- First Taiwan Strait Crisis
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict= First Taiwan Strait Crisis
Strait of Taiwan
United States Navy
combatant2=PRCThe First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short
armed conflictthat took place between the People's Republic of China(PRC) and the Republic of China(ROC) governments. PRC seized the Yijiangshan Islands, forcing ROC to abandon the Tachen Islands. The United States and ROC Navies joined forces to evacuate ROC military personnel and civilians from the Tachen Islands to Taiwan. Though the Tachen Islands changed hands during the crisis, American news reports focused almost exclusively on the Quemoyand Matsu islands, site of more frequent artillery duels.
Chinese Civil Warhad receded in scale in 1949, with Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang(KMT) and 1.3 million Kuomintang members abandoning the Chinese mainland and establishing a refuge on the island of Taiwan(also known as Formosa) which became, with the islands of Matsu and Quemoy, the sole territory under the jurisdiction of the Republic of China.
The Matsu and Quemoy island groups, situated in the Taiwan strait between the main island of Taiwan and the Chinese mainland, were the Nationalists' first line of defense against the
Communist Party of Chinaand were heavily fortified by Chiang.
United Statesrecognized Chiang's government as the sole legitimate government for all of China, President Harry Trumanannounced on January 5, 1950that the United States would not become involved in the dispute of Taiwan Straitand would not intervene in the event of an attack by the PRC. However, after the outbreak of the Korean Waron June 25, 1950, Truman declared the "neutralization of the Straits of Formosa" and sent the Seventh Fleetof the United States Navyinto the Strait to prevent any conflict between the Republic of China and the PRC, effectively putting Taiwan under American protection.
In June 1950, President Truman issued the following statement [http://www.geocities.com/taiwanstatus/taiwanstatus] :
"The attack upon Korea makes it plain beyond all doubt that communism has passed beyond the use of subversion to conquer independent nations and will now use armed invasion and war. It has defied the orders of the Security Council of the United Nations issued to preserve international peace and security. In these circumstances the occupation of Formosa by Communist forces would be a direct threat to the security of the Pacific area and to United States forces performing their lawful and necessary functions in that area." "Accordingly I have ordered the 7th Fleet to prevent any attack on Formosa. As a corollary of this action I am calling upon the Chinese Government on Formosa to cease all air and sea operations against the mainland. The 7th Fleet will see that this is done. The determination of the future status of Formosa must await the restoration of security in the Pacific, a peace settlement with Japan, or consideration by the United Nations.'
President Truman later ordered
John Foster Dulles, then Foreign Policy Advisor to the Secretary of State, to carry out his decision on neutralizing Taiwan in drafting the Treaty of Peace with Japan of 1951 which excluded the participation of both the ROC and PRC. No recipient was specified in the treaty of Taiwan's sovereignty, which supporters of Taiwan independencehave used to argue for their position [http://www.formosa.org/~taiwanpg/chap20.htm] . According to independence supporter George H. Kerr's "Formosa Betrayed", Taiwan's political status was under the trust of the Allied Powers and later the UN if it could not be solved in near future as designed in the treaty.
The Kuomintang maintained as its goal the objective of invading the mainland and renewing the civil war in order to overthrow the People's Republic of China and liberate China from Communist rule in favour of rule by the Kuomintang. Truman and his advisors regarded this goal as an unrealizable fantasy but the Truman Administration was criticized by anti-Communists for preventing any attempt by Chiang Kai-shek's forces to liberate mainland China.
Truman, a Democrat did not run in the 1952 presidential election which was won by Republican
Dwight Eisenhower. On February 2, 1953, the new President lifted the Seventh Fleet's blockade in order to fulfill demands by anti-Communists to "unleash Chiang Kai-shek" on the mainland.
1954, the Nationalists placed 58,000 troops on Quemoy and 15,000 troops on Matsu. The ROC began building defensive structures and the PRC began shelling ROC installations on Quemoy. Zhou Enlai, Premier of the People's Republic of Chinaresponded with a declaration on August 11, 1954that Taiwan must be "liberated." He dispatched the People's Liberation Army(PLA) and began shelling both Quemoy and Matsu.
