduled by 2010 for most ASEAN members and by 2015 for the CLMV (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Vietnam) countries.
Trade in Services
An ASEAN Framework Agreement on Trade in Services was adopted at the ASEAN Summit in Bangkok in December 1995. Under the agreement, ASEAN members are negotiating intra-regional services liberalization in several sectors, including air transport, business services, construction, financial services, maritime transport, telecommunications and tourism. Although some sectors have liberalized faster, such as air transport, other sectors remain subject to continued negotiation. Efforts to expand the scope of the Framework Agreement also remain subject to continued negotiations.
ingle Aviation Market
The ASEAN Single Aviation Market (SAM), proposed by the ASEAN Air Transport Working Group, supported by the ASEAN Senior Transport Officials Meeting, and endorsed by the ASEAN Transport Ministers, will introduce an open-sky arrangement to the region by 2015.cite web |url=http://www.asian-aerocad.com/news/news.php?newsid=23 |title=Asean Single Aviation Market |accessdate=2008-09-26 |publisher=The Straits Times |date=
2008-02-02] The ASEAN SAM will be expected to fully liberalize air travel between its member states, allowing ASEAN to directly benefit from the growth in air travel around the world, and also freeing up tourism, trade, investment and services flows between member states.cite news |url=http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-11/01/content_6990497.htm |title=Singaporean PM urges ASEAN to liberalize aviation |accessdate=2008-09-26 |work=chinaview.cn |publisher= Xinhua News Agency|date= 2007-11-01] Beginning December 1, 2008, restrictions on the third and fourth freedoms of the airbetween capital cities of member states for air passengers services will be removed, [cite news |url=http://www.straitstimes.com/Breaking%2BNews/Singapore/Story/STIStory_282410.html |title=Tiger offers 50,000 free seats |accessdate=2008-09-26 |last=Kaur |first= Karamjit |publisher=The Straits Times |date= 2008-09-25] while from January 1, 2009, there will be full liberalization of air freight services in the region, while [cite web |url=http://www.centreforaviation.com/aviation/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=5015 |title=Three quarters of a million more seats and counting- KL-Singapore benefits from liberalisation |accessdate=2008-09-26 |publisher=Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation |date=2008-09-28] By January 1, 2011, there will be liberalization of fifth freedom traffic rights between all capital cities.fact|date=September 2008
The organization hosts cultural activities in an attempt to further integrate the region. These include sports and educational activities as well as writing awards. Examples of these include the
ASEAN University Network, the ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity, the ASEAN Outstanding Scientist and Technologist Award, and the Singapore-sponsored ASEAN Scholarship.
.E.A. Write Award
S.E.A. Write Awardis a literary awardgiven to Southeast Asian poets and writers annually since 1979. The award is either given for a specific work or as a recognition of an author's lifetime achievement. Works that are honored vary and have included poetry, short stories, novels, plays, folkloreas well as scholarly and religiousworks. Ceremonies are held in Bangkok and is presided by a member of the Thai royal family.
ASAIHL or the
Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learningis a non-governmental organization founded in 1956 that strives to strengthen higher learning institutions, espescially in teaching, research, and public service, with the intention of cultivating a sense of regional identity and interdependence.
ASEAN Heritage Parks [ [http://www.aseanbiodiversity.org/AGP/default.htm] ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity. Retrieved March 13, 2007.] is a list of
nature parks launched 1984 and relaunched in 2004. It aims to protect the region's natural treasures. There are now 35 such protected areas, including the Tubbataha Reef Marine Parkand the Kinabalu National Park. [ [http://www.aseanbiodiversity.org/AGP/sites_list.htm ASEAN's Greatest Parks] , ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity. Retrieved March 13, 2007.]
ASEAN Scholarshipis a scholarship program offered by Singaporeto the 9 other member states for secondary school, junior college, and university education. It covers accommodation, food, medical benefits & accident insurance, school fees, and examination fees. [ [http://www.moe.gov.sg/education/scholarships/asean Ministry of Education, Singapore: ASEAN Scholarships ] ] .
ASEAN University Network(AUN) is a consortium of Southeast Asianuniversities. It was originally founded in November 1995 by 11 universities within the member states. [ [http://www.aun-sec.org/about_agreement.html ASEAN University Network/Agreement ] ] Currently AUN comprises 21 Participating Universities. [http://www.aun-sec.org/member_u.html]
outheast Asian Games
Southeast Asian Games, commonly known as the SEA Games, is a biennial multi-sport event involving participants from the current 11 countries of Southeast Asia. The games is under regulation of the Southeast Asian Games Federation with supervision by the International Olympic Committee(IOC) and the Olympic Council of Asia.
ASEAN Football Championshipis a biennial soccercompetition organised by the ASEAN Football Federation, accredited by FIFAand contested by the national teams of Southeast Asia nations. It was inaugurated in 1996 as Tiger Cup, but after Asia Pacific Breweriesterminated the sponsorship deal, "Tiger" was renamed "ASEAN".
