History of Solidarity

History of Solidarity

The history of "Solidarity" (Polish: Audio|Solidarnosc.ogg|"Solidarność" IPA2|sɔlidarnɔɕt͡ɕ), a Polish non-governmental trade union, began in August 1980 at the Lenin Shipyards (now Gdańsk Shipyards) where it was founded by Lech Wałęsa and others. In the early 1980s, it became the first independent labor union in a Soviet-bloc country. Solidarity gave rise to a broad anti-communist nonviolent social movement that, at its height, united some 10 million members and vastly contributed to the fall of communism.

Poland's communist government attempted to destroy the union by instituting martial law in 1981, followed by several years of political repression, but in the end was forced to begin negotiating with the union. The Roundtable Talks between the government and the Solidarity-led opposition resulted in semi-free elections in 1989. By the end of August 1989, a Solidarity-led coalition government had been formed, and, in December 1990, Wałęsa was elected president. This was soon followed by the dismantling of the communist governmental system and by Poland's transformation into a modern democratic state. Solidarity's survival meant a break in the hard-line stance of the communist Polish United Workers' Party ("PZPR"), and was an unprecedented event not only for the People's Republic of Poland—a satellite of the USSR ruled by a one-party communist regime—but for the whole of the Eastern bloc. Solidarity's example led to the spread of anti-communist ideas and movements throughout the countries of the Eastern Bloc, weakening their communist governments; a process that eventually culminated in the Revolutions of 1989.

In the 1990s, Solidarity's influence on Poland's political scene waned. A political arm of the "Solidarity" movement, Solidarity Electoral Action ("AWS"), was founded in 1996 and would win the Polish parliamentary elections in 1997, only to lose the subsequent, 2001 elections. Afterwards Solidarity had little influence as a political party, however, it became largest trade union in Poland.

Pre–1980 roots

In the 1970s and 1980s, the initial success of Solidarity in particular, and of dissident movements in general, was fed by a deepening crisis within Soviet-style societies brought about by declining morale, worsening economic conditions (a shortage economy), and the growing stresses of the Cold War. cite web
title = The rise of Solidarnosc
author = Colin Barker
authorlink = Colin Barker
work = International Socialism, Issue: 108
url = http://www.isj.org.uk/index.php4?id=136&issue=108
accessdate = 2006-07-10
] After a brief period of economic boom, from 1975 the policies of the Polish government, led by Party First Secretary Edward Gierek, precipitated a slide into increasing depression, as foreign debt mounted. cite book
last = Lepak
first = Keith John
title = Prelude to Solidarity
publisher = Columbia University Press
year = 1989
id = ISBN 0231066082
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=YQRcqE5Kht4C&pg=PA100&lpg=PA100&dsig=9NOnsdesZ-I1sxQ8c4LtLYlsh4A p. 100]
] In June 1976, the first workers' strikes took place, involving violent incidents at factories in Płock, Radom and Ursus. cite book
author = Barbara J. Falk
title = The Dilemmas of Dissidence in East-Central Europe: Citizen Intellectuals and Philosopher Kings
publisher = Central European University Press
year = 2003
id = ISBN 9639241393
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=ZsR0CGdWCC0C&pg=PA34&lpg=PA34&sig=trvZ7qPN4WlIdUsqqvs_wVHP4T0 p.34]
] (see also: June 1976 protests). When these incidents were quelled by the government, the worker's movement received support from intellectual dissidents, many of them associated with the Committee for Defense of the Workers ( _pl. Komitet Obrony Robotników, abbreviated "KOR"), formed in 1976.citebook|author=Barbara J. Falk|title=The Dilemmas of Dissidence in East-Central Europe: Citizen Intellectuals and Philosopher Kings|publisher=Central European University Press|year=2003|id=ISBN 9639241393|pages= [http://books.google.com/books?id=ZsR0CGdWCC0C&pg=PA35&lpg=PA34&sig=gR89xv6t5I02RBj29BhTldMBpXo p.35] ] The following year, "KOR" was renamed the Committee for Social Self-defence ("KSS-KOR").

On October 16, 1978, the Bishop of Kraków, Karol Wojtyła, was elected Pope John Paul II. A year later, during his first pilgrimage to Poland, his masses were attended by millions of his countrymen. The Pope called for the respecting of national and religious traditions and advocated for freedom and human rights, while denouncing violence. To many Poles, he represented a spiritual and moral force that could be set against brute material forces; he was a bellwether of change, and became an important symbol—and supporter—of changes to come.cite book
last = Weigel
first = George
authorlink = George Weigel
title = The Final Revolution: The Resistance Church and the Collapse of Communism
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=6kFfjei_XCEC&pg=PA136&lpg=PA136&sig=CuKF-pVRfgLmpUxq_o8Wava9ouY
format = ebook
accessdate = 2006-07-10
year = 2003
month = May
publisher = Oxford University Press US
id = ISBN 0195166647
pages = p. 136
] cite book
first = George
last = Weigel
authorlink = George Weigel
title =Witness to Hope: The Biography of Pope John Paul II
publisher = HarperCollins
year = 2005
id = ISBN 0060732032
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?&id=-mzOGzb2T2UC&pg=PA292&lpg=PA292&sig=dh-4ur6H-RVsIWEl8oAk5TwvTsQ p. 292]

Early strikes (1980)

Strikes did not occur merely due to problems that had emerged shortly before the labor unrest, but due to governmental and economic difficulties spanning more than a decade. In July 1980, Edward Gierek's government, facing economic crisis, decided to raise prices while slowing the growth of wages. At once there ensued a wave of strikes and factory occupations, with the biggest strikes taking place in the area of Lublin (first strike started on July 8, 1980 in the Communications Equipment Factory in Świdnik). Although the strike movement had no coordinating center, the workers had developed an information network to spread news of their struggle. A "dissident" group, the Workers' Defence Committee ("KOR"), which had originally been set up in 1976 to organize aid for victimized workers, attracted small groups of working-class militants in major industrial centers. At the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk, the firing of Anna Walentynowicz, a popular crane operator and activist, galvanized the outraged workers into action.cite web
title=The birth of Solidarity (1980)
work=BBC News

