- Ruhollah Khomeini
name = Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini
birth_date = birth date|1902|9|24|df=y
Khomein, Markazi Province, Persian Empire
death_date = death date and age|1989|06|04|1902|09|21
Batoul Saqafi Khomeini
children = Ahmad, Mustafa & others; grandchildren: Hassan, Hussein,
Ali Khomeini& Ali,Zahra, Atefeh Eshraghi
office = 1st
Supreme Leader of Iran
December 3 1979
June 3, 1989
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Islam( Shi'a- Twelver) SeyyedRuhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian: audio|Khomeini.ogg|روح الله موسوی خمینی , pronounced [IPA|ruːh-ol-lɑːh-e muːsæviː-je xomejniː] )( September 24, 1902harvnb|DeFronzo|2007|p=286. "born September 24, 1902..."] harvnb|Karsh|2007|p=220. "Born on September 24, 1902, into a devout small-town family, Khomeini..."] – June 3 1989) was an Iranian religious leader and scholar, politician, and leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolutionwhich saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader—the paramount political figure of the new Islamic Republic until his death. Khomeini was a " marja" or "marja al-taqlid", ("source of emulation"), (also known as a Grand Ayatollah) providing religious leadership to many Twelver Shi'a Muslims, but is most famous for his political role. In his writings and preachings he expanded the Shi'a theory of "velayat-e faqih", the "guardianship of the jurisconsult (clerical authority)" to include theocratic political rule by Islamic jurists and to provide the theological basis for his rule of Iran. Internationally he also made a great impact, and has been called "the virtual face of Islamin Western popular culture," [Nasr, Vali, "The Shia Revival," Norton, (2006), p.138] during his reign as ruler of Iran. He was named "Time"'s Man of the Year in 1979 and also one of "Time" magazine's 100 most influential people of the 20th century. Known as "Imam Khomeini" by his supporters and the Islamic government of Iran, [Moin, "Khomeini", (2001), p.201] he is commonly referred to as "Ayatollah Khomeini" outside of Iran.
Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini was born to Mustafa Musawiharvnb|Khomeini|Algar|2002|p=ix] and Hajiyah Aga Khanum in the town of
Khomein,harvnb|Moin|2000|p=2] about 300 kilometers (180 miles) south of Tehran, on [Some sources place Khomeini's birth date on May 17, 1900, or another date in September 1902. See [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9045329 Encyclopedia Britannica] .] September 24, 1902. Khomeini is called a " sayyid" as his family allegedly descends from the seventh of the Twelve Imams, Musa al-Kazim. Several of his close ancestors were dedicated to Islamic studies: his father and both of his grandfathers were all Shia clerics. [harvnb|Moin|2000|pp=2-3] Khomeini's paternal grandfather, Sayid Ahmad Musawi Hindi, spent many years in Indiabefore returning to Persia to purchase a home in Khomein that his family would own until the late twentieth century. [harvnb|Moin|2000|p=3. "Five years or so later, in 1839,... remain in his family for well over a century and a half."] [harvnb|Karsh|2007|p=220. "...Khomeini lost his father when he was five months old."] Khomeini's father was murdered when he was still a baby. Popular myth insists Khomeini's father was killed by Reza Shah, however this Shah would not come to power for another twenty-five years. Many historians today believe his father may have been the victim of a local dispute. [cite news |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE5DC163CF937A35755C0A96F948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=3 |publisher=The New York Times |date= 1989-06-04|accessdate=2007-12-26 |title=Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, 89, the Unwavering Iranian Spiritual Leader |last=Anderson |first=Raymond H.] [harvnb|Moin|2000|pp=6-8] [harvnb|Daniel|2001|p=176. "His father was murdered... (in a dispute with a rival family..."] Khomeini's mother and one of his aunts proceeded to raise him until 1918, when both of them died.harvnb|Moin|2000|p=18] Ruhollah Khomeini began to study the Qur'an, Islam's holiest book, and elementary Persian at age six.harvnb|Reich|1990|p=311] The following year, he began to attend a local school, where he learned math, science, geography, and other traditional subjects. Throughout his childhood, he would continue his religious and secular education with the assistance of his relatives, including his mother's cousin, Ja'far, and his elder brother, Morteza Pasandideh.harvnb|Milani|1994|p=85]
World War I, arrangements were made for him to study at the Islamic seminary in Esfahan, but he was attracted instead to the seminary in Arak, under the leadership of Ayatollah Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi. [harvnb|Moin|2000|p=22] In 1920, Khomeini moved to Arak and commenced his studies. [harvnb|Brumberg|2001|p=45. "By 1920, the year Khomeini moved to Arak..."] The following year, Ayatollah Haeri Yazdi transferred the Islamic seminary to the holy city of Qom, southwest of Tehran, and invited his students to follow. Khomeini accepted the invitation, moved, and took up residence at the Dar al-Shafa school in Qom. [harvnb|Moin|2000|p=28. "Khomeini's madraseh in Qom was known as the Dar al-Shafa..."] Khomeini's studies included Islamic law (" sharia") and jurisprudence (" fiqh"), but by that time, Khomeini had also acquired an interest in poetry and philosophy (" irfan"). So, upon arriving in Qom, Khomeini sought the guidance of MirzaAli Akbar Yazdi, a scholar of philosophy and mysticism. Yazdi died in 1924, but Khomeini would continue to pursue his interest in philosophy with two other teachers, Javad Aqa Maleki Tabrizi and Rafi'i Qazvini. [harvnb|Moin|2000|p=42] harvnb|Brumberg|2001|p=46] However, perhaps Khomeini's biggest influences were yet another teacher, Mirza Muhammad 'Ali Shahabadi, [harvnb|Rāhnamā|1994|pp=70-1] and a variety of historic Sufi mystics, including Mulla Sadraand Ibn Arabi.
color = #cef2e0
name = Ruhollah Musawi Khomeini
title= Imam Khomeini
24 September 1902
death = Death date and age|1989|6|3|1902|9|24|
Fiqh, Irfan, Islamic philosophy, Islamic ethics, Hadith, politics
Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists, Dynamic Fiqh
works = ,
Tahrir-ol-vasyleh, Forty Hadith, Adab as Salat
Mulla Sadra, Abdol-Karim Haeri-Yazdi, Hassan Modarres, Mohammad-Ali Shah Abadi
Mohammad Beheshti, Hossein-Ali Montazeri, Morteza Motahhari, Ali Khamenei, Akbar Hashemi, Fazel Lankarani Ruhollah Khomeini was a lecturer at Najaf and Qum seminaries for decades before he was known in the political scene. He soon became a leading scholar of Shia Islam. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/khomeini_ayatollah.shtml BBC - History - Ayatollah Khomeini (1900-1989) ] ] He taught political philosophy [ [http://www.irib.ir/Occasions/hejrate%20imam-Kuwait/imam.en.HTM] ] , Islamic history and ethics. Several of his students (e.g. Morteza Motahhari) later became leading Islamic philosophers and also "marja." As a scholar and teacher, Khomeini produced numerous writings on Islamic philosophy, law, and ethics. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9045329/Ruhollah-Khomeini Ruhollah Khomeini - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ] He showed an exceptional interest in subjects like philosophyand gnosticismthat not only were usually absent from the curriculum of seminaries but were often an object of hostility and suspicion. [ [http://www.irib.ir/Occasions/imam%20khomeini/ImamKhomeini-en.HTM] ]
His seminary teaching often focused on the importance of religion to practical social and political issues of the day. He was the first Iranian cleric to try to refute the outspoken advocacy of secularism in the 1940s. His first book, "Kashf al-Asrar" (Uncovering of Secrets) [ [http://gemsofislamism.tripod.com/khomeini_works.html#answer_kashf_al-asrar Kashf al-Asrar] ] published in 1942, was a point-by-point refutation of "Asrar-e hazar salih" (Secrets of a Thousand Years), a tract written by a disciple of Iran's leading anti-clerical historian,
Ahmad Kasravi. [ [http://www.bookrags.com/biography/ruhollah-musavi-khomeini-ayatollah/ Encyclopedia of World Biography on Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini, Ayatullah] ] In addition, he went from Qom to Tehran to listen to Ayatullah Hasan Mudarris- the leader of the opposition majority in Iran's parliament during 1920s. Khomeini became a marjain 1963, following the death of Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Husayn Borujerdi.
