Christchurch


Christchurch
Christchurch
Ōtautahi (Māori)
—  Metropolitan Area  —
Christchurch
Clockwise from top:
Nickname(s): The Garden City
Christchurch is located in New Zealand
Christchurch
Coordinates: 43°31′48″S 172°37′13″E / 43.53°S 172.62028°E / -43.53; 172.62028Coordinates: 43°31′48″S 172°37′13″E / 43.53°S 172.62028°E / -43.53; 172.62028
Country  New Zealand
Island South Island
Region Canterbury
Territorial authority Christchurch City
Settled by the UK 1848
Boroughs
Government
 - Mayor Bob Parker
 - Deputy Mayor Ngaire Button
Area
 - Territorial 1,426 km2 (550.6 sq mi)
 - Urban 452 km2 (174.5 sq mi)
Highest elevation 920 m (3,018 ft)
Lowest elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Population (June 2010 estimate)[1]
 - Territorial 376,700
 - Density 264.2/km2 (684.2/sq mi)
 Urban 390,300
 - Urban density 863.5/km2 (2,236.4/sq mi)
Time zone NZST (UTC+12)
 - Summer (DST) NZDT (UTC+13)
Area code(s) 03
Local iwi Ngāi Tahu, Ngāti Mamoe
Website www.ccc.govt.nz
www.ecan.govt.nz

Christchurch (Māori: Ōtautahi) is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the country's second-largest urban area after Auckland. It lies one third of the way down the South Island's east coast, just north of Banks Peninsula which itself, since 2006, lies within the formal limits of Christchurch.

The city was named by the Canterbury Association, which settled the surrounding province of Canterbury. The name of Christchurch was agreed on at the first meeting of the association on 27 March 1848. It was suggested by John Robert Godley, who had attended Christ Church, Oxford. Some early writers called the town Christ Church, but it was recorded as Christchurch in the minutes of the management committee of the association.[2] Christchurch became a city by Royal Charter on 31 July 1856, making it officially the oldest established city in New Zealand.

The river that flows through the centre of the city (its banks now largely forming an urban park) was named Avon at the request of the pioneering Deans brothers to commemorate the Scottish Avon, which rises in the Ayrshire hills near what was their grandfathers' farm and flows into the Clyde.[2]

The usual Māori name for Christchurch is Ōtautahi ("the place of Tautahi"). This was originally the name of a specific site by the Avon River near present-day Kilmore Street and the Christchurch Central Fire Station. The site was a seasonal dwelling of Ngāi Tahu chief Te Potiki Tautahi, whose main home was Port Levy on Banks Peninsula. The Ōtautahi name was adopted in the 1930s. Prior to that the Ngāi Tahu generally referred to the Christchurch area as Karaitiana,[3] a transliteration of the English word Christian.

Contents

History

Overview

High, Manchester and Lichfield Streets in Christchurch, 1923.

Archeological evidence found in a cave at Redcliffs in 1876 has indicated that the Christchurch area was first settled by moa-hunting tribes about 1250. These first inhabitants were thought to have been followed by the Waitaha tribe, who are said to have migrated from the East coast of the North Island in the 16th century. Following tribal warfare, the Waitaha (made of three peoples) were dispossessed by the Ngati Mamoe tribe. They were in turn subjugated by the Ngāi Tahu tribe, who remained in control until the arrival of European settlers.

Following the purchase of land at Putaringamotu (modern Riccarton) by the Weller brothers whalers of Otago and Sydney a party of European settlers led by Herriott and McGillivray established themselves in what is now Christchurch, early in 1840. Their abandoned holdings were taken over by the Deans brothers[4] in 1843 who stayed. The First Four Ships were chartered by the Canterbury Association and brought the first 792 of the Canterbury Pilgrims to Lyttelton Harbour. These sailing vessels were the Randolph, Charlotte-Jane, Sir George Seymour, and Cressy. The Charlotte-Jane was the first to arrive on 16 December 1850. The Canterbury Pilgrims had aspirations of building a city around a cathedral and college, on the model of Christ Church in Oxford.[5]

The name "Christ Church" was decided prior to the ships' arrival, at the Association's first meeting, on 27 March 1848. The exact basis for the name is not known. It has been suggested that it is named for Christchurch, in Hampshire, England; for Canterbury Cathedral; or in honour of Christ Church College, Oxford. The last explanation is the one generally accepted.[6]

ChristChurch Cathedral before its partial collapse in the 2011 earthquakes.