On August 14, the shipyard workers began their strike, organized by the Free Trade Unions of the Coast ("Wolne Związki Zawodowe Wybrzeża"). cite book|author=Michael Bernhard|coauthor=Henryk Szlajfer|title=From the Polish Underground: Selections from "Krytyka", 1978–93|publisher=Penn State Press|year=1995|id= ISBN 0271025654|pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=nUhiPCkawCoC&pg=PA405&lpg=PA405&sig=CzMr6IlR2B-Q1rZ_vmbDXdM-6wk p. 405] ] The workers were led by electrician Lech Wałęsa, a former shipyard worker who had been dismissed in 1976, and who arrived at the shipyard late in the morning of August 14. The strike committee demanded the rehiring of Walentynowicz and Wałęsa, as well as the according of respect to workers' rights and other social concerns. In addition, they called for the raising of a monument to the shipyard workers who had been killed in 1970 and for the legalization of independent trade unions. cite book
author = William D Perdue,
title = Paradox of Change: The Rise and Fall of Solidarity in the New Poland
publisher = Praeger/Greenwood,
year = 1995
id = ISBN 0275952959,
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?d=6WnLe3_hhgUC&pg=PA39&lpg=PA39&sig=qC29FZhY_jznp29dptxpdtXjPLs p.39]

The Polish government enforced censorship, and official media said little about the "sporadic labor disturbances in Gdańsk"; as a further precaution, all phone connections between the coast and the rest of Poland were soon cut. Nonetheless, the government failed to contain the information: a spreading wave of "samizdats" ( _pl. bibuła), cite book
author = Michael H. Bernhard
title = The Origins of Democratization in Poland
publisher = Columbia University Press
year = 1993
id = ISBN 023108093X
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=TF_DXcqeMBEC&pg=PA149&lpg=PA149&sig=kErUdt1a52vlaL2-AePTOtDfbo4 p. 149]
] including "Robotnik" (The Worker), and grapevine gossip, along with Radio Free Europe broadcasts that penetrated the Iron Curtain, cite book
author = G. R. Urban
title = Radio Free Europe and the Pursuit of Democracy: My War Within the Cold War
publisher = Yale University Press
id = ISBN 0300069219
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=a4BFvTBOT6oC&pg=PA147&lpg=PA147&sig=ZS9gAMrvOUHPMJpfTP-d4-yUv54 p. 147]
] ensured that the ideas of the emerging Solidarity movement quickly spread.

On August 16, delegations from other strike committees arrived at the shipyard. Delegates (Bogdan Lis, Andrzej Gwiazda and others) together with shipyard strikers agreed to create an Inter-Enterprise Strike Committee ("Międzyzakładowy Komitet Strajkowy", or "MKS"). On August 17 a priest, Henryk Jankowski, performed a mass outside the shipyard's gate, at which 21 demands of the "MKS" were put forward. The list went beyond purely local matters, beginning with a demand for new, independent trade unions and going on to call for a relaxation of the censorship, a right to strike, new rights for the Church, the freeing of political prisoners, and improvements in the national health service.

Next day, a delegation of "KOR" intelligentsia, including Tadeusz Mazowiecki, arrived to offer their assistance with negotiations. A "bibuła" news-sheet, "Solidarność", produced on the shipyard's printing press with "KOR" assistance, reached a daily print run of 30,000 copies. Meanwhile, Jacek Kaczmarski's protest song, "Mury" ("Walls"), gained popularity with the workers.citeweb|url=http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/9158/|title=Yalta 2.0|publisher=Warsaw Voice|date=31 August 2005|accessdate=2006-08-31]

On August 18, the Szczecin Shipyard joined the strike, under the leadership of Marian Jurczyk. A tidal wave of strikes swept the coast, closing ports and bringing the economy to a halt. With "KOR" assistance and support from many intellectuals, workers occupying factories, mines and shipyards across Poland joined forces. Within days, over 200 factories and enterprises had joined the strike committee. By August 21, most of Poland was affected by the strikes, from coastal shipyards to the mines of the Upper Silesian Industrial Area (in Upper Silesia, the city of Jastrzębie-Zdrój became center of the strikes, with a separate committee organized there). More and more new unions were formed, and joined the federation.Thanks to popular support within Poland, as well as to international support and media coverage, the Gdańsk workers held out until the government gave in to their demands. On August 21 a Governmental Commission ("Komisja Rządowa") including Mieczysław Jagielski arrived in Gdańsk, and another one with Kazimierz Barcikowski was dispatched to Szczecin. On August 30 and 31, and on September 3, representatives of the workers and the government signed an agreement ratifying many of the workers' demands, including the right to strike. This agreement came to be known as the August or Gdańsk agreement ("Porozumienia sierpniowe"). Another agreement was signed in Jastrzębie-Zdrój on September 3. It was called the Jastrzębie agreement ("Porozumienia jastrzebskie") and as such is regarded as part of the Gdańsk agreement. Though concerned with labor-union matters, the agreement enabled citizens to introduce democratic changes within the communist political structure and was regarded as a first step toward dismantling the Party's monopoly of power. cite book
last = Davies
first = Norman
authorlink = Norman Davies
title = God's Playground
year = 2005
id = ISBN 0231128193
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=EBpghdZeIwAC&pg=PA483&lpg=PA483&sig=8z6yTa2wvwLje4ZDT481E0jk00k p. 483]
] The workers' main concerns were the establishment of a labor union independent of communist-party control, and recognition of a legal right to strike. Workers’ needs would now receive clear representation. cite book
first = Anna
last = Seleny
title = The Political Economy of State-Society Relations in Hungary and Poland
publisher = Cambridge University Press
year = 2006
id = ISBN 052183564X
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=i89VOJzIuOAC&pg=RA1-PA100&lpg=RA1-PA100&sig=YDunSm2HPSYExZm1oPJgZshaEe8 p.100]
] Another consequence of the Gdańsk Agreement was the replacement, in September 1980, of Edward Gierek by Stanisław Kania as Party First Secretary.citebook|author=Anna Seleny|title=The Political Economy of State-Society Relations in Hungary and Poland: From Communism to the|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=2006|id=ISBN 052183564X|pages= [http://books.google.com/books?id=i89VOJzIuOAC&pg=RA7-PP1&lpg=RA7-PP1&sig=EkhruwtJ0yh3j9vj-9-BLaN_3g0 p.115] ]

