- New Zealand nationality law
New Zealand citizenship (Raraunga Aotearoa in Māori) was created on 1 January 1949 by the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948. Prior to this date, New Zealanders were only British subjects and New Zealand had the same nationality legislation as the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries (see also British nationality law).
The 1948 legislation was replaced by the Citizenship Act 1977, which came into force on 1 January 1978. This was substantially amended in 2005 by the Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2005, in force from 21 April 2005.
The Citizenship Office of the Department of Internal Affairs is in charge of processing applications and enquiries relating to New Zealand citizenship.
History of New Zealand citizenship
In the mid-19th century, all 'aliens' (i.e. non-British subjects) were able to enter and live freely in the British Queen’s dominions (including New Zealand), although their property rights were restricted. French and German settlers complained about their inability to acquire property in New Zealand, and so, from 1844, aliens in New Zealand were able to become ‘natural born subjects of Her Majesty [Queen Victoria]’ through proclamations by the governor (which would later to confirmed by ordinances).
On 1 January 1978, the Citizenship Act 1977 came into force. New Zealand passports no longer contained the status of 'British subject and New Zealand citizen', but instead only stated 'New Zealand citizen'. Foreign nationals who wanted to become New Zealand citizens were no longer naturalised, but rather received New Zealand citizenship by grant.
Māori and New Zealand citizenship
Māori were granted ‘all the Rights and Privileges of British Subjects’ under Article 3 of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. Their status as British subjects was re-affirmed by the Native Rights Act 1865. However, despite their legal status as British subjects, in practice, over the next century, Māori would be denied the privileges which white British subjects who moved to New Zealand from Britain enjoyed.
Pacific Islanders and New Zealand citizenship
In 1920, New Zealand started governing Western Samoa under a mandate from the League of Nations. The 1923 and 1928 British Nationality and Status of Aliens Acts passed by the New Zealand Parliament allowed for Western Samoans to be naturalised as British subjects and they were exempted from the usual requirement to understand and speak English.
When the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948 came into effect on 1 January 1949, Cook Islanders, Niueans, Tokelauans and Western Samoans who were British subjects gained New Zealand citizenship.
When Western Samoa achieved independence from New Zealand in 1962, the citizenship status of Western Samoans living in New Zealand became uncertain. As a result, many Western Samoans were staying in New Zealand illegally.
On 28 July 1982, following a stiff tightening of Pacific Island immigration by the Muldoon government, in its interpretation of the 1923 and 1928 British Nationality and Status of Aliens Acts, the Privy Council ruled that all Samoans born between 1924 and 1948, and their children, were British subjects and hence, on 1 January 1949, had become New Zealand citizens.
The Privy Council ruling would have meant recognising over 100,000 Samoans as New Zealand citizens. Because the New Zealand Government was unwilling to grant New Zealand citizenship to such a large number of people, the New Zealand Parliament passed the Citizenship (Western Samoa) Act 1982 which overrode the Privy Council ruling. Under this new law, Samoan citizens who were in New Zealand at any point on 14 September 1982 (legally or illegally) or arrived in New Zealand as permanent residents after that date were eligible to be granted New Zealand citizenship, but other Samoans born before 1949 and their children were not.
This law has been controversial. A 2003 petition asking the New Zealand Parliament to repeal the Act attracted 100,000 signatures, and the Samoan rights group Mau Sitiseni filed a petition on the issue with the United Nations Human Rights Committee in 2007.
Chinese people and New Zealand citizenship
In 1866, the Aliens Act imposed a naturalisation fee of £1 on all immigrants to New Zealand who were perceived to be 'undesirable', which in effect meant most non-white immigrants. When this naturalisation fee was abolished in the 1890s, Chinese people continued to be discriminated against and had to continuing pay the fee whilst all other applicants did not.
In 1908, Chinese people in New Zealand were subjected to even more discrimination. They were denied any possibility for permanent residence and citizenship and were required to apply periodically for permission to remain in New Zealand. Despite being treated third-class citizens, during the Second World War, Chinese people in New Zealand were forced to serve in the armed forces.
It was not until 1951 that Chinese people were finally allowed by law to apply for permanent residence and citizenship again. However, in practice, they continued to be subject to discrimination. Out of the first 400 applicants who fulfilled the legal requirements for New Zealand citizenship and hence who applied for naturalisation, only 20 applicants who were deemed to be 'the most highly assimilated [and educated] types' were approved. In addition, whilst all other applicants for New Zealand citizenship did not have to renounce their former nationality, Chinese people were required to renounce their Chinese citizenship and to demonstrate that they were ‘closer to the New Zealand way of life than to the Chinese'.