Captain Joseph Thomas, the Canterbury Association's Chief Surveyor, surveyed the surrounding area. By December 1849 he had commissioned the construction of a road from Port Cooper, later Lyttelton, to Christchurch via Sumner.[7] However this proved more difficult than expected and road construction was stopped while a steep foot and pack horse track was constructed over the hill between the port and the Heathcote valley, where access to the site of the proposed settlement could be gained. This track became known as the Bridle Path, because the path was so steep that pack horses needed to be led by the bridle.[8]

Goods that were too heavy or bulky to be transported by pack horse over the Bridle Path were shipped by small sailing vessels some eight miles (13 km) by water around the coast and up the estuary to Ferrymead. New Zealand's first public railway line, the Ferrymead railway, opened from Ferrymead to Christchurch in 1863. Due to the difficulties in travelling over the Port Hills and the dangers associated with shipping navigating the Sumner bar, a railway tunnel was bored through the Port Hills to Lyttelton, opening in 1867.[9]

Christchurch became a city by Royal Charter on 31 July 1856, the first in New Zealand. Many of the city's Gothic Revival buildings by architect Benjamin Mountfort date from this period.

Christchurch was the seat of provincial administration for the Province of Canterbury, which was abolished in 1876.

In 1947, New Zealand's worst fire disaster occurred at Ballantyne's Department Store in the inner city, with 41 people killed in a blaze which razed the rambling collection of buildings.[10]

The Lyttelton road tunnel between Lyttelton and Christchurch was opened in 1964.[11]

Christchurch hosted the 1974 British Commonwealth Games.

2010–2011 earthquakes

The collapsed Pyne Gould Building. Thirty of the building's two hundred workers were trapped within the building following the February earthquake.[12]

An earthquake with magnitude 7.1 occurred near Christchurch at 4:35 am local time, 4 September 2010 (16:35 UTC, 3 September 2010).[13] The earthquake occurred at a depth of 10 kilometres (6.2 mi), and despite widespread damage there were no fatalities.[14][15] A large aftershock of magnitude 6.3 occurred on 22 February 2011 at 12:51 pm. It was centred just to the north of Lyttelton, 10 kilometres south east of Christchurch, at a depth of 5 km.[16]

Although lower on the moment magnitude scale than the previous earthquake, the intensity and violence of the ground shaking was measured to be VIII on the MMI, among the strongest ever recorded globally in an urban area.[17] The quake struck on a busy weekday afternoon and resulted in the deaths of 181 people.[18] This event resulted in the declaration of New Zealand's first National State of Emergency. Many buildings and landmarks were severely damaged, including the iconic 'Shag Rock' and Christchurch Cathedral. On 13 June 2011 Christchurch was again rocked by two more large aftershocks. A 5.6 at only 9 km (6 mi) deep hit at 1.00pm in the general location of Sumner, Christchurch this was followed by another 6.3 at only 6 km (4 mi) deep at 2.20pm again in the general location of Sumner, Christchurch. This resulted in more liquefaction and building damage, but no more lives were lost.[19]

Garden City

The Christchurch city council have announced that Christchurch will be built as a "city in a garden" with an estimated cost of NZ$2 billion. The size of the city's business district will be reduced and the height of building will be limited in the centre, giving over much more space to parkland.[20]

Gateway to the Antarctic

Christchurch has a history of involvement in Antarctic exploration–both Robert Falcon Scott and Ernest Shackleton used the port of Lyttelton as a departure point for expeditions, and in the central city there is a statue of Scott sculpted by his widow, Kathleen Scott. Within the city, the Canterbury Museum preserves and exhibits many historic artefacts and stories of Antarctic exploration. Christchurch International Airport serves as the major base for the New Zealand, Italian and United States Antarctic programs.

The International Antarctic Centre provides both base facilities and a museum and visitor centre focused upon current Antarctic activities. The United States Navy and latterly the United States Air National Guard, augmented by the New Zealand and Australian air forces, use Christchurch Airport as take-off for the main supply route to McMurdo and Scott Bases in Antarctica. The Clothing Distribution Center (CDC) in Christchurch, had more than 140,000 pieces of extreme cold weather (ECW) gear for issue to nearly 2,000 U.S. Antarctic Program (USAP) participants in the 2007–08 season.[21]

Geography

Satellite image showing Christchurch and surrounding areas.