First Solidarity (1980-1981)

Encouraged by the success of the August strikes, on September 17 workers' representatives, including Lech Wałęsa, formed a nationwide labor union, Solidarity ("Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy (NSZZ) "Solidarność"). [http://portalwiedzy.onet.pl/12313,,,,solidarnosc_nszz,haslo.html Solidarność NSZZ] in WIEM Encyklopedia. Last accessed on 10 October 2006 pl icon ] It was the first independent labor union in a Soviet-bloc country.citeweb|url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9068595/Solidarity|title=Solidarity|publisher=Encyclopedia Britannica|accessdate=2007-01-15] Its name was suggested by Karol Modzelewski, and its famous logo was conceived by Jerzy Janiszewski, designer of many Solidarity-related posters. The new union's supreme powers were vested in a legislative body, the Convention of Delegates ("Zjazd Delegatów"). The executive branch was the National Coordinating Commission ("Krajowa Komisja Porozumiewawcza"), later renamed the National Commission ("Komisja Krajowa"). The Union had a regional structure, comprising 38 regions ("region") and two districts ("okręg"). On December 16, 1980, the Monument to Fallen Shipyard Workers was unveiled. On January 15, 1981, a Solidarity delegation, including Lech Wałęsa, met in Rome with Pope John Paul II. From September 5 to 10, and from September 26 to October 7, Solidarity's first national congress was held, and Lech Wałęsa was elected its president. PDF| [http://www.solidarity25.pap.pl/kalendarium-NSZZ-pl.pdf KALENDARIUM NSZZ „SOLIDARNOŚĆ” 1980–1989] |185 KiB . Last accessed on 15 October 2006 pl icon ] Last accord of the congress was adoption of republican program "Self-governing Republic" [Piotr Gliński, The Self-governing Republic in the Third Republic, “Polish Sociological Review”, 2006, no.1] .

Meanwhile Solidarity had been transforming itself from a trade union into a social movement cite book
first = Bronisław
last = Misztal
title = Poland after Solidarity: Social Movements Vs. the State
publisher = Transaction Publishers
year = 1985
id = ISBN 0887380492
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=5yeK_1TXSVwC&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&sig=vvchTYv5G5zcq7y9GsT4weN67A8 p.4]
] or more specifically, a revolutionary movement.Jeff Goodwin, "No Other Way Out: States and Revolutionary Movements, 1945–1991". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Chapter 1 and 8.] Over the 500 days following the Gdańsk Agreement, 9–10 million workers, intellectuals and students joined it or its suborganizations, such as the Independent Student Union ("Niezależne Zrzeszenie Studentów", created in September 1980), the Independent Farmers' Trade Union ("NSZZ Rolników Indywidualnych "Solidarność", created in May 1981) and the Independent Craftsmen's Trade Union. It was the only time in recorded history that a quarter of a country's population (some 80% of the total Polish work force) had voluntarily joined a single organization. "History has taught us that there is no bread without freedom," the Solidarity program stated a year later. "What we had in mind was not only bread, butter and sausages, but also justice, democracy, truth, legality, human dignity, freedom of convictions, and the repair of the republic." Tygodnik Solidarność, a Solidarity-published newspaper, was started in April 1981.

Using strikes and other protest actions, Solidarity sought to force a change in government policies. At the same time, it was careful never to use force or violence, so as to avoid giving the government any excuse to bring security forces into play.cite book
editor = Paul Wehr, Guy Burgess, Heidi Burgess
title = Justice Without Violence
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=o8ipY9HVHmcC&lpg=PA29&pg=PA28&sig=ot7HF0E-YXDJQ8_zMpuVSuvl8Ig
format = ebook
accessdate = 2006-07-06
year = 1994
month = Feb
publisher = Lynne Rienner Publishers
id = ISBN 1555874916
pages = p 28
] cite book
last = Cavanaugh-O'Keefe
first = John
title = Emmanuel, Solidarity: God's Act, Our Response
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=_P9owylILP4C&pg=PA68&lpg=PA68&sig=a531pYBFmXgNUIeXQ-PguOVwrts
format = ebook
accessdate = 2006-07-06
year = 2001
month = Jan
publisher = Xlibris Corporation
id = ISBN 0738838640
pages = p 68
] After 27 Bydgoszcz Solidarity members, including Jan Rulewski, were beaten up on March 19, a four-hour strike on March 27, involving over half a million people, paralyzed the country. This was the largest strike in the history of the Eastern bloc,cite book
last = MacEachin
first = Douglas J
title = U.S. Intelligence and the Confrontation in Poland, 1980–1981
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=93eUER87BmsC&pg=PA120&lpg=PA120&sig=2PGSLWEZSI4RfSpZpR5EJv3IcnM
format = ebook
accessdate = 2006-07-10
year = 2004
month = Aug
publisher = Penn State Press
id = ISBN 027102528X
pages = p 120
] and it forced the government to promise an investigation into the beatings. This concession, and Wałęsa's agreement to defer further strikes, proved a setback to the movement, as the euphoria that had swept Polish society subsided. Nonetheless the Polish communist party—the Polish United Workers' Party ("PZPR")—had lost its total control over society.

Yet while Solidarity was ready to take up negotiations with the government,cite web
title = Martial law (1981)
work = BBC News
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/special_report/1999/09/99/iron_curtain/timelines/poland_81.stm
accessdate = 2006-07-10
] the Polish communists were unsure what to do, as they issued empty declarations and bided their time. Against the background of a deteriorating communist shortage economy and unwillingness to negotiate seriously with Solidarity, it became increasingly clear that the Communist government would eventually have to suppress the Solidarity movement as the only way out of the impasse, or face a truly revolutionary situation. The atmosphere was increasingly tense, with various local chapters conducting a growing number of uncoordinated strikes in response to the worsening economic situation. On December 3 Solidarity announced that a 24-hour strike would be held if the government were granted additional powers to suppress dissent, and that a general strike would be declared if those powers were used.