On 12 February 2002, Prime Minister Helen Clark made a formal apology in Parliament to the Chinese community in New Zealand for the discrimination they faced in the past. In her speech, she acknowledged the 'unacceptable' 'indignity' suffered by Chinese people in New Zealand as a result of 'discriminatory laws' passed by Parliament in the past relating to immigration and citizenship which applied to no other ethnic group.
Rights, privileges and responsibilities of New Zealand citizens
In New Zealand
New Zealand citizens enjoy the following rights (subject to certain exceptions):
- the right to enter and remain in New Zealand at any time without an immigration permit
- entitlement to a New Zealand passport and to New Zealand consular protection overseas
- immunity from deportation
- entitlement to vote and stand for public office
- entitlement to leave New Zealand and return at any time without requiring a returning resident visa
- entitlement to pass on New Zealand citizenship by descent to children born outside New Zealand
- the right to purchase certain rural property
- full access to education rights, such as subsidised fees and scholarships
- ability to apply for public service jobs reserved for New Zealand citizens
- access to international sport (in some sports, international players must be citizens of the country they represent)
The following responsibilities are expected of New Zealand citizens:
- obey and promote the laws of New Zealand (including registration as a voter and fulfilment of tax obligations)
- not act in any way that is contrary to the interests of New Zealand
By virtue of the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement, New Zealand citizens are granted a Special Category Visa on arrival in Australia (which permits residence and work for an indefinite period) as long as:
- they present a valid New Zealand passport
- they have no criminal convictions
- they have no untreated tuberculosis
- they have not been deported, excluded or removed from any country
In other Commonwealth countries
In the United Kingdom, New Zealand citizens enjoy the following privileges:
- the right to vote in all elections (and the legal duty to register to vote)
- the right to stand in all elections as long as they can stay in the UK indefinitely (e.g. those with indefinite leave to remain or the right of abode)
- the right of abode (for those born before 1983 who meet the requirements)
- access to the UK Ancestry Entry Clearance (for those with a grandparent born either in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands or Isle of Man at any time or in the Republic of Ireland on or before 31 March 1922)
- access to the Youth Mobility Scheme (a working holiday visa for those aged 18-30)
New Zealand citizens who require consular assistance in a foreign country where there is no New Zealand foreign mission may be able to request assistance from a British embassy, high commission or consulate. For example, New Zealanders who need to travel urgently and whose passport has expired, been lost or been stolen can be issued with an emergency travel document by a British foreign mission as long as this has cleared with the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
In foreign countries
New Zealand citizens travelling on a New Zealand passport enjoy the privilege of visa-free access to over 166 countries and territories around the world, including the United States and all European Union member states.
Acquisition of New Zealand citizenship
New Zealand citizenship can be acquired in the following ways:
- Automatically on 1 January 1949 to certain British subjects with a connection to New Zealand
- lex soli: By birth in New Zealand on or after 1 January 2006 to a parent who is a New Zealand citizen or a New Zealand permanent resident at the time of the birth, or by birth in New Zealand on or before 31 December 2005 (with some exceptions)
- lex sanguinis: By descent if born or adopted outside New Zealand and one of the parents (or adopted parent) is a New Zealand citizen otherwise than by descent (for example, by birth or by grant in New Zealand), although there are certain situations where a New Zealand citizen by descent can still pass New Zealand citizenship on to his/her children
- By grant: Either by fulfilling the general requirements or by qualifying for a special grant (e.g. as the child of a New Zealand citizen or as a qualifying Samoan citizen).
For the purpose of acquiring citizenship, the Cook Islands, Niue, the Ross Dependency and Tokelau are treated as part of New Zealand - hence, for example, a child born in Tokelau to a Tokelauan permanent resident would qualify for New Zealand citizenship. However, for Samoan citizens applying for a special grant of New Zealand citizenship, the Cook Islands, Niue, the Ross Dependency and Tokelau are not treated as part of New Zealand.
New Zealand citizenship acquired on 1 January 1949
British & Commonwealth
Commonwealth nationality laws Classes of citizens and subjects Rights and visas Acts
New Zealand citizenship was acquired on this date by British subjects falling into the following categories:
- those born or naturalised in New Zealand
- those born in Samoa
- those ordinarily resident in New Zealand during all of 1948
- those with a father born or naturalised in New Zealand
- women married to men who became New Zealand citizens on 1 January 1949
For the purpose of passing on New Zealand citizenship to children born outside New Zealand, all such persons are New Zealand citizens by descent.