Christchurch lies in Canterbury, near the centre of the east coast of the South Island, east of the Canterbury Plains. It is located near the southern end of Pegasus Bay, and is bounded to the east by the Pacific Ocean coast and the estuary of the Avon and Heathcote Rivers. To the south and south-east the urban portion of the city is limited by the volcanic slopes of the Port Hills separating it from Banks Peninsula. In 2006, Banks Peninsula was incorporated into the city, in effect tripling the city's land area[22] while adding only about 8,000 people to the city's population. To the north the city is bounded by the braided Waimakariri River.

Christchurch is one of only eight pairs of cities in the world that has a near-exact antipodal city. Half of these antipodal pairs are in New Zealand and Spain/Morocco–with A Coruña, Spain as Christchurch's antipode.

Christchurch is one of a group of only four cities in the world, that have been carefully planned following the same layout of a central city square, four complimenting city squares surrounding it and a parklands area that embrace the city centre. The first city built with this pattern was Philadelphia, later came Savannah and Adelaide. The fourth city using this pattern was Christchurch. As such Christchurch holds an important legacy and a strong platform for future development.

Christchurch has one of the highest-quality water supplies in the world, rated one of the purest and cleanest water in the world.[23] Untreated, naturally filtered water is sourced, via more than 50 pumping stations surrounding the city, from aquifers emanating from the foothills of the Southern Alps.[24]

Central city

At the city's centre is Cathedral Square, surrounding the now-damaged landmark Anglican cathedral, Christ Church. The area around this square and within the 'four avenues' of Christchurch (Bealey Avenue, Fitzgerald Avenue, Moorhouse Avenue and Deans Avenue[25]) was considered the central business district of the city. The central city also has a number of residential areas, including Inner City East, Inner City West, Avon Loop, Moa Neighbourhood & Victoria. Cathedral Square stands at the crossing of two major central streets, Colombo Street and Worcester Street, though both have been blocked off or detoured at the approaches to the square.

Cathedral Square, the heart of the city, hosted attractions such as (until recently[26]) the Wizard of New Zealand, Ian Brackenbury Channell, and evangelist Ray Comfort; regular market days; free standing food and coffee carts; an aquarium, pubs and restaurants and the city's chief tourist information centre.

The central city also included the pedestrianised sections of Cashel and High streets commonly known as 'City Mall'. Refurbished in 2008/09 the mall before the earthquake of February 2011 featured especially designed seating, flower and garden boxes, more trees, paving, and an extension to the central city tram route. The Bridge Of Remembrance commemorating war dead stands at the western end of the mall.

The Cultural Precinct[27] provided a backdrop to a vibrant scene of ever-changing arts, cultural, and heritage attractions within an area of less than one square kilometre. The Arts Centre, the Canterbury Museum and the Art Gallery are located in the Cultural Precinct. The majority of the activities were free and a printable map was provided.

In 2010, the Christchurch City Council released "A City For People Action Plan", a program of work through to 2022 to improve public spaces within the central city to entice more inner city residents and visitors. A primary action was to reduce the impact of motorised private vehicles and increase the comfort of pedestrians and cyclists. The plan was based on a report prepared for the council by renowned Danish design firm Gehl Architects. Since the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake Wellington architect Ian Athfield has been selected to re-plan, although many varied suggestions have been promoted for rebuilding the central city[28][29][30][31]

Inner suburbs

(clockwise, starting north of the city centre)

Outer suburbs

(clockwise, starting north of the city centre)

Satellite towns

Climate

Christchurch
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
42
 
23
12
 
 
39
 
22
12
 
 
54
 
20
11
 
 
54
 
18
8
 
 
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15
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66
 
12
2
 
 
79
 
11
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69
 
12
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47
 
15
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53
 
17
7
 
 
44
 
19
9
 
 
49
 
21
11
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: NIWA Science climate data[32]

Christchurch has a dry, temperate climate, with mean daily maximum air temperatures of 22.5 °C (72.5 °F) in January, 11.3 °C (52.3 °F) in July.[33] Under Koppen's climate classification, Christchurch has an Oceanic climate. The summer climate is often moderated by a sea breeze from the Northeast, but a record temperature of 41.6 °C (107 °F) was reached in February 1973. A notable feature of the weather is the nor'wester, a hot föhn wind that occasionally reaches storm force, causing widespread minor damage to property.[34]

In winter it is common for the temperature to fall below 0 °C (32 °F) at night. There are on average 70 days of ground frost per year.[35] Snow falls occur on average once or twice a year in the hill suburbs and about once or twice every two years on the plain.