Khomeini held a moderate standpoint vis-à-vis
Greek Philosophyand regarded Aristotleas the founder of logic. [http://www.imamreza.net/eng/imamreza.php?print=4250 Philosophy as Viewed by Ruhollah Khomeini] ] He was also influenced by Plato's philosophy. About Plato he said: "In the field of divinity, he has grave and solid views ...". [ Kashful-Asrar, p. 33 by Ruhollah Khomeini (] On the other hand, Khomeini attacks the philosophy of Descartesand regards it as weak. Among Islamic philosophers, Khomeini was mainly influenced by Avicennaand Mulla Sadra.
Literature and Poetry
Apart from philosophy, Khomeini was also interested in literature and poetry. His poetry collection was released after his death. Beginning in his adolescent years, Khomeini composed mystic, political and social poetry.
"We" and "I" are both from reason
That are used as ropes to bind
In mass of those who are drunk
Neither "I" is nor "We" to find [ [http://www.geocities.com/ahlulbayt14/khom-poem.html Imam Khomeini's Poems ] ]
His poetry works were published in three collections "The Confidant," "The Decanter of Love and Turning Point" and "Divan". [ [http://www.irib.ir/Ouriran/imam/writing/html/en/page9.htm] ]
After Khomeini began to achieve fame as the leader of the revolution, his religious writings, such as "Resaleh Towzih al-Masa'el" [ [http://gemsofislamism.tripod.com/khomeini_works.html#answer_resaleh "Resaleh Towzih al-Masa'el"] ] and "Tahrir al-Vasileh," [ [http://gemsofislamism.tripod.com/khomeini_works.html#answer_tahrir Tahrir al-Vasileh] ] were examined critically by opponents who raised questions about their legalistic and hypothetical nature, especially the number of questions dealing with aberrant sex,
beastiality, incest, defecation and urination. [ [http://www.biblio.com/details.php?dcx=7608955&aid=frg Little Green Book] ] [ [http://www.homa.org/Details.asp?ContentID=2137352826&TOCID=2083225445 Khomeini's Teachings on sex with infants and animals ] ] After mocking a fatwa by Khomeini dealing with "the problem of sex with chickens" and who may consume a sodomized chicken, author Azar Nafisicomplained that "what was disturbing was that these texts were taken seriously by people who ruled us and in whose hand lay our fate and the fate of our country." [Nafisi, Azar, "Reading Lolita in Tehran: A Memoir in Books", Random House, 2003, p.71]
Early political activity
At the age of 61, Khomeini found the arena of leadership open following the deaths of Ayatollah Sayyed Husayn Borujerdi (1961), the leading, although quiescent, Shiite religious leader; and
Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Kashani(1962), an activist cleric. The clerical class had been on the defensive ever since the 1920s when the secular, anti-clerical modernizer Reza ShahPahlavi rose to power. The " White Revolution" of Reza's son Muhammad Reza Shah, was a further challenge to the ulama. [ [http://www.bookrags.com/biography/ruhollah-musavi-khomeini-ayatollah/ Encyclopedia of World Biography on Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini, Ayatollah] ]
Opposition to the White Revolution
In January 1963, the Shah announced the "
White Revolution," a six-point program of reform calling for land reform, nationalizationof the forests, the sale of state-owned enterprises to private interests, electoral changes to enfranchisewomen and allow non-Muslims to hold office, profit-sharingin industry, and a literacy campaign in the nation's schools. Some of these initiatives were regarded as dangerous, Westernizing trends by traditionalists, especially by the powerful and privileged Shi'a ulama(religious scholars). [ [http://www.nmhschool.org/tthornton/mehistorydatabase/arabisraeliwars.htm#white%20revolution] ] Ayatollah Khomeini summoned a meeting of the other senior marjas of Qom and persuaded them to decree a boycott of the referendum on the White Revolution. On January 22, 1963Khomeini issued a strongly worded declaration denouncing the Shah and his plans. Two days later the Shah took an armored column to Qom, and delivered a speech harshly attacking the ulama as a class.
Khomeini continued his denunciation of the Shah's programs, issuing a manifesto that bore the signatures of eight other senior Iranian
Shiareligious scholars. In it he listed the various ways in which the Shah had allegedly violated the constitution, condemned the spread of moral corruption in the country, and accused the Shah of submission to America and Israel. He also decreed that the Nowruzcelebrations for the Iranian year 1342 (which fell on March 21, 1963) be canceled as a sign of protest against government policies.
On the afternoon of 'Ashura (
June 3, 1963), Khomeini delivered a speech at the Feyziyeh madrasahdrawing parallels between the infamous tyrant Yazid and the Shah, denouncing the Shah as a "wretched, miserable man," and warning him that if he did not change his ways the day would come when the people would offer up thanks for his departure from the country. [ [http://www.iranchamber.com/history/rkhomeini/ayatollah_khomeini.php] , Moin, "Khomeini," (2000), p. 104.]
June 5, 1963, (15 of Khordad), two days after this public denunciation of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Khomeini was arrested. This sparked three days of major riots throughout Iran and led to the deaths of some 400. That event is now referred to as the Movement of 15 Khordad. [Moin, "Khomeini," (2000), p. 112.] Khomeini was kept under house arrest for 8 months and released in 1964.
Opposition to capitulation
During November 1964, Khomeini denounced both the Shah and the
United States, this time in response to the "capitulations" or diplomatic immunity granted by the Shah to American military personnel in Iran [http://www.irib.ir/worldservice/imam/speech/16.htm Khomeini's speech against capitalism] , IRIB World Service.] Shirley, "Know Thine Enemy" (1997), p. 207.] . The famous "capitulation" law (or "status-of-forces agreement") would allow members of the U.S. armed forces in Iran to be tried in their own military courts. Khomeini was arrested in November 1964 and held for half a year. Upon his release, he was brought before Prime Minister Hasan Ali Mansur, who tried to convince Khomeini that he should apologize and drop his opposition to the government. Khomeini refused. In fury, Mansur slapped Khomeini's face. [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,920508-5,00.html. The Unknown Ayatullah Khomeini - TIME] ] Two weeks later, Mansur was assassinated on his way to parliament. Four members of the Fadayan-e Islamwere later executed for the murder.
Advisers to the Shah recommended executing the ayatollah perhaps, an accidental death. The Shah refused and sent Khomeini into exile to
Iraq. "Former royalist officials now living in London, Parisand Los Angelesstill grumble about the decision not to kill Khomeini in 1964." [Molavi, Afshin, "The Soul of Iran," Norton (2005), p. 250.]
Life in exile
Khomeini spent more than 14 years in exile, mostly in the holy Shia city of
Najaf, Iraq. Initially he was sent to Turkeyon 4 November 1964where he stayed in the city of Bursafor less than a year. He was hosted by a colonel in Turkish Military Intelligence named Ali Cetinerin his own residence, who couldn't find another accommodation alternative for his stay at the time. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E06E0D9153EF934A1575BC0A9669C8B63&sec=&pagewanted=all nyt.com The People's Shah] ] Later in October 1965 he was allowed to move to Najaf, Iraq, where he stayed until being forced to leave in 1978, after then-Vice President Saddam Husseinforced him out (the two countries would fight a bitter eight year war 1980-1988 only a year after the two reached power in 1979) after which he went to Neauphle-le-Châteauin Franceon a tourist visa, apparently not seeking political asylum, where he stayed for four months. According to Alexandre de Marenches, chief of External Documentation and Counter-Espionage Service (now known as the DGSE), France would have suggested to the shah to "organize a fatal accident for Khomeini"; the shah declined the assassination offer, as that would have made Khomeini a martyr.
By the late 1960s, Khomeini was a
marja-e taqlid (model for imitation) for "hundreds of thousands" of Shia, one of six or so models in the Shia world. [Mottahedeh, Roy, "The Mantle of the Prophet : Religion and Politics in Iran", One World, Oxford, 1985, 2000, p.246]
While in the 1940s Khomeini accepted the idea of a limited monarchy under the Iranian Constitution of 1906-1907 — as evidenced by his book Kashf al-Asrar — by the 1970s he rejected the idea.
In early 1970, Khomeini gave a series of lectures in Najaf on Islamic government, later published as a book titled variously "Islamic Government" or "Islamic Government: Authority of the Jurist" (""). This was his most famous and influential work, and laid out his ideas on governance (at that time):
*That the laws of society should be made up only of the laws of God ("
Sharia"), which cover "all human affairs" and "provide instruction and establish norms" for every "topic" in "human life." ["Islam and Revolution" (1981), pp. 29-30.]