Martial law (1981–83)

After the Gdańsk Agreement, the Polish government was under increasing pressure from the Soviet Union to take action and strengthen its position. Stanisław Kania was viewed by Moscow as too independent, and on October 18, 1981, the Party Central Committee put him in the minority. Kania lost his post as First Secretary, and was replaced by Prime Minister (and Minister of Defence) Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski, who adopted a strong-arm policy.

On December 13, 1981, Jaruzelski began a crack-down on Solidarity, declaring martial law and creating a Military Council of National Salvation ("Wojskowa Rada Ocalenia Narodowego", or "WRON"). Solidarity's leaders, gathered at Gdańsk, were arrested and isolated in facilities guarded by the Security Service ("Służba Bezpieczeństwa" or "SB"), and some 5,000 Solidarity supporters were arrested in the middle of the night. Censorship was expanded, and military forces appeared on the streets. A couple of hundred strikes and occupations occurred, chiefly at the largest plants and at several Silesian coal mines, but were broken by ZOMO paramilitary riot police. One of the largest demonstrations, on December 16, 1981, took place at the Wujek Coal Mine, where government forces opened fire on demonstrators, killing 9 and seriously injuring 22. . It was the longest underground strike in the history of Poland, lasting 14 days. Some 2000 miners began it on December 14, going 650 meters underground. Out of the initial 2000, half remained until the last day. Starving, they gave up after military authorities promised they would not be prosecuted [ [http://www.teberia.pl/news.php?id=5049 25th anniversary of the strike in Piast coal mine] ] . On October 8, 1982, Solidarity was delegalized and banned.cite book
last = Perdue
first = William D
title = Paradox of Change: The Rise and Fall of Solidarity in the New Poland
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=6WnLe3_hhgUC&pg=PA9&lpg=PA9&sig=wPq4m12vM31b5dJzGDPJkc-Yne0
format = ebook
accessdate = 2006-07-10
year = 1995
month = Oct
publisher = Praeger/Greenwood
id = ISBN 0275952959
pages = p 9

The range of support for the Solidarity was unique: no other movement in the world was supported by Ronald Reagan and Santiago Carrillo, Enrico Berlinguer and the Pope, Margaret Thatcher and Tony Benn, peace campaigners and NATO spokesman, Christians and Western communists, conservatives, liberals and socialists.cite book | last = Garton Ash | first = Timothy | authorlink = Timothy Garton Ash | editor = | others = | title = The Polish Revolution: Solidarity | origdate = | url = | format = | accessdate = | edition = | year = 2002 | publisher = Yale University Press | location = | language = | id = ISBN 0300095686 | pages =] The international community outside the Iron Curtain condemned Jaruzelski's actions and declared support for Solidarity; dedicated organizations were formed for that purpose (like Polish Solidarity Campaign in Great Britain). US President Ronald Reagan imposed economic sanctions on Poland, which eventually would force the Polish government into liberalizing its policies. cite book
author = Aryeh Neier
title = Taking Liberties: Four Decades in the Struggle for Rights
publisher = Public Affairs
year = 2003
id = ISBN 1891620827
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=Z5_hgLHYUiwC&pg=PA251&lpg=PA251&sig=4wxxUWdD8jgieONsxFO8tDcJPKU p. 251]
] Meanwhile the CIAcite book
last = Schweizer
first = Peter
authorlink = Peter Schweizer
title = Victory: The Reagan Administration's Secret Strategy That Hastened the Collapse of the Soviet...
url = http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=ISBN0871136333&id=rfia4MnyOykC&dq=Solidarity+Poland+left&lpg=PA85&pg=PA86&sig=9MUPgcK3WOQgL1iS9DZQL503Fy8
format = ebook
accessdate = 2006-07-10
year = 1996
month = May
publisher = Atlantic Monthly Press
id = ISBN 0871136333
pages = p 86
] together with the Catholic Church and various Western trade unions such as the AFL-CIO provided funds, equipment and advice to the Solidarity underground. cite book
author = Peter D. Hannaford
title = Remembering Reagan
publisher = Regnery Publishing
year = 2000
id = ISBN 0895265141
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=8HJf1be87bgC&pg=PA70&lpg=PA70&sig=HVl-NLDpy1bBNMUn6PNz0wzV-Hw p. 170] , [http://books.google.com/books?id=8HJf1be87bgC&pg=PA71&lpg=PA70&sig=CJijLi-Efn41LmokPWGpWhQoR8Q p. 171]
] The political alliance of Reagan and the Pope would prove important to the future of Solidarity. The Polish public also supported what was left of Solidarity; a major medium for demonstrating support of Solidarity became masses held by priests such as Jerzy Popiełuszko. cite book
author = Stefan Auer
authorlink = Stefan Auer
title = Liberal Nationalism in Central Europe
publisher = Routledge
year = 2004
id = ISBN 0415314798
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=b2IRot3UaQ0C&pg=PA70&lpg=PA70&sig=F2UH_aPJWyTSiUNT2UNLGPcTbqg p. 70]

In July 1983, martial law was formally lifted, though many heightened controls on civil liberties and political life, as well as food rationing, remained in place through the mid- to late 1980s. cite book
author = Gary Clyde Hufbauer
coauthors = Jeffrey J. Schott, Kimberly Ann Elliott
title = Economic Sanctions Reconsidered: History and Current Policy
publisher = Institute for International Economics
year = 1990
id = ISBN 0881321362
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=bBJ9LgZ58vYC&pg=PA193&lpg=PA193&sig=JBaZ5_US3HyRwwseXQpH7JMyS2k p. 193]

Underground Solidarity (1982–88)

Almost immediately after the legal Solidarity leadership had been arrested, underground structures began to arise. On April 12, 1982, Radio Solidarity began broadcasting. On April 22, Zbigniew Bujak, Bogdan Lis, Władysław Frasyniuk and Władysław Hardek created an Interim Coordinating Commission ("Tymczasowa Komisja Koordynacyjna") to serve as an underground leadership for Solidarity. cite book
author = Sabrina P. Ramet
title = Social Currents in Eastern Europe
publisher = Duke University Press
year = 1995
id = ISBN 0822315483
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=F3HTHpikwq4C&pg=PA89&lpg=PA89&sig=oc0CZH-p3G5NZxK8LqStYGg6eOA p. 89]
] On May 6 another underground Solidarity organization, an "NSSZ "S" Regional Coordinating Commission ("Regionalna Komisja Koordynacyjna NSZZ "S"), was created by Bogdan Borusewicz, Aleksander Hall, Stanisław Jarosz, Bogdan Lis and Marian Świtek. June 1982 saw the creation of a Fighting Solidarity ("Solidarność Walcząca") organization.cite book
authorlink=Padraic Kenney
title=A Carnival of Revolution: Central Europe 1989
year = 2003
publisher = Princeton University Press
location = New Jersey
language = English
id= ISBN 069111627X
pages = p 30