Similarly, all persons born or naturalised in New Zealand in 1949 or later are New Zealand citizens 'otherwise than by descent'.
New Zealand citizenship by birth
In general, any person born in New Zealand (or onboard a ship or aircraft registered in New Zealand) on or before 31 December 2005 is a New Zealand citizen by birth. The only exceptions are children who were born:
- to a parent who, at the time of birth, was a foreign diplomat in New Zealand and had immunity from jurisdiction and neither parent was a New Zealand citizen
- on a ship or aircraft registered in another country, or on an unregistered ship or aircraft of a government of a foreign country
- to enemy alien parents (i.e. both father and mother were enemies and were not New Zealand, Commonwealth or Irish citizens or British protected persons) in a place occupied by the enemy - though this situation has never occurred
Children born in New Zealand (or onboard a ship or aircraft registered in New Zealand) on or after 1 January 2006 will acquire New Zealand citizenship by birth only if at least one parent is a New Zealand citizen or permanent resident (including Australian citizens). Children born to a parent who is a permanent resident of the Cook Islands, Niue or Tokelau also qualify.
If a person is not a New Zealand citizen by birth, but is subsequently adopted in New Zealand by an adoption order under the terms of the Adoption Act 1955 on or after 1 January 2006 by a person entitled to reside indefinitely in New Zealand (i.e. a New Zealand citizen or permanent resident, an Australian citizen or permanent resident), the Cook Islands, Niue or Tokelau), the person becomes a New Zealand citizen. The post-adoptive birth register entry will record that the person is a New Zealand citizen.
The following people are also New Zealand citizens by birth:
- All children born in New Zealand on or after 1 January 1978 who would otherwise be stateless
- Tokelauans born in Samoa on or after 21 April 2005 for medical reasons
- Children born on or after 21 April 2005 and found in New Zealand with unknown parents
A person who is a New Zealand citizen by birth is a New Zealand otherwise than by descent, which means that he/she can pass New Zealand citizenship on to his/her children born overseas.
New Zealand citizenship by descent
The following persons born or adopted outside New Zealand qualify to become New Zealand citizens by descent:
- those between 1949 and 1977 with a father who is a New Zealand citizen otherwise than by descent at the time of birth or the final adoption order
- those on or after 1 January 1978 with a parent who is a New Zealand citizen otherwise than by descent at the time of birth or the final adoption order
- those born on or after 1 January 1978 with a parent who is a New Zealand citizen by descent at the time of birth or the final adoption order who would otherwise be stateless
In order to claim their New Zealand citizenship, these people must register their citizenship by descent at the Citizenship Office.
A person born or adopted outside New Zealand between 1949 and 1977 with a mother who is a New Zealand citizen otherwise than by descent at the time of birth or the final adoption order is entitled to apply for a grant of New Zealand citizenship as of right (see below), rather than New Zealand citizenship by descent.
A person born to or adopted by a parent outside New Zealand who, at the time of birth or the final adoption order, was a New Zealand citizen (by descent or otherwise than by descent) working overseas for the public service or Armed Forces of New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue or Tokelau is considered to be a New Zealand citizen otherwise than by descent, rather than by descent.
If the child of a New Zealand citizen by descent born or adopted overseas does not qualify to register as a New Zealand citizen, he/she can be brought to live in New Zealand and subsequently granted New Zealand citizenship (see below).
New Zealand citizens by descent may apply for a grant of New Zealand citizenship (see below) after meeting the requirements. Upon this point, they become New Zealand citizens otherwise than by descent and can then pass on New Zealand citizenship to children born outside New Zealand.
New Zealand citizenship by grant
To receive a grant of New Zealand citizenship, a person must either fulfil the general requirements or qualify for a special grant (e.g. as the child of a New Zealand citizen or as a qualifying Samoan citizen).
A person granted New Zealand citizenship must usually attend a citizenship ceremony, unless he/she is under the age of 14, already a New Zealand citizen by descent or granted citizenship on the basis of birth outside New Zealand to a New Zealand citizen mother. At the ceremony, the person must make the following oath of allegiance, unless the Minister of Internal Affairs has waived this requirement:
- I, [Full name], swear that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second, Queen of New Zealand, Her heirs and successors, according to law, and that I will faithfully observe the laws of New Zealand and fulfil my duties as a New Zealand citizen. So help me God.
A person who receives a grant of New Zealand citizenship is a New Zealand citizen otherwise than by descent, and so he/she can pass on New Zealand citizenship to his/her children born overseas.