*Since "Shariah," or Islamic law, is the proper law, those holding government posts should have knowledge of "Sharia." Since Islamic jurists or faqih have studied and are the most knowledgeable in "Sharia," the country's ruler should be a "
faqih" who "surpasses all others in knowledge" of Islamic law and justice, ["Islam and Revolution" (1981), p. 59.] (known as a marja`), as well as having intelligence and administrative ability. Rule by monarchs and/or assemblies of "those claiming to be representatives of the majority of the people" (i.e. elected parliaments and legislatures) has been proclaimed "wrong" by Islam. ["Islam and Revolution", (1981), p.31, 56]
*This system of clerical rule is necessary to prevent injustice, corruption, oppression by the powerful over the poor and weak, innovation and deviation of Islam and Sharia law; and also to destroy anti-Islamic influence and conspiracies by non-Muslim foreign powers. ["Islam and Revolution" (1981), p.54.]
A modified form of this wilayat al-faqih system was adopted after Khomeini and his followers took power, and Khomeini was the Islamic Republic's first "Guardian" or "
Supreme Leader". In the meantime, however, Khomeini was careful not to publicize his ideas for clerical rule outside of his Islamic network of opposition to the Shah which he worked to build and strengthen over the next decade. Cassette copies of his lectures fiercely denouncing the Shah as (for example) "... the Jewish agent, the American snake whose head must be smashed with a stone", [Khomeini on a cassette tape [source: Gozideh Payam-ha Imam Khomeini (Selections of Imam Khomeini’s Messages), Tehran, 1979, (Taheri, "The Spirit of Allah," (1985), p.193)] became common items in the markets of Iran, [Parviz Sabeti, head of SAVAK's `anti-subversion unit`, believed the number of cassettes "exceeded 100,000." (Taheri, "The Spirit of Allah," (1985), p.193)] helped to demythologize the power and dignity of the Shah and his reign. Aware of the importance of broadening his base, Khomeini reached out to Islamic reformist and secular enemies of the Shah, despite his long-term ideological incompatibility with them.
After the 1977 death of Dr.
Ali Shariati(an Islamic reformist and political revolutionary author/academic/philosopher who greatly popularized the Islamic revival among young educated Iranians), Khomeini became the most influential leader of the opposition to the Shah. He was perceived by many Iranians as the spiritual, if not political, leader of revolt. Adding to his mystique was the circulation among Iranians in the 1970s of "an old Shia saying attributed to the Imam Musa al-Jafar." Prior to his death in 799, al-Jafar was said to have prophesied that `A man will come out from Qom and he will summon people to the right path. There will rally to him people resembling pieces of iron, not to be shaken by violent winds, unsparing and relying on God.` Khomeini was said to match this description. [Mackay, "Iranians" (1996), p.277; source: Quoted in Fouad Ajami, "The Vanished Imam: Musa al Sadr and the Shia of Lebanon" (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986), p.25]
As protest grew so did his profile and importance. Although thousands of kilometers away from Iran in Paris, Khomeini set the course of the revolution, urging Iranians not to compromise and ordering work stoppages against the regime. [Harney, "The Priest" (1998), p.? ] During the last few months of his exile, Khomeini received a constant stream of reporters, supporters, and notables, eager to hear the spiritual leader of the revolution. [Moin, "Khomeini," (2000), p.203]
upreme leader of Islamic Republic of Iran
Return to Iran
Khomeini had refused to return to Iran until the Shah left. On
January 16, 1979, the Shah did leave the country (ostensibly "on vacation"), never to return. Two weeks later, on Thursday, February 1, 1979, Khomeini returned in triumph to Iran, welcomed by a joyous crowd estimated at at least six million by ABC Newsreporter Peter Jennings, who was reporting the event from Tehran.
On the airplane on his way to Iran, Khomeini was asked by reporter Peter Jennings: "What do you feel in returning to Iran?" Khomeini answered "Hichi" (nothing) [ [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZPpB-r5mMCI Hichi !!!] ] . This statement was considered reflective of his mystical or puritanical belief that "Dar al-Islam", rather than the motherland, was what mattered, and also a warning to Iranians who hoped he would be a "mainstream nationalist leader" that they were in for disappointment. [Moin, "Khomeini," (2001), p.199 ]
Khomeini adamantly opposed the provisional government of
Shapour Bakhtiar, promising "I shall kick their teeth in. I appoint the government. I appoint the government by support of this nation."` [Taheri, "The Spirit of Allah," (1985), p.241] [ [http://www.aviny.com/News/82/11/12/03.aspx امروز در آینه تاریخ ] ] On February 11[(Bahman 22)] , Khomeini appointed his own competing interim prime minister, Mehdi Bazargan, demanding, "since I have appointed him, he must be obeyed." It was "God's government," he warned, disobedience against which was a "revolt against God." [Moin "Khomeini," (2000), p.204]
Establishment of new government
As Khomeini's movement gained momentum soldiers began to defect to his side, and Khomeini declared jihad on soldiers who did not surrender. [Moin, "Khomeini", (2000), p.205-6] On
February 11[(Bahman 22)] , as revolt spread and armories were taken over, the military declared neutrality and the Bakhtiar regime collapsed. [Moin, "Khomeini", (2000), p.206] On March 30, 1979, and March 31, 1979, a referendum to replace the monarchy with an Islamic Republic passed with 98% voting yes (sic). [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-32981 Encyclopædia Britannica] .]
Islamic constitution and its opposition
Although revolutionaries were now in charge and Khomeini was their leader, many revolutionaries, both secular and religious, did not approve of or were unaware of Khomeini's plan for Islamic government by "wilayat al-faqih," which involved rule by a marja` Islamic cleric -- "i.e.", by him. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/269799.stm World: Middle East Analysis: The forces for change] ] Nor did the new provisional constitution for the Islamic Republic, which revolutionaries had been working on with Khomeini's approval, include the post of supreme Islamic clerical ruler. [ [http://gemsofislamism.tripod.com/khomeini_promises_kept.html#Islamic_Clerics Khomeini's REVERSALS of Promises ] ] At the same time, as the undisputed leader of the revolution with enormous mass support, Khomeini had considerable leeway to change the direction of the revolution. In the coming months, Khomeini and his supporters worked to suppress these former allies now becoming opponents, and rewrite the proposed constitution. Newspapers were closed, and those protesting the closings were attacked. [Moin "Khomeini", (2000), p.219] Opposition groups such as the National Democratic Front and Muslim People's Republican Party were attacked and finally banned. [Bakhash, Shaul "The Reign of the Ayatollahs" p.68-9] Through a combination of popular support and questionable balloting pro-Khomeini candidates gained an overwhelming majority of the seats of the Assembly of Experts [Schirazi, "Constitution of Iran" Tauris, 1997 p.22-3] which revised the proposed constitution. The new constitution included an Islamic jurist
Supreme Leaderof the country, and a Council of Guardiansto veto un-Islamic legislation and screen candidates for office, disqualifying those found un-Islamic.
In November 1979 the new constitution of the Islamic Republic was passed by referendum. Khomeini himself became instituted as the
Supreme Leader(supreme jurist ruler), and officially decreed as the "Leader of the Revolution." On February 4, 1980, Abolhassan Banisadrwas elected as the first president of Iran. Helping pass the controversial constitution was the Iran hostage crisis.