Throughout the mid-1980s, Solidarity persevered as an exclusively underground organization.cite web|title=Keeping the fire burning: the underground movement (1982–83)| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/special_report/1999/09/99/iron_curtain/timelines/poland_8283.stm| accessdate=2006-07-10] Its activists were dogged by the Security Service ("SB"), but managed to strike back: on May 1, 1982, a series of anti-government protests brought out thousands of participants—several dozen thousand in Kraków, Warsaw and Gdańsk. On May 3 more protests took place, during celebrations of the Constitution of May 3, 1791. On that day, communist secret services killed four demonstrators - three in Warsaw and one in Wrocław.Another wave of demonstrations occurred on August 31, 1982, on the first anniversary of the Gdańsk agreement. Altogether, on that day six demonstrators were killed - three in Lubin, one in Kielce, one in Wrocław and one in Gdańsk. Another person was killed on the next day, during a demonstration in Częstochowa. Further strikes occurred at Gdańsk and Nowa Huta between October 11 and 13. In Nowa Huta, a 20-year old student Bogdan Wlosik was shot by a secret service officer.

On November 14, 1982, Wałęsa was released. However on December 9 the "SB" carried out a large anti-Solidarity operation, arresting over 10,000 activists. On December 27 Solidarity's assets were transferred by the authorities to a pro-government trade union, the All-Polish Conference of Trade Unions ("Ogólnopolskie Porozumienie Związków Zawodowych", or "OPZZ"). Yet Solidarity was far from broken: by early 1983 the underground had over 70,000 members, whose activities included publishing over 500 underground newspapers.citebook|author=Sabrina P. Ramet|title=Social Currents in Eastern Europe: The Sources and Consequences of the Great Transformation|publisher=Duke University Press|year=1995|id=ISBN 0822315483|pages= [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0822315483&id=F3HTHpikwq4C&pg=PA90&lpg=PA89&dq=%22Interim+Coordinating+Commission%22&sig=XuYFPWtaiPgEAaonuMutzXgr1lo p.90] ] In the first half of 1983 street protests were frequent, on May 1, two persons were killed in Kraków and one in Wrocław, two days later, two additional demonstrators were killed in Warsaw.

On July 22, 1983, martial law was lifted, and amnesty was granted to many imprisoned Solidarity members, who were released. On October 5, Wałęsa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.cite web
title=Negotiations and the big debate (1984–88)
work=BBC News
] The Polish government, however, refused to issue him a passport to travel to Oslo; Wałęsa's prize was accepted on his behalf by his wife.cite news|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E01E4D71139F933A05752C1A965948260&sec=&pagewanted=print|title=AROUND THE WORLD; Poland Says Mrs. Walesa Can Accept Nobel Prize|date=1983-11-30|publisher=New York Times|accessdate=2007-01-23] It later transpired that the "SB" had prepared bogus documents, accusing Wałęsa of immoral and illegal activities that had been given to the Nobel committee in an attempt to derail his nomination. [cite news|url=|title=Prawdziwe oświadczenie Lecha Wałęsy|publisher=Rzeczpospolita (no. 188)|date=2000-12-08|author=K. Gottesman|accessdate=2007-01-23]

On October 19, 1984, three agents of the Ministry of Internal Security murdered a popular pro-Solidarity priest, Jerzy Popiełuszko.cite book
last = Weigel
first = George
title = The Final Revolution: The Resistance Church and the Collapse of Communism
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=6kFfjei_XCEC&lpg=PA148&pg=PA149&sig=JvEcavAU2c5uedZhzUFqueU4wJE
format = ebook
accessdate = 2006-07-10
year = 2003
month = May
publisher = Oxford University Press US
id = ISBN 0195166647
pages = p. 149
ref = Weigel
] As the facts emerged, thousands of people declared their solidarity with the murdered priest by attending his funeral, held on November 3, 1984. The government attempted to smooth over the situation by releasing thousands of political prisoners; a year later, however, there followed a new wave of arrests. Frasyniuk, Lis and Adam Michnik, members of the "S" underground, were arrested on February 13, 1985, placed on a show trial, and sentenced to several years' imprisonment.cite book
last = Kenney
first = Padraic
authorlink = Padraic Kenney
title = A Carnival of Revolution: Central Europe 1989
url = http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0691050287&id=hELsX6c3hcYC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&sig=hy1cwEzv8M2J-C-4P_sp7H6zHNc
year = 2003
publisher = Princeton University Press
id = ISBN 069111627X
pages = p 25

econd Solidarity (1988–89)

On March 11, 1985, power in the Soviet Union was assumed by Mikhail Gorbachev, a leader who represented a new generation of Soviet party members. The worsening economic situation in the entire Eastern Bloc, including the Soviet Union, together with other factors, forced Gorbachev to carry out a number of reforms, not only in the field of economics ("uskoreniye") but in the political and social realms ("glasnost" and "perestroika").John Barkley Rosser, Marina V. Rosser, "Comparative Economics in a Transforming World Economy", MIT Press, 2004, ISBN 0-262-18234-3, [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0262182343&id=y3Mr6TgalqMC&pg=PA283&lpg=PA283&sig=tERkwHxUS5-56Ik6yW7ZesjUtWk Google Print, p.283] ] Gorbachev's policies soon caused a corresponding shift in the policies of Soviet satellites, including the People's Republic of Poland.

