- George P. Shultz
name = George Pratt Shultz
order = 60th
United States Secretary of State
term_start = July 16, 1982
term_end = January 20, 1989
Walter John Stoessel, Jr.(1982) Kenneth W. Dam(1982-1985) John C. Whitehead(1985-1989)
Alexander Haig Walter John Stoessel, Jr.(acting)
order2 = 62nd
United States Secretary of the Treasury
term_start2 = June 12, 1972
term_end2 = May 8, 1974
John B. Connally
William E. Simon
order3 = 19th Director of the Office of Management and Budget
term_start3 = July 1, 1970
term_end3 = June 11, 1972
order4 = 11th
United States Secretary of Labor
term_start4 = January 22, 1969
term_end4 = July 1, 1970
W. Willard Wirtz
James D. Hodgson
birth_date=birth date and age|1920|12|13
New York City, New York
spouse=Helena Maria O'Brien Charlotte Mailliard Shultz
Economist, Professor, Businessman, Public servant
George Pratt Shultz (born December 13, 1920) served as the
United States Secretary of Laborfrom 1969 to 1970, as the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury from 1972 to 1974, and as the U.S. Secretary of State from 1982 to 1989. Originally an economist, he has also served as a university professorand a business executive.
Early life, education
George Shultz was born in
New York City, the son of Birl Earl Shultz and Margaret Lennox Pratt, the daughter of Rev. Edward Pratt of Shoshone, Idaho. In 1938, Shultz graduated from the Loomis Chaffee Schoolin Windsor, Connecticut, after which he received an B.A. degree in economicsfrom Princeton Universityin 1942. That same year he joined the U.S. Marine Corps and served until 1945, attaining the rank of Captain. In 1949, Shultz earned a Ph.D.from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His degree was in industrial economics.
While serving with the Marines in
Hawaii, he met his future wife, nurse lieutenant Helena Maria "Obie" O'Brien (1915-1995). They had five children. In 1997, after the death of Helena, he married Charlotte MailliardSwig, a prominent San Franciscosocialite. Their marriage was called the "Bay Area Wedding of the Year" and they remain a power couple in San Francisco.
He taught in both the
MIT Department of Economicsand the MIT Sloan School of Managementfrom 1948 to 1957, with a leave of absence in 1955 to serve on President Dwight Eisenhower's Council of Economic Advisers as a senior staff economist. In 1957, Shultz joined the University of ChicagoGraduate School of Business as professor of industrial relations. Later, he was named dean in 1962.
Joins Nixon's cabinet
Shultz served as President
Richard Nixon's secretary of labor from 1969 to 1970, after which he was director of the Office of Management and Budget. He then became United States Secretary of the Treasuryfrom May 1972 to May 1974. It was during this period that Shultz, along with Paul Volckerand Arthur Burns, supported the decision of the Nixon administration to end the gold standardand the Bretton Woods system. [ [http://www.blackelectorate.com/articles.asp?ID=311] ]
In 1974, he left government service to become president and director of Bechtel Group, a large
engineeringand services company.
ecretary of State for Reagan
On July 16, 1982, he was appointed by President
Ronald Reaganto serve as the sixtieth U.S. secretary of state, replacing Alexander Haig, who had resigned. Considered by some to be a doveon foreign policy within the Reagan administration, Shultz frequently clashed with the more hawkish members of the administration. In particular, he was well known for outspoken opposition to the "arms for hostages" scandal that would eventually become the Iran Contra situation. In a 1983 testimony before the U.S. Congress, he said that the Sandinistagovernment in Nicaraguawas "a cancerin our own land mass", that must be "cut out". He was also opposed to any negotiation with the government of Daniel Ortega: "Negotiations are a euphemism for capitulation if the shadow of power is not cast across the bargaining table." During the First Intifada(see Arab-Israeli conflict), Shultz "proposed ... an international convention in April 1988 ... on an interim autonomyagreement for the West Bankand Gaza Strip, to be implemented as of October for a three-year period" [Oded, 135] . However, this never materialized.
Comedians best know Shultz for State Department spokeswoman Phyllis Oakley's response to a question about the Princeton tiger tattooed on Shultz's posterior: "I'm not in a position to know."