On cold winter nights, the surrounding hills, clear skies, and frosty calm conditions often combine to form a stable inversion layer above the city that traps vehicle exhausts and smoke from domestic fires to cause smog. While not as bad as smog in Los Angeles or Mexico City, Christchurch smog has often exceeded World Health Organisation recommendations for air pollution.[36] The city has funding available to upgrade domestic home heating systems, and in order to limit air pollution has banned the use of open fires as of 1 January 2006. As of 2008, woodburners more than 15 years old are prohibited.[37]

Demographics

Boatsheds on the Avon River

The area administered by the Christchurch City Council has a population of 376,700 (June 2010 estimate),[1] making it the second-largest in New Zealand, and the largest city in the South Island. The Christchurch urban area is the second-largest in the country by population, after Auckland.

Ethnicity

The following table shows the ethnic profile of Christchurch's population, as recorded in the 2001 and 2006 New Zealand Census. The percentages add up to more than 100%, as some people counted themselves as belonging to more than one ethnic group. Figures for 2006 refer to just Christchurch City, not the whole urban area. The substantial percentage drop in the numbers of 'Europeans' was mainly caused by the increasing numbers of people from this group choosing to define themselves as 'New Zealanders'–even though this was not one of the groups listed on the census form.

Approximately 62% of the South Island's Pacific Islander community reside in Christchurch and the surrounding Canterbury Province, equalling approximately 11,500 people.[38] People of Samoan descent comprise about half the Pacific Islander population.[38] There are also smaller communities of Cook Islanders, Fijians, Niueans, Tokelauans and Tongans residing in the city.[38]

Ethnic Group 2001 census 2006 census
Percentage People[39] National average Percent People[40] National average
European 89.8 291,594 75.4 255,366 67.6
'New Zealander' n/a n/a 12.9 43,671 11.1
Asian 5.5 17,703 7.9 26,631 9.2
Māori 7.2 23,421 7.6 25,725 14.7
Pacific Island 2.4 7,713 2.8 9,465 6.9
Middle East/Latin America/Africa n/a n/a 0.8 2,862 0.9
Others 0.6 2,073 <0.1 114 <0.1
Total giving their ethnicity 324,666 (individuals) 338,748 (individuals)

The 2006 Census also provides information about the multilinguality of the region. Of those people in Christchurch City who provided data, 86% spoke one language only, 12% spoke two, and 2% could converse in three or more languages.[40]

Economy

The agricultural industry has always been the economic core of Christchurch. The city has long had industry based on the surrounding farming country. PGG Wrightson, New Zealand's leading agribusiness, is based in Christchurch. Its local roots go back to Pyne Gould Guinness, an old stock and station agency serving the South Island. That firm helped take deer farming techniques abroad. PGG Wrightson's overseas diversification includes dairy farming in Uruguay.

Other agribusinesses in Christchurch have included malting, seed development and dressing, wool and meat processing, and small biotechnology operations using by-products from meat works.

Dairying has grown strongly in the surrounding areas with high world prices for milk products and the use of irrigation to lift grass growth on dry land. With its higher labour use this has helped stop declines in rural population. Many cropping and sheep farms have been converted to dairying. Conversions have been by agribusiness companies as well as by farmers, many of whom have moved south from North Island dairying strongholds such as Taranaki and the Waikato.

Cropping has always been important in the surrounding countryside. Wheat and barley and various strains of clover and other grasses for seed exporting have been the main crops. These have all created processing businesses in Christchurch.

In recent years, regional agriculture has diversified, with a thriving wine industry springing up at Waipara, and beginnings of new horticulture industries such as olive production and processing. Deer farming has led to new processing using antlers for Asian medicine and aphrodisiacs. The high quality local wine in particular has increased the appeal of Canterbury and Christchurch to tourists.

In earlier years, Christchurch was one of the two heavy-engineering centres of New Zealand, with firms such as Anderson's making steel work for bridges, tunnels, and hydro-electric dams in the early days of infrastructure work. Now manufacturing is mainly of light products and the key market is Australia, with firms such as those pioneered by the Stewart family among the larger employers.

Before clothing manufacture largely moved to Asia, Christchurch was the centre of the New Zealand clothing industry, with firms such as LWR Industries. The firms that remain mostly design and market, and manufacture in Asia. The city also had five footwear manufacturers, but these have been replaced by imports.

In the last few decades, technology-based industries have sprung up in Christchurch. Angus Tait founded Tait Electronics, a mobile-radio manufacturer, and other firms spun off from this, such as Dennis Chapman's Swichtec. Tait proteges include Chapman. In software, Gil Simpson founded LINC, which became Jade.