On September 11, 1986, 225 Polish political prisoners were released—the last of those connected with Solidarity, and arrested during the previous years. Following amnesty on September 30, Wałęsa created the first public, legal Solidarity entity since the declaration of martial law—the Temporary Council of NSZZ Solidarność ("Tymczasowa Rada NSZZ Solidarność")—with Bogdan Borusewicz, Zbigniew Bujak, Władysław Frasyniuk, Tadeusz Jedynak, Bogdan Lis, Janusz Pałubicki and Józef Pinior. Soon afterwards, the new Council was admitted to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. Many local Solidarity chapters now broke their cover throughout Poland, and on October 25, 1987, the National Executive Committee (Solidarity)|National Executive Committee of NSZZ Solidarność ("Krajowa Komisja Wykonawcza NSZZ Solidarność") was created. Nonetheless, Solidarity members and activists continued to be persecuted and discriminated, if less so than during the early 1980s. In the late 1980s, a rift between Wałęsa's faction and a more radical Fighting Solidarity grew as the former wanted to negotiate with the government, while the latter planned for an anti-communist revolution. cite book
author = Michael D. Kennedy
title = Cultural Formations of Postcommunism: Emancipation, Transition, Nation, and War
publisher = University of Minnesota Press
year = 2002
id = ISBN 0816638578
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=MS3kMFAyLZ0C&pg=PA71&lpg=PA71&sig=dQjP7s_WCwMMogQQg8Byp4_Tw9A p.71]
] Mary Patrice Erdmans, Helena Znaniecka Lopata, "Polish Americans", Transaction Publishers, 1994, ISBN 1-56000-100-3, [http://books.google.com/books?id=F84749XfsDoC&pg=PA221&lpg=PA221&sig=3w-fOrtEALc5RLF0wI1EjGHbDyI p. 221] ]

By 1988, Poland's economy was in worse condition than it had been eight years earlier. International sanctions, combined with the government's unwillingness to introduce reforms, intensified the old problems. Inefficient government-run planned-economy enterprises wasted labor and resources, producing substandard goods for which there was little demand. Polish exports were low, both because of the sanctions and because the goods were as unattractive abroad as they were at home. Foreign debt and inflation mounted. There were no funds to modernize factories, and the promised "market socialism" materialized as a shortage economy characterized by long queues and empty shelves. cite book
author = John E. Jackson
coauthors = Jacek Klich, Krystyna Poznanska
title = The Political Economy of Poland's Transition: New Firms and Reform Governments
publisher = Cambridge University Press
year = 2005
id = ISBN 0521838959
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=PfptbHVD20UC&pg=PA21&lpg=PA21&sig=L2ZFypSPKyVA23BrkjLx6UtK-D4 p. 21]
] Reforms introduced by Jaruzelski and Mieczysław Rakowski came too little and too late, especially as changes in the Soviet Union had bolstered the public's expectation that change must come, and the Soviets ceased their efforts to prop up Poland's failing regime.cite web
title=Solidarity victorious (1989)
work=BBC News

In February 1988, the government hiked food prices by 40%. On April 21, a new wave of strikes hit the country. On May 2, workers at the Gdańsk Shipyard went on strike. That strike was broken by the government between May 5 and May 10, but only temporarily: on August 15, a new strike took place at the "July Manifesto" mine in Jastrzębie Zdrój. By August 20 the strike had spread to many other mines, and on August 22 the Gdańsk Shipyard joined the strike. Poland's communist government then decided to negotiate.

On August 26, Czesław Kiszczak, the Minister of Internal Affairs, declared on television that the government was willing to negotiate, and five days later he met with Wałęsa. The strikes ended the following day, and on October 30, during a televised debate between Wałęsa and Alfred Miodowicz (leader of the pro-government trade union, the All-Polish Conference of Trade Unions), Wałęsa scored a public-relations victory.

On December 18, a hundred-member Citizens' Committee ("Komitet Obywatelski") was formed within Solidarity. It comprised several sections, each responsible for presenting a specific aspect of opposition demands to the government. Wałęsa and the majority of Solidarity leaders supported negotiation, while a minority wanted an anticommunist revolution. Under Wałęsa's leadership, Solidarity decided to pursue a peaceful solution, and the pro-violence faction never attained any substantial power, nor did it take any action.

On January 27, 1989, in a meeting between Wałęsa and Kiszczak, a list was drawn up of members of the main negotiating teams. The conference that began on February 6 would be known as the Polish Round Table Talks.cite web
title=Free elections (1989)
work=BBC News
] The 56 participants included 20 from "S", 6 from "OPZZ", 14 from the "PZPR", 14 "independent authorities", and two priests. The Polish Round Table Talks took place in Warsaw from February 6 to April 4, 1989. The Communists, led by Gen. Jaruzelski, hoped to co-opt prominent opposition leaders into the ruling group without making major changes in the structure of political power. Solidarity, while hopeful, did not anticipate major changes. In fact, the talks would radically alter the shape of the Polish government and society.

On April 17, 1989, Solidarity was legalized, and its membership soon reached 1.5 million. The Solidarity Citizens' Committee ("Komitet Obywatelski "Solidarność") was given permission to field candidates in the upcoming elections. Election law allowed Solidarity to put forward candidates for only 35% of the seats in the Sejm, but there were no restrictions in regard to "Senat" candidates. cite book
author = David S. Mason
title = Revolution and Transition in East-Central Europe
publisher = Westview Press
year = 1997
id = ISBN 0813328357
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=RWVy79Opi1kC&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&sig=7w9PzeC9eG8_fI58wGoz7yzaxi0 p. 53]
] Agitation and propaganda continued legally up to election day. Despite its shortage of resources, Solidarity managed to carry on an electoral campaign. On May 8, the first issue of a new pro-Solidarity newspaper, Gazeta Wyborcza ("The Election Gazette"), was published.citeweb|url=http://www.poland.gov.pl/Changes,in,the,Polish,media,since,1989.,515.html|title=Changes in the Polish media since 1989.|publisher=Ministry of Foreign Affairs|accessdate=2007-01-15] Posters of Wałęsa supporting various candidates, appeared throughout the country.