22 October 1979, the Shah was admitted into the United States for medical treatment for lymphoma. There was an immediate outcry in Iran and on November 4, 1979, a group of Islamist, pro-Khomeini students seized the United States embassyin Tehran, taking 63 Americans hostage. After a judicious delay, Khomeini supported the hostage-takers with the slogan "America can't do a damn thing against us." [p.105, "Reading Lolita in Tehran : a Memoir in Books" by Azar Nafisi] 53 of the hostages were held prisoner for 444 days, an event usually referred to as the Iran hostage crisis. On February 23, 1980, Khomeini proclaimed Iran's Majliswould decide the fate of the American embassy hostages, and demanded that the United States hand over the Shah for trial in Iran for crimes against the nation. Although the Shah died less than a year later, the crisis continued. In America, the hostage taking was seen as a violation of long-established international law and arroused intense anti-Iranian feeling. [ [http://www.newstatesman.com/asia/2008/09/iran-ahmadinejad-government "Inside Iran", Maziar Bahari, Published 11 September 2008] ] [Bowden, Mark, "Guests of the Ayatollah", Atlantic Monthly Press, (2006)] In Iran, supporters of Khomeini named the embassy a " Den of Espionage", and publicized the guns, espionage equipment and many volumes of official and secret classified documents they found there. Others explain the length of the imprisonment on what Khomeini is reported to have told his president: "This action has many benefits. ... This has united our people. Our opponents do not dare act against us. We can put the constitution to the people's vote without difficulty, and carry out presidential and parliamentary elections." Moin, "Khomeini," (2000), p.228] The new theocratic constitution did successfully pass its referendum one month after the hostage-taking, which did succeed in splitting its opposition -- radicals supporting the hostage taking and moderates opposing it. [Example of anti-theocratic support for the hostage crisis in Nafisi, Azar, "Reading Lolita in Tehran: A Memoir in Books", Random House, 2003, p.105-6, 112]
Shortly after assuming power, Khomeini began calling for Islamic revolutions across the Muslim world, including Iran's Arab neighbor Iraq, [1980
April 8- Broadcast call by Khomeini for the pious of Iraq to overthrow Saddam and his regime. Al-Dawa al-Islamiya party in Iraqi is the hoped for catalyst to start rebellion. From: Mackey, "The Iranians", (1996), p.317] the one large state besides Iran with a Shia majority population. At the same time Saddam Hussein, Iraq's secular Arab nationalist Ba'athist leader, was eager to take advantage of Iran's weakened military and (what he assumed was) revolutionary chaos, and in particular to occupy Iran's adjacent oil-rich province of Khuzestan, and, of course, to undermine Iranian Islamic revolutionary attempts to incite the Shi'a majority of his country.
With what many Iranians believe was the encouragement of the United States,
Saudi Arabiaand other countries, Iraq soon launched a full scale invasion of Iran, starting what would become the eight-year-long Iran–Iraq War(September 1980 - August 1988). A combination of fierce resistance by Iranians and military incompetence by Iraqi forces soon stalled the Iraqi advance and by early 1982 Iran regained almost all the territory lost to the invasion. The invasion rallied Iranians behind the new regime, enhancing Khomeini's stature and allowed him to consolidate and stabilize his leadership. After this reversal, Khomeini refused an Iraqi offer of a truce, instead demanding reparation and toppling of Saddam Husseinfrom power. [Wright, "In the Name of God," (1989), p.126 ] [Time Magazine [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,950688,00.html] ] [The Iran–Iraq War: Strategy of Stalemate [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1985/SRE.htm] ]
Outside powers supplied arms to both sides during the war, but the West wanted to be sure the Islamic revolution did not spread to other parts of the oil-exporting Persian Gulf and began to supply Iraq with whatever help it needed. Most military sales came from the USSR and the USA, and also from France, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt. Most rulers of other Muslim countries also supported Iraq out of opposition to the Islamic ideology of
Islamic Republic of Iran, which threatened their own native monarchies. On the other hand most Islamic parties and organizations supported Islamic unity with Iran, especially the Shiite ones.Fact|date=February 2007
The war continued for another six years, with 450,000 to 950,000 casualties on the Iranian side and at a cost estimated by Iranian officials to total USD $300 billion. [Moin, "Khomeini", (2000), p.252]
As the costs of the eight-year war mounted, Khomeini, in his words, “drank the cup of poison” and accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations. He strongly denied however that pursuit of overthrow of Saddam had been a mistake. In a `Letter to Clergy` he wrote: `... we do not repent, nor are we sorry for even a single moment for our performance during the war. Have we forgotten that we fought to fulfill our religious duty and that the result is a marginal issue?` [Moin, "Khomeini," (2000), p.285]
As the war ended, the struggles among the clergy resumed and Khomeini’s health began to decline.
In early 1989, Khomeini issued a
fatwacalling for the assassination of Salman Rushdie, an India-born British author. Khomeini claimed that Rushdie's assassination was a religious duty for Muslims because of his alleged blasphemyagainst Muhammadin his novel, " The Satanic Verses", published in 1988. Rushdie's book contains passages that many Muslims – including Ayatollah Khomeini – considered offensive to Islamand the prophet, but the fatwa has also been attacked for violating the rules of fiqhby not allowing the accused an opportunity to defend himself, and because "even the most rigorous and extreme of the classical jurist only require a Muslim to kill anyone who insults the Prophet in his hearing and in his presence." [Bernard Lewis's comment on Rushdie fatwa in "The Crisis of Islam" (2003) by Bernard Lewis, p.141-2]
Though Rushdie publicly apologized, the fatwa was not revoked. Khomeini explained,
Even if Salman Rushdie repents and becomes the most pious man of all time, it is incumbent on every Muslim to employ everything he has got, his life and wealth, to send him to Hell. [Moin, "Khomeini", (2000), p.284 ]Rushdie himself was not killed but
Hitoshi Igarashi, the Japanese translator of the book "The Satanic Verses", was murdered and two other translators of the book survived attempted assassinations. [" [http://web.archive.org/web/20020602193856/http://www.nytimes.com/books/99/04/18/specials/rushdie-translator.html Japanese Translator of Rushdie Book Found Slain] ", WEISMAN, Steven R. www.nytimes.com, July 13 1991.] More of Khomeini's fatwa were compiled in "The Little Green Book, Sayings of Ayathollah Khomeini, Political, Philosophical, Social and Religious".
Life under Khomeini
In a speech given to a huge crowd after returning to Iran from exile
February 1, 1979, Khomeini made a variety of promises to Iranians for his coming Islamic regime: A popularly elected government that would represent the people of Iran and with which the clergy would not interfere. He promised that “no one should remain homeless in this country,” and that Iranians would have free telephone, heating, electricity, bus services and free oil at their doorstep. While many changes came to Iran under Khomeini, these promises have yet to be fulfilled in the Islamic Republic. [ [http://www.iran-bulletin.org/economics/HOUSING.html Iran Bulletin] ] [ [http://www.ansar.org/english/abbas.htm DFN: Entrance Exam and the Time of Resurrection ] ] [ [http://www.holycrime.com/ Holy Crime, crime of clergy, clergical crime, Ecclesiastical crime, spritual,purity, inocent, Iran, Iranian, Persia, Persian Culture, Art, History Land and People, Poetry, religion, Organizations and directories,Daneshjoo, Nothing but Iran ] ] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/talking_point/4091508.stm BBC NEWS] ] [ [http://www.secularislam.org/visitors/41.htm] Dead link|date=March 2008] [ [http://www.iranian.com/Pictory/2003/February/prom.html "Khomeini:We want to improve your economic and spiritual lives..."] ]
Khomeini was more interested in the religious devotion of Muslims than their material prosperity -- six months after his first speech he expressed exasperation with complaints about the sharp drop in Iran's standard of living: `I cannot believe that the purpose of all these sacrifices was to have less expensive melons` [(Khomeini July 1979) [quoted in The Government of God p.111. "see the FBIS for typical broadcasts, especially GBIS-MEA-79-L30, July 5, 1979 v.5 n.130, reporting broadacasts of the National Voice of Iran.] ]
Under Khomeini's rule,
Sharia(Islamic law) was introduced, with the Islamic dress code enforced for both men and women by Islamic Revolutionary Guardsand other Islamic groups [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/world/iran/basij.htm Gobal Security, Intelligence: Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij - Mobilisation Resistance Force] ] Women were required to cover their hair, and men were not allowed to wear shorts. The Iranian educational curriculum was Islamized at all levels with the Islamic Cultural Revolution; the " Committee for Islamization of Universities" [ [http://www.iranculture.org/en/about/tarikh.php Secretariat of the Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution. Brief history of the SCCR] ] carried this out thoroughly.
