- Restatement of Policy on Germany
"Restatement of Policy on Germany" is a famous speech by
James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgarton September 6, 1946.
Also known as the "Speech of hope" it set the tone of future U.S. policy as it repudiated the
Morgenthau Planeconomic policies and with its message of a change to a policy of economic reconstruction gave the Germans hope for the future.
The Western powers' worst fear by now was that the poverty and hunger would drive the Germans to
Communism. General Lucius Claystated "There is no choice between being a communist on 1,500 calories a day and a believer in democracy on a thousand".
The speech was also seen as a first firm stand against the
Soviet Unionas it stated the intention of the United Statesto maintain a military presence in Europeindefinitely. But the heart of the message was as Byrnes stated a month later "The nub of our program was to win the German people . . . it was a battle between us and Russia over minds. . . ."
On the question of territorial integrity of Germany it was stated that "the United States will not support any encroachment on territory which is indisputably German or any division of Germany which is not genuinely desired by the people concerned. So far as the United States is aware the people of the
Ruhr areaand the Rhinelanddesire to remain united with the rest of Germany. And the United States is not going to oppose their desire."
Byrnes also questioned the Polish and
Sovietclaims to all German territory east of the Oder-Neisse line, an area comprising roughly 25% of pre-war (1937) Germany. The territory had been handed over for Polish and Soviet administration at the Potsdam conference, the border was to be determined at the peace conference (which did not take place until 1990), although with the area cleansed of most of its ethnic German population over the years 1945-50 it de-facto became Polish and Soviet territory. "The United States will support revision of these frontiers in Poland's favor. However, the extent of the area to be ceded to Poland must be determined when the final settlement is agreed upon".
A stated exception to U.S. support for self determination was the support given in the speech to the French claim to the
The President's Economic Mission to Germany and Austria
A Report on Germany
John Gimbel[http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0032-3195%28197206%2987%3A2%3C242%3AOTIOTP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-9 "On the Implementation of the Potsdam Agreement: An Essay on U.S. Postwar German Policy"] Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 87, No. 2. (Jun., 1972), pp. 242-269.
* [http://usa.usembassy.de/etexts/ga4-460906.htm Text of the "Stuttgart speech", September 6, 1946]
* [http://www.daz.org/enJamesFByrnes.html James Francis Byrnes and U.S. Policy towards Germany 1945-1947] Deutsch-Amerikanische Zentrum / James-F.-Byrnes-Institut e.V
* James W. Riddleberger [http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/riddle3.htm (Part 3)] , [http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/riddle1.htm (Part 1)] Chief, Division of Central European Affairs, U.S. Dept. of State, 1944-47
* [http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/clayl.htm General Lucius D. Clay] Commander in chief, U.S. Forces in Europe and military governor, U.S. Zone, Germany, 1947-49
* [http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/releases/2006/march/policy_germany.htm U.K. Policy towards Germany] National Archives excerpts of Cabinet meetings, part of which discuss the speech and the Morgenthau plan.
* [http://time.com/time/archive/preview/0,10987,888296,00.html Time Magazine, Sep. 16, 1946. "Journey to Stuttgart"]
* [http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/02/script.html CNN] Iron Curtain.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Restatement — may refer to:*Restatement of History of Islam, 1996 book written by Sayed Ali Asgher Razwy, history of Islam is retold from the Shi a perspective *Restatement of the Law, published by the American Law Institute as scholarly refinements of black… … Wikipedia
History of Germany (1945–1990) — History of Germany This article is part of a series … Wikipedia
History of Germany since 1945 — As a consequence of Germany s defeat in World War II and the onset of the Cold War, the country was split between the two global blocs in the East and West. Germany would not be reunited until 1990. The division of GermanyFour occupation zones [… … Wikipedia
Industrial plans for Germany — The Level of Industry plans for Germany were the effected Allied plans to lower and control German industrial potential after World War II. BackgroundAt the Potsdam conference, with the U.S. operating under influence of the Morgenthau plan, [Cite … Wikipedia
Reconstruction of Germany — The reconstruction of Germany was a long process. After World War II, Germany suffered heavy losses: the country s cities were severely damaged from the heavy bombings in the closing chapters of World War II, agricultural production was only 35%… … Wikipedia
History of Germany — Despite the lack of a German nation state prior to 1871, the History of Germany dates back to the era of the Germanic tribes. Following the migration period, the Franks subsequently subdued the West Germanic tribes, who made up for most of East… … Wikipedia
The President's Economic Mission to Germany and Austria — was the title of a series of reports commissioned by U.S. President Harry S. Truman and written by former U.S. President Herbert Hoover. Based on Hoover s previous experience with Germany at the end of World War I, in January 1947 President Harry … Wikipedia
A Report on Germany — After World War II, at the request of General Lucius D. Clay, Lewis H. Brown wrote A Report on Germany , which served as a detailed recommendation for the reconstruction of post war Germany, and served as a basis for the Marshall Plan. General… … Wikipedia
Morgenthau Plan — The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. Areas in grey are areas intended for control by France, Poland and the USSR … Wikipedia
Origins of the Cold War — Part of a series on the History of the Cold War Origins of the Cold War World War II … Wikipedia