Pre-election public-opinion polls had promised victory to the communists. Thus the total defeat of the "PZPR" and its satellite parties came as a surprise to all involved: after the first round of elections, it became evident that Solidarity had fared extremely well, capturing 160 of 161 contested Sejm seats, and 92 of 100 Senate seats. After the second round, it had won virtually every seat—all 161 in the Sejm, and 99 in the Senate. The new Contract Sejm, named for the agreement that had been reached by the communist party and the Solidarity movement during the Polish Round Table Talks, would be dominated by Solidarity. As agreed beforehand, Wojciech Jaruzelski was elected president. However, the communist candidate for Prime Minister, Czesław Kiszczak, who replaced Mieczysław Rakowski, failed to gain enough support to form a government. cite book
author = Ronald J. Hill
title = Beyond Stalinism: Communist Political Evolution
publisher = Routledge
year = 1992
id = ISBN 0714634638
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=Y9K2-6qPb18C&pg=PA51&lpg=PA51&sig=gLwqtUDdBrxr-2TJjJ72LwOmWQQ p. 51]

On June 23, a Solidarity Citizens' Parliamentary Club ("Obywatelski Klub Parlamentarny "Solidarność") was formed, led by Bronisław Geremek. It formed a coalition with two ex-satellite parties of the "PZPR"—"ZSL" and "SD"—which had now chosen to "rebel" against the "PZPR", which found itself in the minority. On August 24, the Sejm elected Tadeusz Mazowiecki, a Solidarity representative, to be Prime Minister of Poland. Not only was he a first non-communist Polish Prime Minister since 1945, he became the first non-Communist prime minister in Eastern Europe for nearly 40 years. In his speech he talked about the "thick line" ("Gruba kreska") which would separate his government from the communist past cite book
author = Jan-Werner Müller
title = Memory and Power in Post-War Europe: Studies in the Presence of the Past
publisher = Cambridge University Press
year = 2002
id = ISBN 052100070X
pages = [http://books.google.com/books?id=wOsSG0K8hCYC&pg=PA267&lpg=PA267&sig=p8V8GHCMo1HGOaRU3ztuKVDMNvw p.267]
] By the end of August 1989, a Solidarity-led coalition government had been formed.

Party and Trade Union (1989 to the present)

The fall of the communist regime marked a new chapter in the history of Poland and in the history of Solidarity. Having defeated the communist government, Solidarity found itself in a role it was much less prepared for — that of a political party — and soon began to lose popularity.William C. Cockerham, "Health and Social Change in Russia and Eastern Europe", Routledge, 1999, ISBN 0415920809, [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0415920809&id=GOZFhIBmN1gC&pg=PA157&lpg=PA157&dq=Solidarity+Walesa+factions&sig=CQTG_GdoTmSB1uQACUJhbu8vvTk Google Print, p.157] ] Conflicts among Solidarity factions intensified.Arend Lijphart, "Institutional Design in New Democracies", Westview Press, 1996, ISBN 0813321093, [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0813321093&id=n7OZMmRjIScC&pg=PA62&lpg=PA62&dq=Solidarity+Walesa+factions&sig=FoV3F_Ro3KdTPYataQVXoqrBlPo Google Print, p.62] ] Wałęsa was elected Solidarity chairman, but support for him could be seen to be crumbling. One of his main opponents, Władysław Frasyniuk, withdrew from elections altogether. In September 1990, Wałęsa declared that Gazeta Wyborcza had no right to use the Solidarity logo.

Later that month, Wałęsa announced his intent to run for president of Poland. In December 1990, he was elected president. He resigned his Solidarity post and became the first president of Poland ever to be elected by popular vote.

These elections, in which anti-communist candidates won a striking victory, inaugurated a series of peaceful anti-communist revolutions in Central and Eastern Europecite book
last = Steger
first = Manfred B
title = Judging Nonviolence: The Dispute Between Realists and Idealists
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=VEcHo6QcIUwC&pg=PA114&lpg=PA114&sig=GWuOXmZbZewMdElsBsmhZh7uTFY&hl=en
format = ebook
accessdate = 2006-07-06
year = 2004
month = Jan
publisher = Routledge (UK)
id = ISBN 0415933978
pages = p 114
] cite book
last = Kenney
first = Padraic
authorlink = Padraic Kenney
title = A Carnival of Revolution: Central Europe 1989
url = http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0691050287&id=hELsX6c3hcYC&pg=PA15&lpg=PA15&sig=Dcz5KSrCC_XIgscD16FGOLr2Ey0
accessdate = 2007-01-17
year = 2002
publisher = Princeton University Press
id = ISBN 069111627X
pages = p.15
] that eventually culminated in the fall of communism.Padraic Kenney, "Rebuilding Poland: Workers and Communists, 1945–1950", Cornell University Press, 1996, ISBN 0801432871, [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0801432871&id=z_Z_nJnzTp4C&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=Solidarity+fall+of+communism&sig=hg5y_J4IcP9QZkQyfCawhnKT3g8 Google Print, p.4] ] citebook|author=Padraic Kenney|title=A Carnival of Revolution: Central Europe 1989|publisher=Princeton University Press|year=2002|id=ISBN 0691050287|pages= [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0691050287&id=hELsX6c3hcYC&pg=PA2&lpg=PA2&dq=Solidarity+fall+of+communism&sig=2xGIVdsEhgOut91T-45A9DnTxQ8 p.2] ]

Next year, in February 1991, Marian Krzaklewski was elected the leader of Solidarity. President Wałęsa's vision and that of the new Solidarity leadership were diverging. Far from supporting Wałęsa, Solidarity was becoming increasingly critical of the government, and decided to create its own political party for action in the upcoming 1991 parliamentary elections.cite book
last = Kubicek
first = Paul A
title = Unbroken Ties: The State, Interest Associations, and Corporatism in Post-Soviet Ukraine
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=0Sf8BcUgMSMC&pg=PA188&lpg=PA188&sig=L6e6SKv_Itq5HEBimcVshR5TFxE
format = ebook
accessdate = 2006-07-10
year = 2000
month = Apr
publisher = University of Michigan Press
id = ISBN 0472110306
pages = p. 188

The 1991 elections were characterized by a large number of competing parties, many claiming the legacy of anti-communism, and the Solidarity party garnered only 5% of the votes.

On January 13, 1992, Solidarity declared its first strike against the democratically elected government: a one-hour strike against a proposal to raise energy prices. Another, two-hour strike took place on December 14. On May 19, 1993, Solidarity deputies proposed a no-confidence motion—which passed—against the government of Prime Minister Hanna Suchocka. President Wałęsa declined to accept the prime minister's resignation, and dismissed the parliament.