uppression of enemies and opposition
Opposition to the religious rule of the clergy or
Islamic government in general was often met with harsh punishments. In a talk at the Fayzieah School in Qom, August 30, 1979, Khomeini warned opponents: "Those who are trying to bring corruption and destruction to our country in the name of democracy will be oppressed. They are worse than Bani-Ghorizeh Jews, and they must be hanged. We will oppress them by God's order and God's call to prayer." [ [http://www.iranian.com/Opinion/2003/August/Khomeini/ Democracy? I meant theocracy By Dr. Jalal Matini, "The Iranian", August 5, 2003] ]
Mohammad Reza Pahlaviand his family left Iran and escaped harm, but hundreds of former members of the overthrown monarchy and military met their end in firing squads, with critics complaining of "secrecy, vagueness of the charges, the absence of defense lawyers or juries", or the opportunity of the accused "to defend themselves." [Bakhash, "The Reign of the Ayatollahs" (1984), p.61] In later years these were followed in larger numbers by the erstwhile revolutionary allies of Khomeini's movement -- Marxists and socialists, mostly university students -- who opposed the theocratic regime. [Bakhash, "The Reign of the Ayatollahs," (1984), p.111]
1988 massacre of Iranian prisoners, following the People's Mujahedin of Iranoperation Forough-e Javidan against the Islamic Republic, Khomeini issued an order to judicial officials to judge every Iranian political prisoner and kill those who would not repent anti-regime activities. Estimates of the number executed vary from 1,400 [ [http://www.holycrime.com/Images/Listof1367Massacre.pdf Massacre 1988 (Pdf)] ] to 30,000. [ [http://www.iranfocus.com/modules/news/article.php?storyid=160 Memories of a slaughter in Iran] ] [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2001/02/04/wiran04.xml Khomeini fatwa 'led to killing of 30,000 in Iran'] ] [ [http://www.daneshjooyan.org/english/article/130403a.html "The Millimeter Revolution" By ELIZABETH RUBIN ] .]
Although many hoped the revolution would bring freedom of speech and press, this was not to be. In defending forced closing of opposition newspapers and attacks on opposition protesters by club-wielding vigilantes, Khomeini explained, `The club of the pen and the club of the tongue is the worst of clubs, whose corruption is a 100 times greater than other clubs.` Bakhash, "The Reign of the Ayatollahs" (1984), p.146
Life for religious minorities has been mixed under Khomeini and his successors. Earlier statements by Khomeini were antagonistic towards Jews, but shortly after his return from exile in 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini issued a fatwa ordering that
Jews and other minorities (except Baha'is) be treated well. [Wright, "Last Revolution" (2000), p.207] [ [http://www.sephardicstudies.org/iran.html IRAN: Life of Jews Living in Iran] ] In power, Khomeini distinguished between Zionismas a secular political party that enjoys Jewish symbols and ideals and Judaismas the religion of Moses. [ R. Khomeini `The Report Card on Jews Differs from That on the Zionists,` "Ettelaat", 11 May 1979] ] As Haroun Yashyaei, a film producer and former chairman of the Central Jewish Community in Iranhas said:
Take it from me, the Jewish community here faces no difficulties. If some people left after the revolution, maybe it's because they were scared. [ [http://www.csmonitor.com/durable/1998/02/03/intl/intl.3.html Jews in Iran Describe a Life of Freedom Despite Anti-Israel Actions by Tehran] ]By law, four of the 270 seats in parliament are reserved for three non-Islamic minority religions. Khomeini also called for unity between Sunni and Shi'a Muslims (Sunni Muslims are the largest religious minority in Iran). ["4% belong to the Sunni branch", http://www.iranonline.com/iran/iran-info/people/index.html]
Non-Muslim religious minorities, however, do not have equal rights in Khomeini's Islamic Republic. Senior government posts are reserved for Muslims. Jewish, Christian and Zoroastrian schools must be run by Muslim principals. [ Wright, "The Last Great Revolution," (2000), p.210] Compensation for death paid to the family of a non-Muslim was (by law) less than if the victim was a Muslim. Conversion to Islam is encouraged by entitling converts to inherit the entire share of their parents (or even uncle's) estate if their siblings (or cousins) remain non-Muslim. [ Wright, "The Last Great Revolution," (2000), p.216] Iran's non-Muslim population has fallen dramatically. For example, the Jewish population in Iran dropped from 80,000 to 30,000 in the first two decades of the revolution. [ Wright, "The Last Great Revolution," (2000), p.207]
Unlike the other non-Muslims in Iran, the 300,000 members of the
Bahá'í Faith, are actively harassed. "Some 200 of whom have been executed and the rest forced to convert or subjected to the most horrendous disabilities." ["Turban for the Crown : The Islamic Revolution in Iran", by Said Amir Arjomand, Oxford University Press, 1988, p.169] Starting in late 1979 the new government systematically targeted the leadership of the Bahá'í community by focusing on the Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly (NSA) and Local Spiritual Assemblies (LSAs); prominent members of NSAs and LSAs were either killed or disappeared.cite web | author= Iran Human Rights Documentation Center | publisher = Iran Human Rights Documentation Center | title= A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Baha'is of Iran | date= 2007 | accessdate = 2007-10-06|url=http://www.iranhrdc.org/english/pdfs/Reports/bahai_report.pdf] Like most conservative Muslims, Khomeini believed them to be apostates, for example issuing a fatwa stating:
It is not acceptable that a tributary [non-Muslim who pays tribute] changes his religion to another religion not recognized by the followers of the previous religion. For example, from the Jews who become Bahai's nothing is accepted except Islam or execution. [from Poll Tax, 8. Tributary conditions, (13), "Tahrir al-Vasileh," volume 2, pp. 497-507, Quoted in "A Clarification of Questions : An Unabridged Translation of Resaleh Towzih al-Masael" by Ayatollah Sayyed Ruhollah Mousavi Khomeini, Westview Press/ Boulder and London, c1984, p.432 ]
and emphasized that the Bahá'ís would not receive any religious rights, since he believed that the Bahá'ís were a political rather than religious movement. [cite journal | first = James | last = Cockroft | date = 1979-02-23 | journal = Seven Days] [cite news | date= 1979-02-13 | title = U.S. Jews Hold Talks With Khomeini Aide on Outlook for Rights | work = The New York Times]
the Baha'is are not a sect but a party, which was previously supported by Britain and now the United States. The Baha'is are also spies just like the
Tudeh[Communist Party] . [source: "Kayhan International", May 30, 1983; see also Firuz Kazemzadeh, `The Terror Facing the Baha'is` "New York Review of Books", 1982, 29 (8): 43-44.] ]
During the drafting of the new constitution the wording intentionally excluded the Bahá'ís from protection as a religious minority.cite book | title = Human Rights in Iran: The Abuse of Cultural Relativism | first = Reza | last = Afshari | year = 2001 | id = ISBN 978-0-8122-3605-7 | location = Philadelphia, PA | publisher = University of Pennsylvania Press | pages = pp. 132]
Emigration and economy
Many Shia Iranians have also left the country. While the revolution has made Iran more strict Islamically, an estimated "two to four million entrepreneurs, professionals, technicians, and skilled craftspeople (and their capital)" have emigrated to other countries. Partly as a result, the economy has not prospered in terms of inflation, unemployment and living standards. [ [http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/templateC04.php?CID=23 "Iran's Economic Morass: Mismanagement and Decline under the Islamic Republic"] ISBN 0-944029-67-1] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6240287.stm Huge cost of Iranian brain drain By Frances Harrison] ] The poor have also exhibited dissatisfaction. Absolute poverty rose by nearly 45% during the first 6 years of the Islamic revolution [ Based on the government's own Planning and Budget Organization statistics, from: Jahangir Amuzegar, `The Iranian Economy before and after the Revolution,` "Middle East Journal" 46, n.3 (summer 1992): 421)] and on several occasions the "mustazafin" have rioted, protesting the demolition of their shantytowns and rising food prices. Disabled war veterans have demonstrated against mismanagement of the Foundation of the Disinherited. [ [http://gemsofislamism.tripod.com/khomeini_promises_kept.html#Class_Division Khomeini's REVERSALS of Promises ] ]
Death and funeral
After eleven days in a hospital for an operation to stop internal bleeding, Khomeini died of a heart attack on Saturday,
June 3, 1989, at the age of 86. [Spencer, William. The Middle East. Global Studies Series. Eleventh Edition] June 2007] Iranians poured out into the cities and streets to mourn Khomeini's death in a "completely spontaneous and unorchestrated outpouring of grief." [Moin, "Khomeini" (2000), p.312]
Despite the hundred-degree heat, crushing mobs created an impassable sea of black for miles as they wailed, chanted and rhythmically beat themselves in anguish ... As the hours passed, fire trucks had to be brought in to spray water on the crowd to provide relief from the heat, while helicopters were flown in to ferry the eight killed and more than four hundred injured ... " ["In the Name of God : The Khomeini Decade" by Robin Wright, (1989), p.204]It was the biggest funeral in recorded history, eleven million people attended it. Iranian officials aborted Khomeini’s first funeral, after a large crowd stormed the funeral procession, nearly destroying Khomeini's wooden coffin in order to get a last glimpse of his body. At one point, Khomeini's body actually almost fell to the ground, as the crowd attempted to grab pieces of the death shroud. The second funeral was held under much tighter security. Khomeini's casket was made of steel, and heavily armed security personnel surrounded it. In accordance with Islamic tradition, the casket was only to carry the body to the burial site. Khomeini's grave is now housed within a larger mausoleum complex.