However, there have been spin-offs from the electrical department of the University of Canterbury engineering school. These included Pulse Data, which became Human Ware ( making reading devices and computers for blind people and those with limited vision) and CES Communications (encryption). The Pulse Data founders had moved from the Canterbury University engineering school to work for Wormald when they set up Pulse Data through a management buyout of their division.

Nowadays, the University of Canterbury engineering school and computer science department play an important role in supplying staff and research for the technology industries, and the Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology provides a flow of trained technicians and engineers. Similarly, nearby Lincoln University has played an important role in Christchurch agribusiness.

Tourism is also a significant factor of the local economy. The closeness of the ski-fields and other attractions of the Southern Alps, and hotels, a casino, and an airport that meet international standards make Christchurch a stopover destination for many tourists. The city is popular with Japanese tourists,[41] with signage around Cathedral Square in Japanese.

Government

Christchurch's local government is a democracy with various elements including:

  • Christchurch City Council, comprising the Mayor of Christchurch, and 13 councillors elected in seven wards.
  • Community boards (six in the pre-amalgamation city area), each covering one ward, with five members each plus the two ward councillors. The Banks Peninsula ward has two community boards with five members each, plus the ward councillor, who is also a member of each board.
  • District councils in surrounding areas: Selwyn, and Waimakariri. The Banks Peninsula district council was amalgamated into Christchurch City in March 2006 after a vote by the Banks Peninsula residents to disestablish in November 2005.
  • Canterbury Regional Council, known as 'Environment Canterbury', including four Christchurch constituencies with two members from each constituency.[42]
  • District Health Board (Canterbury), with five members for Christchurch.[43]

In 1993, Christchurch was selected as the "Best Run City in the World", also known as the 'Carl Bertelsmann Prize: Local Government', by the Bertelsmann Foundation of Germany. Especially noted was the increased efficiency of communal services in competition with private enterprises. Christchurch shared the award honour with Phoenix, Arizona, USA.[44]

Some of the local governments in Canterbury and the New Zealand Transport Agency have created the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy to facilitate future urban planning.[45]

Education

Secondary schools

Christchurch is the location of Burnside High School, the second largest school in New Zealand with 2,788 pupils. Cashmere High School at Rose Street is another large co-educational secondary school. In recent years, Papanui High School has undergone rapid growth to reach a similar size. Riccarton High School was one of the first state schools in the country to adopt a strong values base – the Riccarton Way. There are several single-sex schools; Shirley Boys' High School & Christchurch Boys' High School are the two state boys' high schools, Avonside Girls' High School & Christchurch Girls' High School are the state girls' high schools in Christchurch. Christchurch is also well known for several very traditional schools of the English public school type, such as St Thomas of Canterbury College, St Margaret's College, Christ's College, St Bede's College, St Andrew's College, Villa Maria College and Rangi Ruru Girls' School, but also has several less conventional schools such as Unlimited Paenga Tawhiti and Hagley Community College.

Tertiary institutions

The University of Canterbury is a tertiary education provider for Christchurch

A number of tertiary education institutions have campuses in Christchurch, or in the surrounding areas.

Transport

Christchurch is served by Christchurch International Airport and by buses (local and long-distance) and trains. The local bus service, known as Metro [46], is provided by Environment Canterbury. The car, however, remains the dominant form of transport. The central city has very flat terrain and the Christchurch City Council is establishing a network of cycle lanes and paths.

Christchurch Brill Tram No 178 on the heritage tramway

There is a functioning Christchurch tramway system in Christchurch, but as a tourist attraction; its loop is restricted to a circuit of the central city. The trams were originally introduced in 1905, ceased operating in 1954,[47] but returned to the inner city (as a tourist attraction) in 1995. In addition to normal bus services, Christchurch also has a pioneering zero-fare hybrid bus service, the Shuttle, in the inner city.

The Main North Line railway travels northwards via Kaikoura to Picton and is served by the famous TranzCoastal passenger train, while the Main South Line heads to Invercargill via Dunedin and was used by the Southerner until its cancellation in 2002. The most famous train to depart Christchurch is the TranzAlpine, which travels along the Main South Line to Rolleston and then turns onto the Midland Line, passes through the Southern Alps via the Otira Tunnel, and terminates in Greymouth on the West Coast. This trip is often regarded to be one of the ten great train journeys in the world for the amazing scenery through which it passes. The TranzAlpine service is primarily a tourist service and carries no significant commuter traffic. Commuter trains used to operate in Christchurch but were progressively cancelled in the 1960s and 1970s. The last such service, between Christchurch and Rangiora, ceased in 1976.