George Shultz left office on January 20, 1989, but continues to be a strategist for the Republican Party. He was an advisor for
George W. Bush's presidential campaign during the 2000 election, and senior member of the so-called " Vulcans", a group of policy mentors for Bush which also included among its members Dick Cheney, Paul Wolfowitzand Condoleezza Rice. One of his most senior advisors and confidants is former ambassador Charles Hill, who holds dual positions at the Hoover Institutionand Yale University. Shultz has been called the father of the " Bush Doctrine", because of his advocacy of preventive war.cite news|url=http://www.opinionjournal.com/editorial/feature.html?id=110008308|title=Father of the Bush Doctrine|last=Henniger|first=Daniel|date=2006-04-29|publisher=Wall Street Journal|accessdate=2008-08-12] He generally defends the Bush administration's foreign policy.
After leaving public office in 1989, Shultz became the first prominent Republican to call for the legalization of
recreational drugs. He went on to add his signature to an advertisement, published in " The New York Times" on June 8, 1998, entitled "We believe the global war on drugsis now causing more harm than drug abuseitself."
He also has spoken against the Cuban embargo, going as far as calling the US policy towards
Cuba"insane". [cite video
people = George Shultz, Charlie Rose
title = [http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-1576985992050660771 Charlie Rose interview with George Shultz]
publisher = Charlie Rose Inc.
date = December 22, 2005] He has argued that
free tradewould help bring down Fidel Castro's regime and that the embargo only helps justify the continued repression in the island.
In August 2003, Shultz was named co-chair (along with
Warren Buffett) of California's Economic Recovery Council, an advisory group to the campaign of California gubernatorial candidate Arnold Schwarzenegger.
On January 5, 2006, he participated in a meeting at the
White Houseof former Secretaries of Defense and State, to discuss United States foreign policy with Bush administration officials.
Shultz is the chairman of the
JP Morgan Chasebank's International Advisory Council and an honorary director of the Institute for International Economics. He is a member of the Hoover Institutionat Stanford University, the Washington Institute for Near East Policy(WINEP) Board of Advisors, the New Atlantic Initiative, the prestigious Mandalay Camp at the Bohemian Grove, the Committee for the Liberation of Iraq, and the Committee on the Present Danger. He is honorary chairman of The Israel Democracy Institute (www.idi.org.il). Shultz formerly served on the board of directors for the Bechtel Corporation, Charles Schwab Corporation, and was a member of the board of directors of Gilead Sciencesfrom January 1996 to December 2005. He is currently a co-chairman of the North American Forumand also serves on the board for Accretive Health.
Honors and prizes
* Received the
Presidential Medal of Freedom(January 19, 1989).
* Received the
Seoul Peace Prize(1992).
* Received the United States Military Academy's
Sylvanus Thayer Award(1992).
* Received the
Woodrow WilsonAward for Public Service (2000).
* Received the
Eisenhower Medal for Leadership(2001).
* Received the
Lead21Lifetime Achievement Award (2005).
* Received the
Emma Lazarus Statue of LibertyAward (April 25, 2007).
* Received the Truman Medal for Economic Policy October 1, 2007.
International Conference on Nuclear Disarmament
* Shultz, George P. and Shoven, John B. "Putting Our House in Order: A Guide to Social Security and Health Care Reform". New York: W. W. Norton, 2008
* Oded, Eran. "Arab-Israel Peacemaking." "The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East". Ed.
Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002.
*Citation|url=http://www-hoover.stanford.edu/bios/shultz.html|title=George P. Shultz|publisher=
Hoover Institution, Stanford University|date=2008.
* Shultz, George Pratt. "Turmoil and Triumph: My Years as Secretary of State", New York: Scribner's 1993.
* [http://www.hoover.org/bios/shultz.html Brief Biography] The
* [http://www.dol.gov/asp/programs/history/shultz.htm U.S. Department of Labor Biography]
* [http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/news.html?in_article_id=398239&in_page_id=1770 Tony Blair: Partying with the super rich in America] A
Daily Mailarticle on Tony Blair's attendance at a party arranged by Shultz's wife in San Francisco in July, 2006.
* [http://freetochoose.net/media_02_1_abstract.html George Shultz speech] at
Milton Friedman's 90th birthday.
* [http://tigernet.princeton.edu/~cl1952/poakley.htm Phyllis Oakley and the tattoo] [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb5244/is_199704/ai_n19714497 More]
* [http://asmeascholars.com Association for the Study of the Middle East and Africa ] (ASMEA)
* [http://youtube.com/watch?v=fSsYabTogqk George Shultz discusses his book "Putting Our House in Order"] (filmed on April 15, 2008 at Stanford)
* [http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=07/09/06/1412242 George Shultz on panel] (aired on "Democracy Now!" program, September 6, 2007
* [http://www.charlierose.com/guests/george-shultz George Shultz on Charlie Rose]
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