Hossein Montazeri, a major figure of the Revolution, was designated by Khomeini to be his successor as Supreme Leader. The principle of "velayat-e faqih" and the Islamic constitution called for the Supreme Ruler to be a " marja" or grand ayatollah, and of the dozen or so grand ayatollahs living in 1981 only Montazeri accepted the concept of rule by Islamic jurist. [ [http://gemsofislamism.tripod.com/khomeini_promises_kept.html#ref_58d The Islamic Republic Will Be Run By the Most Learned Jurist] ] In 1989 Montazeri began to call for liberalization, freedom for political parties. Following the execution of thousands of political prisoners by the Islamic government, Montazeri told Khomeini `your prisons are far worse than those of the Shah and his SAVAK.` [Ahmad Khomeini’s letter, in Resalat, cited in The Reign of the Ayatollahs: Iran and the Islamic Revolution, rev. ed. by Shaul Bakhash, p.282 ] After a letter of his complaints was leaked to Europe and broadcast on the BBC a furious Khomeini ousted him from his position as official successor.
Writers in the West report that the amendment made to Iran's constitution removing the requirement that the
Supreme Leaderto be a Marja, was to deal with the problem of a lack of any remaining Grand Ayatollahswilling to accept " velayat-e faqih." [Moin, "Khomeini" (2000) p.293] [Mackey, Sandra"The Iranians" (1996), p.353] [Roy, Olivier, "The Failure of Political Islam," translated by Carol Volk Harvard University Press, 1994, p.173-4] However, others say the reason marjas were not elected was because of their lack of votes in the Assembly of Experts, for example Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Reza Golpayganihad the backing of only 13 members of the assembly. Furthermore, there were other marjas present who accepted " velayat-e faqih" [ [http://www.radiofarda.com/Article/2006/12/08/f2_rafsanjani.html «آیت الله خامنه ای با ولایت فرد مخالف بود» - radiofarda.com ] ] [ [http://khabarnameh.gooya.com/politics/archives/006610.php] [ [http://aftabnews.ir/vdchmzn23-nkm.html خبرگزاری آفتاب - توضیحات هاشمی درباره شورای رهبری ] ] Grand Ayatollah Hossein Montazericontinued his criticism of the regime and in 1997 was put under house arrest for questioning the unaccountable rule exercised by the supreme leader. [Profile: Iran's dissident ayatollah [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2699541.stm BBC NEWS] ] [ [http://www.irvl.net/Translation%20of%20Ayatollah%20Khomeini's%20Letter%20Dismissing%20Montazeri.htm] ] [ [http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east/iran/leader_khamenei.html Redirect ] ] He was released in 2003.
Political thought and legacy
History of political Islam in Iran"Throughout his many writings and speeches, Khomeini's views on governance evolved. Originally declaring rule by monarchs or others permissible so long as sharialaw was followed [1942 book/pamphet "Kashf al-Asrar" quoted in "Islam and Revolution"] Khomeini later adamantly opposed monarchy, arguing that only rule by a leading Islamic jurist (a marja`), would insure Sharia was properly followed (wilayat al-faqih), [1970 book "Hukumat Islamiyyah" or Islamic Government, quoted in "Islam and Revolution"] before finally insisting the ruling jurist need not be a leading one and Sharia rule could be overruled by that jurist if necessary to serve the interests of Islam and the "divine government" of the Islamic state. [Hamid Algar, `Development of the Concept of velayat-i faqih since the Islamic Revolution in Iran,` paper presented at London Conference on "wilayat al-faqih", in June, 1988] [p.135-8] Also "Ressalat", Tehran, 7 January 1988, [http://gemsofislamism.tripod.com/khomeini_promises_kept.html#Laws_in_Islam Khomeini on how Laws in Iran will strictly adhere to God's perfect and unchanging divine law] ]
Khomeini's concept of
Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists(ولایت فقیه, "velayat-e faqih") [http://gemsofislamism.tripod.com/khomeini_promises_kept.html#ref_58d] did not win the support of the leading Iranian Shi'i clergy of the time. Towards the 1979 Revolution, many clerics gradually became disillusioned with the rule of the Shah, although none came around to supporting Khomeini's vision of a theocratic Islamic Republic. ["The Failure of Political Islam" by Olivier Roy, translated by Carol Volk, Harvard University Press, 1994, p.173-4]
Whether Khomeini's ideas are compatible with democracy and whether he intended the Islamic Republic to be a democratic republic is disputed. According to the state-run "Aftab News", [ [http://www.aftabnews.ir/vdcdzn0ytj05s.html Ganji, Sorush and Mesbah Yazdi] (Persian)] both ultraconservative (
Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi) and reformist opponents of the regime ( Akbar Ganjiand Abdolkarim Soroush) believe he did not, while regime officials and supporters like Ali Khamenei[ [http://www.parstech.org/detail.php?id=1313 The principles of Islamic republic from viewpoint of Imam Khomeini in the speeches of the leader] (Persian)] , Mohammad Khatamiand Mortaza Motahhari[ [http://www.motahari.org/asaar/books/downlowd/32/book.zip About Islamic republic] (Persian)] believe Khomeini intended the Islamic republicto be democratic and that it is so. [ [http://jis.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/18/1/14?ck=nck Ayatollah Khomeini and the Contemporary Debate on Freedom] ] Khomeini himself also made statements at different times indicating both support and opposition to democracy. ["Democracy? I meant theocracy", by Dr. Jalal Matini, Translation & Introduction by Farhad Mafie, August 5, 2003, "The Iranian", http://www.iranian.com/Opinion/2003/August/Khomeini/ ]
Shaul Bakhash, explains this disagreement as coming from Khomeini's belief that the huge turnout of Iranians in anti-Shah demonstrations during the revolution constituted a `referendum` in favor of an Islamic republic. [Bakhash, "The Reign of the Ayatollahs" (1984), p.73 ] Khomeini also wrote that since Muslims must support a government based on Islamic law, Sharia-based government will always have more popular support in Muslim countries than any government based on elected representatives. [Khomeini, "Islam and Revolution," (1982), p.56]
Khomeini offered himself as a "champion of Islamic revival" and unity, emphasising issues Muslims agreed upon - the fight against zionism and imperialism - and downplaying Shia issues that would divide Shia from
Sunni. [Nasr, Vali, "The Shia Revival" Norton, (2006), p.137] Khomeini strongly opposed close relations with neither Eastern or Western Blocnations, believing the Islamic world should be its own bloc, or rather converge into a single unified power. ["Bayan", No.4 (1990), p.8) ] He viewed Western culture as being inherently decadent and a corrupting influence upon the youth. The Islamic Republic banned or discouraged popular Western fashions, music, cinema, and literature. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4543720.stm Iran president bans Western music ] ] In the Western world it is said "his glowering visage became the virtual face of Islam in Western popular culture" and "inculcated fear and distrust towards Islam." [Nasr, Vali "The Shia Revival", Norton, 2006, p.138] This has particularly been the case in the United States where Khomeini and the Islamic Republic are remembered for the American embassy hostage taking and accused of sponsoring hostage-taking and terrorist attacks, [wright, "Sacred Rage", (2001), p.28, 33, ] [for example the 1983 Beirut barracks bombingsee:"Hizb'allah in Lebanon : The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis" Magnus Ranstorp, Department of International Relations University of St. Andrews St. Martins Press, New York, 1997, p.54, 117] and which continues to apply economic sanctions against Iran.