Vehicles, as they do throughout New Zealand and most Commonwealth Nations, drive on the left side of the road.

Visitor attractions

Peacock Fountain in the Christchurch Botanic Gardens

Entertainment

Parks and nature

The large number of public parks and well-developed residential gardens with many trees has given Christchurch the name of The Garden City.[48] Hagley Park and the 30-hectare (75 acre) Christchurch Botanic Gardens, founded in 1863, are in the central city, with Hagley Park being a site for sports such as golf, cricket, netball, and rugby, and for open air concerts by local bands and orchestras. To the north of the city is the Willowbank wildlife park. Travis Wetland, an ecological restoration programme to create a wetland, is to the east of the city centre in the suburb of Burwood.

Cinema

While historically most cinemas were grouped around Cathedral Square,[49] only two cinemas remain there. The Regent complex was rebuilt as 'Regent on Worcester' in 1996. In 2009 Metro Cinemas opened in Worcester Street with three screens.

Only one of the first generation of suburban cinemas, the Hollywood in Sumner, remains open.[50] The largest multiplexes are the Hoyts 8 in the old railway station on Moorhouse Avenue and Reading Cinemas (also eight screens) in the Palms shopping centre in Shirley. Hoyts in Riccarton opened in 2005[51] with one of its screens for a time holding the record for the largest in New Zealand.

The Rialto Cinemas on Moorhouse avenue specialise in international films and art house productions. The Rialto also hosts the majority of the city's various film festivals and is home to the local film society.

The Christchurch Arts Centre includes two art house cinemas, Cloisters and The Academy, screening a wide selection of contemporary, classic and foreign language films.

The Canterbury Film Society is active in the city.[52]

Theatre

Christchurch has one full-time professional theatre, the Court Theatre,[53] which is based in the Christchurch Arts Centre. There is also an active recreational theatre scene with community based theatre companies, such as the Christchurch Repertory Society,[54] Elmwood Players,[55] Riccarton Players,[56] and Canterbury Children's Theatre,[57] producing many quality shows.

Music

The city is known for its many live acts,[58][59] has a professional symphony orchestra,[60] and is the base of professional opera company, Southern Opera.[61] Christchurch is a home for experimental music scene of New Zealand. The town is the home to such bands as The Bats, Shocking Pinks and Bailter Space.

There are usually buskers around the town square, and Christchurch also hosts the World Buskers Festival in January each year. Singer/songwriter Hayley Westenra famously launched her very successful international career by busking in Christchurch. Soon she was signed to Universal Music Group New Zealand, then later to Decca Label Group in London, England, where she now bases her career.

Christchurch also has an active and relatively large Metal scene, with metal acts playing in various locations around the central city almost weekly.

Christchurch is considered the New Zealand home of Drum and Bass and to a lesser extent Dubstep and various other "Bass Heavy" genres.[citation needed] Some of New Zealand's top performing acts such as Shapeshifter, Tiki Taane and Truth are from Christchurch. Venues and clubs such as The Bedford, Ministry, and Double Happy and many more regularly have international and New Zealand leading acts within the Drum and Bass scene performing live in Christchurch, along with dance parties, raves and gigs all featuring NZ and local Drum and Bass DJs, with often 2 or 3 happening on a single night or weekend (e.g. 2010 when UK Dubstep DJ Doctor P with Crushington was playing at The Bedford, while simultaneously Concord Dawn featuring Trei and Bulletproof was playing at Ministry). Independent Christchurch based radio station Pulzar FM is one of the few radio stations in New Zealand that plays Drum and Bass during the day.[62]

In recent movements, hip hop has effectively landed in Christchurch. In 2000, First Aotearoa Hip Hop Summit was held there. And in 2003, Christchurch’s own Scribe, released his debut album in New Zealand and has received five times platinum in that country, in addition to achieving two number one singles.[63][64]

Television

Christchurch has its own regional television station Canterbury Television. CTV was first formed in 1991 and still today reflects the Canterbury community through locally made programmes. The building collapsed on the 22 February 2011 due to a 6.3 magnitude aftershock. The cause of the collapse is yet to be investigated.

Venues

Christchurch Casino with its playful hybrid of old and new architectural forms

The CBS Canterbury Arena is New Zealand's second largest permanent multipurpose arena, seating between 5000 and 8000, depending on configuration. It is home of the Canterbury Tactix netball side. It was the venue for the 1999 World Netball championships and has been host to many concerts in recent years.