Despite warnings from the U.S. against any attacks on the Republic of China the
People's Liberation Armyunleashed heavy artillery bombardment of Quemoy on September 3and intensified its actions in November by bombing the Tachen Islands. Since the PRC was not recognized by United States Department of Stateat the time, Chiang Kai Shekwas the only leader they could negotiate with. Chiang Kai Shekhad to be supported by the United States because the ROC had become an important ally in the vicinity of South East Asia.
September 12, the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staffrecommended the use of nuclear weapons against mainland China. Eisenhower, however, resisted pressure to use nuclear weapons or involve American troops in the conflict. However, on December 2, 1954, the United States and the ROC agreed to a mutual defense treaty which did not apply to islands along the Chinese mainland. The treaty was ratified by the United States Senateon February 9, 1955.
The PLA seized
Yijiangshan Islandson January 18, 1955. Fighting continued along the coast of the Chinese mainland and on Matsu and Kinmen islands. On January 29, 1955 the Formosa Resolution was approved by both houses of the United States Congressauthorizing Eisenhower to use U.S. forces to defend the ROC and its possessions in the Taiwan Strait against armed attack.
In February, British Prime Minister
Winston Churchillwarned the U.S. against using nuclear weapons but in March, United States Secretary of State John Foster Dullesstated publicly that the U.S. was seriously considering a nuclear strike. In response, NATO foreign ministers warned at a meeting of the alliance against such action. In late March, U.S. Admiral Robert B. Carneysaid that Eisenhower is planning "to destroy Red China's military potential."
The PRC backed down in the face of American nuclear brinksmanship and in light of the lack of willingness by the
Soviet Unionto threaten nuclear retaliation for an attack on the PRC. The PRC government stated on April 23, 1955 that it was willing to negotiate. On May 1 the PLA ceased shelling Quemoy and Matsu after losing an estimated minimum of 20,000 soldiers, and most of its landing craft. Today, the PRC government still has not yet released the official casulties of the 823 incident.The fundamental issues of the conflict remained unresolved, however, and both sides subsequently built up their military forces on their respective sides of the Taiwan Strait leading to a new crisis three years later.There are strong indications that Mao used the crisis in order to provoke the United States into making nuclear threats.
Battle of Kuningtou
Second Taiwan Strait Crisis
Third Taiwan Strait Crisis
Legal status of Taiwan
*Bush, R. & O'Hanlon, M. (2007). "A War Like No Other: The Truth About China's Challenge to America". Wiley. ISBN 0471986771
*Bush, R. (2006). "Untying the Knot: Making Peace in the Taiwan Strait". Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0815712901
*Carpenter, T. (2006). "America's Coming War with China: A Collision Course over Taiwan". Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1403968411
*Cole, B. (2006). "Taiwan's Security: History and Prospects". Routledge. ISBN 0415365813
*Copper, J. (2006). "Playing with Fire: The Looming War with China over Taiwan". Praeger Security International General Interest. ISBN 0275988880
*Federation of American Scientists et al. (2006). [http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/china/Book2006.pdf Chinese Nuclear Forces and U.S. Nuclear War Planning]
*Gill, B. (2007). "Rising Star: China's New Security Diplomacy". Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0815731469
*Shirk, S. (2007). "China: Fragile Superpower: How China's Internal Politics Could Derail Its Peaceful Rise". Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195306090
*Tsang, S. (2006). "If China Attacks Taiwan: Military Strategy, Politics and Economics". Routledge. ISBN 0415407850
*Tucker, N.B. (2005). "Dangerous Strait: the U.S.-Taiwan-China Crisis". Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231135645
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/quemoy_matsu.htm First Taiwan Strait Crisis] from GlobalSecurity.org
* [http://www.coldwar.org/articles/50s/taiwan_straits.asp First and Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, Quemoy and Matsu Islands of Taiwan] from the Cold War Museum
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