It was in the ensuing 1993 parliamentary elections that it became evident how much Solidarity's support had eroded in the previous three years. Even though some Solidarity deputies sought to assume a more left-wing stance and to distance themselves from the right-wing government, Solidarity remained identified in the public mind with that government. Hence it suffered from the growing disillusionment of the populace, as the transition from a communist to a capitalist system failed to generate instant wealth and raise Poland's living standards to those in the West, and the government's financial "shock therapy" (the Balcerowicz Plan) generated much opposition.

In the elections, Solidarity received only 4.9% of the votes, 0.1% less than the 5% required in order to enter parliament (Solidarity still had 9 senators, 2 fewer than in the previous Senate). The victorious party was the Democratic Left Alliance ("Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej" or "SLD"), a post-communist left-wing party.

Solidarity now joined forces with its erstwhile enemy, the All-Polish Conference of Trade Unions ("OPZZ"), and some protests were organized by both trade unions. The following year, Solidarity organized many strikes over the state of the Polish mining industry. In 1995, a demonstration before the Polish parliament was broken up by the police (now again known as "policja") using batons and water guns. Nonetheless, Solidarity decided to support Wałęsa in the 1995 presidential elections.

In a second major defeat for the Polish right wing, the elections were won by an "SLD" candidate, Aleksander Kwaśniewski, who received 51.72% of votes. A Solidarity call for new elections went unheeded, but the Sejm still managed to pass a resolution condemning the 1981 martial law (despite the "SLD" voting against). Meanwhile the left-wing "OPZZ" trade union had acquired 2.5 million members, twice as many as the contemporary Solidarity (with 1.3 million).

In June 1996, Solidarity Electoral Action ("Akcja Wyborcza Solidarność") was founded as a coalition of over 30 right-wing parties, uniting liberal, conservative and Christian-democratic forces. As the public became disillusioned with the "SLD" and its allies, "AWS" was victorious in the 1997 parliamentary elections. Jerzy Buzek became the new prime minister.

However, controversies over domestic reforms, Poland's 1999 entry into NATO, and the accession process to the European Union, combined with "AWS"' fights with its political allies (the Freedom Union—"Unia Wolności") and infighting within "AWS" itself, as well as corruption (reflected in the infamous "TKM" slogan), eventually resulted in the loss of much public support. "AWS" leader Marian Krzaklewski lost the 2000 presidential election, and in the 2001 parliamentary elections "AWS" failed to elect a single deputy to the parliament. After this debacle, Krzaklewski was replaced by Janusz Śniadek (in 2002) but the union decided to distance itself from politics.

In 2006, Solidarity had some 1.5 million members making it the largest trade union in Poland. Its mission statement declares that Solidarity, "basing its activities on Christian ethics and Catholic social teachings, works to protect workers' interests and to fulfill their material, social and cultural aspirations." [citeweb|url=http://www.solidarnosc.org.pl/eng1.htm|title=Welcome to NSZZ Solidarnosc Web Site!|publisher=National Commission of Independent Self-Governing Trade Union|accessdate=2007-01-15]


External links

* [http://www.solidarnosc.gov.pl/ Presentation The Solidarity Phenomenon] (PL, EN, DE, FR, ES, RU)
* [http://www.solidarnosc.org.pl/eng1.htm Solidarity official English homepage]
* [http://www.solidarity.org.pl/cgi-bin/news.pl?lang=en Solidarity 25th Anniversary Press Center]
* [http://www.solidarnosc25.pl/ International Conference 'From Solidarity to Freedom']
* [http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2005/08/8b89d311-5067-4c03-9aa6-72500d1f986d.html Poland: Solidarity -- The Trade Union That Changed The World]
* [http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/poland.htm Advice for East German propagandists on how to deal with the Solidarity movement]
* [http://culture.polishsite.us/articles/art52.html Solidarity, Freedom and Economical Crisis in Poland, 1980–81]
* [http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_educator/issues/summer2005/puddington.htm Arch Puddington, How American Unions Helps Solidarity Win]
*Michael Bernhard, [http://test.scripts.psu.edu/users/m/h/mhb5/Solid3.pdf The Polish Opposition and the Technology of Resistance]
* [http://www.loc.gov/rr/european/polpress/indepres1.html The Independent Press in Poland, 1976–1990] – this site of the Library of Congress contains a list of Polish abbreviations and their English translations; many of which were used in this article
*pl icon [http://www.fcs.org.pl/ Solidarity Center Fundation – Fundacja Centrum Solidarności]

Further reading

* cite book
last = Staniszkis
first = Jadwiga
authorlink = Jadwiga Staniszkis
title = Poland's Self-Limiting Revolution
year= 1984
publisher = Princeton University Press

* cite book
last = Eringer
first = Robert
title = Strike for Freedom: The Story of Lech Wałęsa and Polish Solidarity
year = 1982
publisher = Dodd Mead
id = ISBN 0396080650

* cite book
last = Kenney
first = Patrick
title = The Burdens of Freedom
year = 2006
publisher = Zed Books Ltd.
id = ISBN 1842776622

* cite book
last = Osa
first = Maryjane
title = Solidarity and Contention: Networks of Polish Opposition
year = 2003
publisher = University of Minnesota Press
id = ISBN 0816638748

* cite book
last = Ost
first = David
title = The Defeat Of Solidarity: Anger and Politics in Postcommunist Europe
url = http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0801443180&id=KD8Q4RX375QC&vq=OPZZ&dq=OPZZ
format = ebook
year = 2005
publisher = Cornell University Press
id = ISBN 0801443180

* cite book
last = Penn
first = Shana
title = Solidarity's Secret: The Women Who Defeated Communism in Poland
year = 2005
publisher = University of Michigan Press
id = ISBN 0472113852

* cite book
last = Perdue
first = William D.
title = Paradox of Change: The Rise and Fall of Solidarity in the New Poland
year = 1995
publisher = Praeger/Greenwood
id = ISBN 0275952959

* citeweb
author=Pope John Paul II
title=Sollicitudo Rei Socialis
url = http://www.vatican.va/edocs/ENG0223/_INDEX.HTM
publisher = Libreria Editrice Vaticana
date = 2003-05-19

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