General grant of New Zealand citizenship
A person (including a New Zealand citizen by descent) can apply for a general grant of New Zealand citizenship if he/she fulfils the following criteria:
- he/she is entitled to be in New Zealand indefinitely (i.e. a New Zealand citizen by descent, a New Zealand permanent resident, an Australian citizen or an Australian permanent resident)
- he/she has lived in New Zealand for the past 5 years (see below for the specifics and exceptions relating to the residence requirement)
- he/she intends to continue living in New Zealand
- he/she is of good character (this does not apply to applicants under 14 years old)
- he/she has sufficient knowledge of the English language (this does not apply to applicants under 14 years old; it can also be waived by the Minister of Internal Affairs if this would cause 'undue hardship' to an applicant aged 14 or over)
- he/she demonstrates an understanding of the responsibilities and privileges of being a New Zealand citizen (this does not apply to applicants under 14 years old)
To fulfil the residence requirement, an applicant for a grant of New Zealand citizenship must have been physically present and permanently resident in New Zealand during the 5 years preceding the date of application (time spent in New Zealand before the 5 year period is not relevant). A person who has been in New Zealand without a visa/permit during his/her residence period does not meet the requirements because "unlawful residence" is precluded in the Citizenship Act 1977. To fulfil the 5 year residence requirement, a person must have been physically present in New Zealand:
- for at least 1,350 days with a Permanent Resident Permit/Resident Visa issued by Immigration New Zealand during the 5 years immediately before he/she makes his/her application; and
- for at least 240 days with a Permanent Resident Permit/Resident Visa issued by Immigration New Zealand in each of those 5 years; 
The Minister of Internal Affairs may use his/her discretion to reduce the residence requirement in exceptional circumstances to:
- physical presence in New Zealand for not less than 450 days during the 20-month period immediately preceding the date of the application for citizenship; and
- being entitled to be in New Zealand indefinitely during each of those 450 days
Note that physical presence and permanent residence during the 5 years (or 450 days in exceptional circumstances) must have been in New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue or Tokelau - physical presence and permanent residence in the Ross Dependency does not fulfil the residence requirements for a general grant of New Zealand citizenship.
Time spent outside New Zealand in Crown service under the New Zealand Government (or as the spouse, civil union or de facto partner of a New Zealand citizen in Crown service under the New Zealand Government overseas) may be considered as time spent in New Zealand. Similarly, time spent overseas in the public service of the Government of the Cook Islands, Niue or Tokelau (or as the spouse, civil union or de facto partner who was a New Zealand citizen serving overseas in the public service of Government of the Cook Islands, Niue or Tokelau) can count as time spent in New Zealand.
Previously, for applications before 21 April 2010, those present in New Zealand as permanent residents before 21 April 2005, or those who applied successfully for permanent residence before that date, were able to apply for New Zealand citizenship after three years of "ordinary residence" (this provision expired on 1 January 2010).
Special grant of New Zealand citizenship to Samoans
Samoan citizens can apply for a special grant of New Zealand citizenship if:
- either they lawfully entered New Zealand on or after 15 September 1982 and can live indefinitely in New Zealand
- or were present in New Zealand at any time on the day of 14 September 1982 (there is no requirement to have been lawfully present in New Zealand on this day)
Samoan citizens do not need to meet the residence, intention, character, language and knowledge requirements that a person would generally need to fulfil to qualify for a grant of New Zealand citizenship.
Whilst the Citizenship Act 1977 defines 'New Zealand' as New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue, the Ross Dependency and Tokelau, the Citizenship (Western Samoa) Act 1982 defines 'New Zealand' to mean New Zealand only. Therefore, to apply for a special grant of New Zealand citizenship for Samoans, presence or indefinite immigration status in the Cook Islands, Niue, Ross Dependency and Tokelau does not count as presence or indefinite immigration status in New Zealand.