Before taking power Khomeini expressed support for the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights. "We would like to act according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. We would like to be free. We would like independence." [ " Sahifeh Nour" (Vol.2 Page 242)] However once in power Khomeini took a firm line against dissent, warning opponents of theocracy for example: "I repeat for the last time: abstain from holding meetings, from blathering, from publishing protests. Otherwise I will break your teeth." [in Qom, Iran, October 22, 1979, quoted in, "The Shah and the Ayatollah : Iranian Mythology and Islamic Revolution" by Fereydoun Hoveyda, Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2003, p.88]
Many of Khomeini's political and religious ideas were considered to be progressive and reformist by leftist intellectuals and activists prior to the Revolution. However, once in power his ideas often clashed with those of modernist or secular Iranian intellectuals. This conflict came to a head during the writing of the Islamic constitution when many newspapers were closed by the government. Khomeini angrily told the intellectuals:
Yes, we are reactionaries, and you are enlightened intellectuals: You intellectuals do not want us to go back 1400 years. You, who want freedom, freedom for everything, the freedom of parties, you who want all the freedoms, you intellectuals: freedom that will corrupt our youth, freedom that will pave the way for the oppressor, freedom that will drag our nation to the bottom. [p.47, Wright. source: Speech at Feyziyeh Theological School, August 24, 1979; reproduced in Rubin, Barry and Judith Colp Rubin, "Anti-American Terrorism and the Middle East: A Documentary Reader", Oxford University Press, 2002, p.34]
In contrast to his alienation from Iranian intellectuals, and "in an utter departure from all other Islamist movements," Khomeini embraced international revolution and
Third Worldsolidarity, giving it "precedence over Muslim fraternity. From the time Khomeini's supporters gained control of the media until his death, the Iranian media "devoted extensive coverage to non-Muslim revolutionary movements (from the Sandinistas to the African National Congressand the Irish Republican Army) and downplayed the role of the Islamic movements considered conservative, such as the Afghan mujahidin." [Roy, "The Failure of Political Islam". 1994, p.175]
Khomeini is not thought to have had a great interest in economics, and is alleged to have said, "Economics is for donkeys." [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/sep/19/iran.roberttait "It's the economy, Mr Ahmadinejad", Robert Tait, 2007 sept. 19] ]
Khomeini is described as "slim," but athletic and "heavily boned." He was "fairly tall by the Iranian standards of his day", at a height of 1.76 meters (5 ft 9 in). [Taheri, "The Spirit of Allah" (1985), p. 49] He was known for his punctuality:
He's so punctual that if he doesn't turn up for lunch at exactly ten past everyone will get worried, because his work is regulated in such a way that he turned up for lunch at exactly that time every day. He goes to bed exactly on time. He eats exactly on time. And he wakes up exactly on time. He changes his frock every time he comes back from the mosque. [According to a daughter quoted in "In the Name of God" by Robin Wright c1989, p.45]
and for his aloof and stern demeanor. He is said to have "variously inspired admiration, awe, and fear from those around him." [Brumberg, "Reinventing Khomeini", (2001), p.53 ] His practice of moving "through the halls of the madresehs never smiling at anybody or anything. ... his practice of ignoring his audience while he thought, contributed to his charisma." [Mackay, "Iranians" (198?) p.224] He preached that "there are no jokes in Islam. There is no humor in Islam." [from a meeting in Qom "Broadcast by radio Iran from Qom on 20 August 1979.")(Taheri, "The Spirit of Allah" " (1985), p.259] And emphasized the serious nature of life: "Allah did not create man so that he could have fun. The aim of creation was for mankind to be put to the test through hardship and prayer." [source: Meeting in Qom "Broadcast by radio Iran from Qom on 20 August 1979." quoted in Taheri, "The Spirit of Allah", (1985) p.259]
Khomeini adhered to traditional beliefs of
Islamic cleanlinessholding that non-Moslems - like urine, excrement, blood, wine, sweat of the excrement-eating camels, etc. - were one of eleven impure things contact with which required major ritual washing or Ghuslbefore prayer or salah. [fatwa #83 from "A Clarification of Questions : An Unabridged Translation of "Resaleh Towzih al-Masael""
by Ayatollah Sayyed Ruhollah Mousavi Khomeini, Translated by J. Borujerdi, with a Foreword by Michael M. J. Fischer and Mehdi Abedi, Westview Press/ Boulder and London c1984, p.48] [ Mottahedeh, Roy, "The Mantle of the Prophet : Religion and Politics in Iran", One World, Oxford, 1985, 2000, p.383] He is reported to have refused to eat or drink in a restaurant unless he knew for sure the waiter was a Muslim. [Personal communications from Dr. Mansur Farhang, a biographer and supporter of Khomeini who was the former Iranian representative at the United Nations, with Ervand Abrahamian. Quoted in Abrahamian, Ervand, "Khomeinism : Essays on the Islamic Republic" University of California Press, (1993)]
Even more famous was his mystique. He benefited from the widespread circulation of "an old Shia saying" attributed to the Imam
Musa al-Kazimwho is said to have prophesied shortly before his death in 799 that
`A man will come out from
Qomand he will summon people to the right path. There will rally to him people resembling pieces of iron, not to be shaken by violent winds, unsparing and relying on God.` [(Mackay "Iranians", p.277. Source: Quoted in Fouad Ajami, "The Vanished Imam: Musa al Sadr and the Shia of Lebanon" (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986), p.25]
Khomeini was the first and only Iranian cleric to be addressed as "Imam", a title hitherto reserved in Iran for the twelve infallible leaders of the early Shi'a. [Moin, "Khomeini" (2000), p.201] He was also associated with the "Mahdi" or 12th Imam of Shia belief in a number of ways. One of his titles was "Na'eb-e Imam" (Deputy to the [Twelfth Imam). His enemies were often attacked as "
taghut" and " mofsidin fi'l-arz" (corrupters of the earth), religious terms used for enemies of the Twelfth Imam. Many of the officials of the overthrown Shah's government executed by Revolutionary Courts were convicted of "fighting against the Twelfth Imam". When a deputy in the majlis asked Khomeini if he was the `promised Mahdi`, Khomeini did not answer, "astutely" neither confirming nor denying the title. [Nasr, Vali, "The Shia Revival", Norton, (2006), p.131]
Before the revolution, in late 1978, a rumour swept the country that Khomeini's face could be seen in the full moon.
Tears of joy were shed and huge quantities of sweets and fruits were consumed as millions of people jumped for joy, shouting `I've seen the Imam in the moon.` The event was celebrated in thousands of mosques with mullahs reminding the faithful that a sure sign of the coming of the
Mahdiwas that the sun would rise in the West. Khomeini, representing the sun, was now in France and his face was shining in the moon like a sun. People were ready to swear on the Qur'anthat they had seen Khomeini's face in the moon. Even the Tudeh Party[the party of " Scientific Socialism"] shared in the [enthusiasm] . Its paper "Navid" wrote: `Our toiling masses, fighting against world-devouring imperialismheaded by the blood-sucking United States, have seen the face of their beloved Imam and leader, Khomeini the Breaker of Idols, in the moon. A few pipsqueaks cannot deny what a whole nation has seen with its own eyes.` [source: Navid n.28] [Taheri, The Spirit of Allah, p.238]
As the revolution gained momentum, even some non-supporters exhibited awe, called him "magnificently clear-minded, single-minded and unswerving." [Harney, "The Priest and the King" (1998) p.173-4] His image was as "absolute, wise, and indispensable leader of the nation" [Benard/Khalilzad "The Government of God", 1984, p.121]
The Imam, it was generally believed, had shown by his uncanny sweep to power, that he knew how to act in ways which others could not begin to understand. His timing was extraordinary, and his insight into the motivation of others, those around him as well as his enemies, could not be explained as ordinary knowledge. This emergent belief in Khomeini as a divinely guided figure was carefully fostered by the clerics who supported him and spoke up for him in front of the people. [Moin "Khomeini, (2000), p.297]
secularists who firmly disapproved of his policies were said to feel the power of his "messianic" appeal. [ Wright, "In the Name of God", (1989) (p.21-22)] Comparing him to a father figure who retains the enduring loyalty even of children he disapproves of, journalist Afshin Molavi writes of the defenses of Khomeini he's "heard in the most unlikely settings":
A whiskey-drinking professor told an American journalist that Khomeini brought pride back to Iranians. A women's rights activist told me that Khomeini was not the problem; it was his conservative allies who had directed him wrongly. A nationalist war veteran, who held Iran's ruling clerics in contempt, carried with him a picture of `the Imam`. [Molavi, "The Soul of Iran", (2005), p.256]Another journalist tells the story of an Iranian, who following bitter criticism of the regime in which he tells her he wants his son to leave the country and "repeatedly made the point that life had been better" under the Shah, turns "ashen faced" and speechless upon hearing the 85+-year-old Imam might be dying, pronouncing `this is terrible for my country.` ["In the Name of God : The Khomeini Decade" by Robin Wright c1989, p.21-22]
Family and descendants
In 1929, (some say 1931Taheri, "The Spirit of Allah" (1985), p. 90-1] ) Khomeini married Batoul Saqafi Khomeini, the 11-year-old daughter of a cleric in
Tehran. By all acounts their marriage was harmonious and happy. They had seven children, though only five survived infancy. His daughters all married into either merchant or clerical families, and both his sons entered into religious life. The elder son, Mustafa, is rumored to have been murdered in 1977 while in exile with his father in Najaf, Iraqand Khomeini accused SAVAKof orchestrating it.