The Christchurch Town Hall auditorium (2500 seats, opened 1972) was the first major auditorium design by architects Warren and Mahoney and acousticians Marshall Day. It is still recognised as a model example of concert-hall design. It has an excellent modern pipe organ.

Christchurch also has a casino,[65] and there are also a wide range of live music venues[66][67]–some short-lived, others with decades of history. Classical music concerts are held at the Christchurch Music Centre.

Sport

Teams

Events

note: The Rugby World Cup 2011 was set to host events in Christchurch, due to the damage to AMI stadium, due to the 2011 earthquake, these events were moved to other venues.

Venues

Winter afternoon on the Christchurch coast.

Sister cities

Christchurch has seven sister cities around the world. They are:[69]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Subnational population estimates at 30 June 2010 (boundaries at 1 November 2010)". Statistics New Zealand. 26 October 2010. http://www.stats.govt.nz/~/media/Statistics/Methods%20and%20Services/Tables/Subnational%20population%20estimates/subpopest2001-10.ashx. Retrieved 7 March 2011. 
  2. ^ a b A History of Canterbury, Vol. 1 – Sir James Hight & Straubel, C.R.; Canterbury Centennial Association and Whitcombe and Tombs, Christchurch 1957, Page 121
  3. ^ Ōtautahi (from the Christchurch City Library website)
  4. ^ "Deans cottage web site". Riccartonhouse.co.nz. http://www.riccartonhouse.co.nz/deans_cottage/. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  5. ^ Cathedral History (from the official Christ Church cathedral website). Archived October 17, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Cowie, D.J. (2 July 1934). "How Christchurch Got Its Name: A Controverted Subject". The New Zealand Railways Magazine (New Zealand Railways) 9 (4): 31. OCLC 52132159. http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-Gov09_04Rail-t1-body-d14.html. Retrieved 4 March 2011. 
  7. ^ "Captain Thomas and the Streets of Christchurch". Christchurch City Libraries. http://library.christchurch.org.nz/Heritage/EarlyChristchurch/JosephThomas.asp. 
  8. ^ Rescue, the Sumner community and its lifeboat service – Amodeo, Colin (editor), Christchurch: Sumner Lifeboat Institution Incorporated, 1998
  9. ^ Chch City Libraries
  10. ^ Ballantyne's fire
  11. ^ Name (2 March 2009). "Te Ara". Te Ara. http://www.teara.govt.nz/Places/Canterbury/CanterburyPlaces/10/ENZ-Resources/Standard/4/en. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  12. ^ "Christchurch Earthquake: Workers trapped in crushed buildings". New Zealand Herald. 22 February 2011. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10708101. 
  13. ^ Strong quake hits in Darfield, Canterbury near Christchurch, Radio New Zealand, 4 September 2010 (New Zealand Time), http://www.radionz.co.nz/news/national/55956/strong-quake-hits-near-christchurch 
  14. ^ "New Zealand Quake Victims Say 'It was terrifying'". The Epoch Times. 3 September 2010. http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/content/view/42135/. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  15. ^ "New Zealand's South Island Rocked by Magnitude 7.0 Earthquake". Bloomberg. 3 September 2010. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-09-04/new-zealand-s-christchurch-rocked-by-7-0-earthquake-declares-emergency.html. Retrieved 4 September 2010. 
  16. ^ "New Zealand Earthquake Report – Feb 22, 2011 at 12:51 pm (NZDT)". GeoNet. Earthquake Commission and GNS Science. 22 February 2011. http://www.geonet.org.nz/earthquake/quakes/3468575g.html. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
  17. ^ Fox, Andrea (1 March 2011). "Building code no match for earthquake". The Dominion Post. http://www.stuff.co.nz/dominion-post/news/4714748/Building-code-no-match-for-earthquake. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  18. ^ "List of deceased". New Zealand Police. 1 June 2011. http://www.police.govt.nz/list-deceased. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  19. ^ "'Thousands of homes need to go'". The Press. 14 June 2011. http://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/news/christchurch-earthquake-2011/5139229/Thousands-of-homes-need-to-go. Retrieved 24 September 2011. 
  20. ^ "New Zealand quake: Christchurch 'to be garden city'". BBC News. 11 August 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-14487723. 
  21. ^ "Looking good in the Antarctic". Clothing Distribution Center in Christchurch, New Zealand, outfits USAP participants for the trip south. The Antarctic Sun. 10 January 2008. http://antarcticsun.usap.gov/features/contentHandler.cfm?id=1309. Retrieved 13 January 2008. 