ASEAN ParaGamesis a biennial multi-sport event held after every Southeast Asian Games for athletes with physical disabilities. The games are participated by the 11 countries located in Southeast Asia. The games, patterned after the Paralympics, includes mobility disabilities, amputees, visual disabilities, and those with cerebral palsy.
Western countries have criticized ASEAN for being too "soft" in its approach to promoting human rights and democracy in the junta-led Myanmar. [cite news |title=ADB president calls for building Asian economic integration |url=http://peacejournalism.com/ReadArticle.asp?ArticleID=16729 |publisher=Peace Journalism |date=
2007-01-03|accessdate=2007-04-03 ] Despite global outrage at the military crack-down on peaceful protesters in Yangon, ASEAN has refused to suspend Myanmar as a member and also rejects proposals for economic sanctions. [cite news |title=Japan Cancels Myanmar Grant |url=http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5iy-MfhLN9Q7MwtQ1VlrvexLjr2dAD8SA9CS00 |publisher=The Associated Press |date= 2007-10-17|accessdate=2007-10-18 ] This has caused concern as the European Union, a potential trade partner, has refused to conduct free trade negotiations at a regional level for these political reasons. [cite news |title=Burma an Issue in Asean-EU Trade Talks |url=http://www.irrawaddy.org/aviewer.asp?a=6693&z=163 |first=Sai |last=Silp |publisher=The Irawaddy News Magazine Online Edition |date= 2007-02-15|accessdate=2007-03-04 ] International observers view it as a "talk shop", [cite news |title=Malaysian foreign minister says ASEAN is no 'talk shop'|url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0WDQ/is_2005_Dec_5/ai_n15900039 |date= 2005-12-05|accessdate=2007-03-06 ] which implies that the organization is "big on words but small on action". [cite news |title=BBC Country/Internatonal Organization Profile: Association of Southeast Asian Nations |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/country_profiles/4114415.stm |publisher=BBC News |date= 2007-01-11|accessdate=2007-03-06 ]
During the 12th ASEAN Summit in Cebu, several activist groups staged
anti-globalizationand anti-Arroyo rallies. [cite news |title=About 100 militants stage protest vs Asean Summit in Cebu |url=http://www.gmanews.tv/video/3465/About-100-militants-stage-protest-vs-Asean-Summit-in-Cebu |publisher=GMA News |date= 2007-01-13|accessdate=2007-03-06 ] According to the activists, the agenda of economic integration would negatively affect industries in the Philippines and would cause thousands of Filipinos to lose their jobs.cite news |title=ASEAN protests in Cebu will also underscore massive opposition to Charter Change|url=http://www.kilusangmayouno.org/asean-protests-cebu-will-also-underscore-massive-opposition-charter-change |publisher=Kilusang Mayo Uno |date= 2006-12-07|accessdate=2007-03-06 ] They also viewed the organization as "imperialistic" that threatens the country's sovereignty. A human rightslawyer from New Zealandwas also present to protest about the human rights situation in the region in general. [cite news |title=NZ rights lawyer to join protests at ASEAN summit|url=http://www.laborrights.org/press/TUV/brian3_eiler_120706.htm|publisher=News and Press |date= 2006-12-07|accessdate=2007-03-06 ]
ASEAN has agreed to an ASEAN human rights body which will come into force in 2009. The Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand want this body to have an enforcement capacity, however Singapore, Viet Nam, Burma, Laos and Cambodia do not.
Asian Currency Unit
* [http://www.aseansec.org/ ASEAN Secretariat] Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
* [http://www.aseanfocus.com/ ASEAN Focus Group] Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
* [http://www.aseanfoundation.org/ ASEAN Foundation] Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
* [http://www.aseanregionalforum.org/ ASEAN Regional Forum] Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
* [http://www.aseansec.org/10921.htm ASEAN Secretariat Related Sites] Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
* [http://www.aseannewsnetwork.com ASEAN News Network (headline news links)] Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
* [http://www.asean.or.jp/eng/general/base/glance2004.html ASEAN-Japan Centre] Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/country_profiles/4114415.stm BBC Country Profile/Asean] Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
* [http://www.14thaseansummit.org 14th ASEAN Summit]
* [http://www.13thaseansummit.org.sg 13th ASEAN Summit] Singapore official site. Retrieved on September 16, 2007.
* [http://www.12thaseansummit.org.ph 12th ASEAN Summit] Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
* [http://www.11thaseansummit.org.my/ 11th ASEAN Summit] December 12-14, 2005, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia official site. Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
* [http://aseansummit.bernama.com/ 11th ASEAN Summit] December 12–14, 2005, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
* [http://www.aseansummitcebu.com/about_asean.html Cebu Summit unofficial website/ASEAN Quick Guide and General Info] Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
* [http://www.ceac.jp/e/index.html The Council on East Asian Community] Retrieved on March 13, 2007.
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZfHJdhVdIIQ Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tnqXEYI1yGg ASEAN Community]
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