Khomeini's notable grandchildren include:
Zahra Eshraghi, granddaughter, married to Mohammad Reza Khatami, head of the Islamic Iran Participation Front, the main reformist party in the country, and is considered a pro-reform character herself.
Hasan Khomeini, Khomeini's elder grandson SayidHasan Khomeini, son of the Seyyed Ahmad Khomeini, is a cleric and the trustee of Khomeini's shrine.
Husain Khomeini, (Sayid Husain Khomeini) Khomeini's other grandson, son of Sayid Mustafa Khomeini, is a mid-level cleric who is strongly against the system of the Islamic Republic. In 2003 he was quoted as saying: :Iranians need freedom now, and if they can only achieve it with American interference I think they would welcome it. As an Iranian, I would welcome it. ["Make Iran Next, Says Ayatollah's Grandson", Jamie Wilson, August 10, 2003, "The Observer"]
In that same year Husain Khomeini visited the United States, where he met figures such as
Reza Pahlavi II, the son of the last Shah.
Later that year, Husain returned to Iran after receiving an urgent message from his grandmother. According to
Michael Ledeen, quoting "family sources", he was blackmailed into returning. [ [http://www.aei.org/publications/pubID.19680,filter.all/pub_detail.asp Veiled Threats Lure Ayatollah's Grandson Home By Michael A. Ledeen, January 6, 2004] ]
In 2006, he called for an American invasion and overthrow of the Islamic Republic, telling Al-Arabiyah television station viewers, "If you were a prisoner, what would you do? I want someone to break the prison [doors open] ." [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2006/06/18/wiran18.xml Ayatollah's grandson calls for US overthrow of Iran, By PHILIP SHERWELL 19/06/2006] ] . Another of Khomeini's grandchildren, Ali Eshraghi, was disqualified from the 2008 parliamentary elections on grounds of being insufficiently loyal to the principles of the Islamic revolution, but later reinstated. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7243383.stm Khomeini grandson returns to poll, 13 February 2008,] ]
*" [http://www.al-islam.org/fortyhadith/ Forty Hadith] " (Forty Traditions)
*" [http://www.al-islam.org/adab/ Adab as Salat] " (The Disciplines of Prayers)
*" [http://al-islam.org/al-tawhid/default.asp?url=greater_jihad.htm Jihade Akbar] " (The Greater Struggle)
Politics of Iran
People's Mujahedin of Iran
1988 Massacre of Iranian Prisoners
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*citation|last=Karsh|first=Efraim|title=Islamic Imperialism: A History|publisher=Yale University Press|isbn=0300122632|year=2007
*citation|last=Khomeini|first=Ruhollah|last2=Algar|first2=Hamid|title=Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist|publisher=Alhoda UK|isbn=9643354997|year=2002
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* [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0823944654&id=4Qt-zJ7V0v8C&dq=intitle:%22khomeini%22 Willett, Edward C. ;"Ayatollah Khomeini, 2004, Publisher:The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 0823944654]
*cite book |author=Bakhash, Shaul|title=The Reign of the Ayatollahs : Iran and the Islamic Revolution |publisher=Basic Books |location=New York | year=1984
*cite book |author=Harney, Desmond|title=The priest and the king : an eyewitness account of the Iranian revolution |publisher=I.B. Tauris|year=1998
*cite book |author=Khomeini, Ruhollah |editor=Algar, Hamid (translator and editor) |title=Islam and Revolution : Writing and Declarations of Imam Khomeini |publisher=Mizan Press |location=Berkeley | year=1981
*cite book |author=Khomeini, Ruhollah |title=Sayings of the Ayatollah Khomeini : political, philosophical, social, and religious |publisher=Bantam | year=1980
*cite book |author=Mackey, Sandra |title=The Iranians : Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation |publisher=Dutton |year=1996|isbn=0525940057|
*cite book |author=Molavi, Afshin |title=The Soul of Iran: a Nation's Journey to Freedom
publisher=Norton paperbacks|location=New York | year=2005
*cite book |author=Schirazi, Asghar |title=The Constitution of Iran |publisher=Tauris |location=New York | year=1997
*cite book |author=Taheri, Amir|title=The Spirit of Allah |publisher=Adler & Adler|year=1985
*cite book |author=Wright, Robin|title=In the Name of God : The Khomeini Decade
publisher=Simon & Schuster |location=New York | year=1989
*cite book |author=Wright, Robin|title=The Last Revolution
publisher=Knopf |location=New York | year=2000
* [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0802224652&id=XgoNAAAAIAAJ&dq=intitle:%22khomeini%22&q=intitle:%22khomeini%22&pgis=1 Lee, James; "The Final Word!: An American Refutes the Sayings of Ayatollah Khomeini", 1984, Publisher:Philosophical Library, ISBN 0802224652]
* [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN1412805163&id=sTFdNNQP4ewC&vq=Theologian&dq=intitle:%22Islamic+revolution%22 Dabashi, Hamid; "Theology of Discontent: The Ideological Foundation of the Islamic Revolution in Iran", 2006, Publisher:Transaction Publishers, ISBN 1412805163]
* [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0275978583&id=bxJgsRRtDsoC&dq=intitle:%22Islamic+revolution%22 Hoveyda,Fereydoun ; "The Shah and the Ayatollah: Iranian Mythology and Islamic Revolution", 2003, Publisher:Praeger/Greenwood, ISBN 0275978583]
* [http://www.prophetofdoom.net/The_Little_Green_Book.Islam The Little Green Book - Sayings of Ayathollah Khomeini, Political, Philosophical, Social and Religious with a special introduction by Clive Irving]
* [http://www.wandea.org.pl/khomeini-pdf/hukumat-i-islami.pdf Sayyid Ruhollah al-Musavi al-Khomeini — Islamic Government (Hukumat-i Islami)]
* [http://www.wandea.org.pl/khomeini-pdf/ruhullah-musavi-khomeini.pdf Sayyid Ruhollah al-Musavi al-Khomeini — The Last Will...]
* [http://www.iranchamber.com/history/rkhomeini/books/women_position_khomeini.pdf Extracted from speeches of Ayatollah Rouhollah Mousavi Khomeini]
* [http://ghadeer.org/english/imam/imam-books/imambooks.html Books by and or about Rouhollah Khomeini]
* [http://www.kayhannews.ir/851020/12.htm Famous letter of Ayatollah Khomeini to
Gorbachyov, dated January 1, 1989] . Keyhan Daily.;Videos
* [http://www.irannegah.com/video_browse.aspx?keyword=khomeini Video Archive of Ayatollah Khomeini] ;Images
* [http://shiaimages.net/categories.php?cat_id=48 ShiaIMAGES.net > People > Ayatollah Khomeini] ;Criticisms
* [http://islamic-fundamentalism.info/chXV.htm Modern, Democratic Islam: Antithesis to Fundamentalism]
* [http://www.benadorassociates.com/article/8781 'America Can't Do A Thing']
* [http://www.nysun.com/article/38866 He Knew He Was Right] ;Biographies
* [http://ghadeer.org/english/imam/bio-imam/index.html The Life and Works of the Founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Great Leader of the Islamic Revolution]
* [http://www.insight-info.com/articles/item.aspx?i=1154 19 Years on Departure of Islamic Republic Founder] ;Thoughts
* [http://www.insight-info.com/articles/item.aspx?i=1204 Imam Khomeini and Islamic Unity]
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