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  24. ^ "Where our water comes from". Christchurch City Council. 4 September 2010. http://www.ccc.govt.nz/homeliving/watersupply/ourwater/whereourwatercomesfrom.aspx. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  25. ^ Christchurch City Council definition
  26. ^ Ensor, Blair (24 February 2011). "Damaged city too much for Wizard". The Marlborough Express. http://www.stuff.co.nz/marlborough-express/news/4699902/Damaged-city-too-much-for-Wizard. Retrieved 24 September 2011. 
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  30. ^ "Rebuilding Christchurch with wood is a 'New Zealand solution'". http://nzwood.co.nz/industry-news/2010/09/21/rebuilding-christchurch-with-wood-is-a-%E2%80%98new-zealand-solution%E2%80%99/. 
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  32. ^ "NIWA Science climate data". http://www.niwascience.co.nz/edu/resources/climate/. 
  33. ^ "Mean Daily Maximum Temperatures 1971–2000". National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. http://www.niwa.co.nz/edu/resources/climate/maxairtemp. Retrieved 25 January 2009. 
  34. ^ Canterbury's damaging nor'wester (from the Metservice NZ website)
  35. ^ Mean Number Of Days Of Ground Frost (from the NIWA website)
  36. ^ Air Pollution Today (from the Environment Canterbury website)
  37. ^ Ecan.govt.nz (from the Environment Canterbury website)
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  39. ^ 2001 Regional Summary, Statistics New Zealand
  40. ^ a b Quickstats about Christchurch City
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  42. ^ Environment Canterbury (official regional council website)
  43. ^ Canterbury District Health Board (official district health board website)
  44. ^ Carl Bertelsmann-Preis 1993: Kommunalverwaltung (from the Bertelsmann Foundation website, in German)
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  48. ^ Christchurch, the Garden City (from the Christchurch City Council website)
  49. ^ Regent Theatre [1930–1976] (from the Canterbury Film Society website)
  50. ^ "Christchurch Cinemas :: Hollywood Theatre". Canterburyfilmsociety.org.nz. http://www.canterburyfilmsociety.org.nz/localcinemas/hollywood.html. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  51. ^ "Hoyts Riccarton [2005 – "]. Canterbury Film Society. http://www.canterburyfilmsociety.org.nz/localcinemas/westfield.html. 
  52. ^ Canterbury Film Society (from the official Canterbury Film Society website)
  53. ^ Court Theatre (from the official Court Theatre website)
  54. ^ "Christchurch Repertory". Repertory.co.nz. http://www.repertory.co.nz/. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  55. ^ "Elmwood Players". Elmwood Players. http://www.elmwood-players.org.nz/. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  56. ^ Riccarton Players
  57. ^ Peter Rivers.. "Canterbury Children's Theatre". Malthouse.co.nz. http://www.malthouse.co.nz/. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  58. ^ "The Official Launch of NZ Music Month 2007!". New Zealand Music Commission. http://www.nzmusic.org.nz/index.php/ps_pagename/article/pi_articleid/262. 
  59. ^ "Celebrating Christchurch Music in NZ Music Month". Scoop. http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/AK0804/S00312.htm. 
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  61. ^ "Southern Opera – About Us". http://www.southernopera.com/content/about/default.aspx. Retrieved 23 September 2008. 
  62. ^ Though it is not the station's main focus and DnB songs are limited to a few each hour it is still more than the vast majority of stations in New Zealand.
  63. ^ Henderson, April K. “Dancing Between Islands: Hip Hop and the Samoan Diaspora.” In The Vinyl Ain’t Final: Hip Hop and the Globalization of Black Popular Culture, ed. by Dipannita Basu and Sidney J. Lemelle, 180–199. London; Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press, 2000
  64. ^ October 2009+10:05:30 "Aotearoa hiphop timeline". Archived from the original on 25 October 2009. http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Study/9077/hiphoptimeline.html&date=25 October 2009+10:05:30. 
  65. ^ Christchurch Casino (official Christchurch Casino website)
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  68. ^ "Christchurch Park History". Christchurch Park. http://www.christchurchpark.co.nz/history.html. 
  69. ^ Sister Cities of Christchurch (from the Christchurch City Council website)

Bibliography

  • Reed, A.W. (2002) The Reed dictionary of New Zealand place names. Auckland: Reed Books. ISBN 0-790-00761-4.
  • Rice, Geoffrey (with assistance from Jean Sharfe)(1999) Christchurch changing: an illustrated history Christchurch: Canterbury University Press. ISBN 0-908812-53-1 (pbk.)

External links

Official organisations

Culture & information

Tourism & maps


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