Special grant of New Zealand citizenship to children of New Zealand citizens
A person can receive a special grant of New Zealand citizenship if he/she fulfils all of the following criteria:
- he/she has a parent who - at the time of his/her birth - was a New Zealand citizen by descent
- he/she was born outside New Zealand on or after 1 January 1949
- he/she has a 'demonstrable ongoing link with New Zealand'
Alternatively, a child under the age of 16 at the time the Minister of Internal Affairs makes a decision can receive a special grant of New Zealand citizenship if he/she fulfils all of the following criteria:
- he/she has a parent who is either a New Zealand citizen (by descent or otherwise), or who has applied for and fulfils the requirements for a grant of New Zealand citizenship
- he/she is a New Zealand permanent resident, an Australian citizen or an Australian permanent resident
- he/she is living in New Zealand at the time of the application
- he/she intends to continue living in New Zealand
- he/she is of good character (this does not apply to applicants under 14 years old)
- he/she has sufficient knowledge of the English language (this does not apply to applicants under 14 years old)
- he/she demonstrates an understanding of the responsibilities and privileges of being a New Zealand citizen (this does not apply to applicants under 14 years old)
Additionally, persons born outside New Zealand to or adopted by a mother who was a New Zealand citizen otherwise than by descent on or after 1 January 1949 and on or before 31 December 1977 are entitled to be granted New Zealand citizenship (i.e. the Minister of Internal Affairs cannot refuse the application of a person who qualifies for a grant of New Zealand citizenship in this way).
Special grant of New Zealand citizenship to stateless persons
Special grant of New Zealand citizenship in exceptional circumstances
The Minister of Internal Affairs has the discretion to grant New Zealand citizenship to any person in exceptional circumstances where to do so would be in the public interest.
New Zealand has permitted dual or multiple citizenship since the creation of New Zealand citizenship on 1 January 1949, although dual citizens who actively acquired or exercised their other citizenship could lose their New Zealand citizenship if their continued citizenship was judged "not conducive to the public good". The modern wording is similar; dual citizens may lose New Zealand citizenship by acting "in a manner that is contrary to the interests of New Zealand". A New Zealand citizen who holds another citizenship may renounce their New Zealand citizenship (see below), although this may not be registered if they reside in New Zealand or the country is at war.
New Zealand citizenship was only granted to British subjects (exceptions could be made for married women and minors); therefore, New Zealanders who lost British subject status before 1949 were not necessarily entitled automatic New Zealand citizenship, so would have been required to apply for naturalisation.
Renunciation of New Zealand citizenship
A person can only renounce his/her New Zealand citizenship if he/she fulfils all of the following criteria:
- He/she is 18 years old or over
- He/she is of full capacity
- He/she has the citizenship of at least one other foreign country at the time of applying for renunciation of New Zealand citizenship
The Minister of Internal Affairs may refuse to register the renunciation of New Zealand citizenship of a person if he/she is living in New Zealand or if a state of war exists between New Zealand and another country. The general practice is that if a New Zealand citizen is in New Zealand at the time of applying to renounce his/her citizenship, the Minister of Internal Affairs will only register the renunciation if the person would continue to reside in New Zealand lawfully following the renunciation (e.g. if he/she is also an Australian citizen or has a residence permit) or if the person will leave New Zealand permanently following the registration of the renunciation.
A person may become caught in a ‘catch-22’ situation: if he/she wants to become a citizen of his/her new country, but cannot until he/she has renounced his/her existing citizenship, he/she is unable to renounce their New Zealand citizenship and the Minister of Internal Affairs will not register the renunciation of his/her New Zealand citizenship, because the law specifies that a person must already have the citizenship of at least one other country at the time of applying for renunciation of New Zealand citizenship. Therefore, for example, an individual who only has New Zealand citizenship will never be able to apply for Singaporean citizenship because once her Singaporean citizenship application has been approved, she must first renounce her existing nationality before she can attend a Singaporean citizenship ceremony and officially obtain Singaporean nationality.
A register of people who have renounced or have been deprived of New Zealand citizenship is kept by the Citizenship Office and any person is allowed to view it.
Loss of New Zealand citizenship
The Minister of Internal Affairs can revoke a person's New Zealand citizenship if:
- he/she is satisfied that the registration, naturalisation, grant, or any grant requirement was procured by fraud, false representation or wilful concealment of relevant information; and
- the person would not become stateless if he/she is deprived of New Zealand citizenship; and
- the person became a New Zealand citizen by grant or by registration or naturalisation under the terms of the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948
A New Zealand citizen by birth does not lose his/her citizenship by being adopted by a foreign parent/parents.
Historical provisions - 1949 to 1977
Prior to 1 January 1978, New Zealand citizenship law had different rules.
- persons from most Commonwealth countries (including the United Kingdom) and the Republic of Ireland could apply to be registered as a New Zealand citizen. Under the 1948 legislation, no specific residence period was required once the person was settled in New Zealand
- persons from non-Commonwealth countries had to become naturalised. This required five years residence, including a requirement for notice to be given 12 months before application.
- citizenship ceremonies were introduced in 1954 for those becoming naturalised New Zealand citizens
- women married to New Zealand citizens were permitted to become New Zealand citizens as of right, without a residence requirement, if a citizen of a Commonwealth nation or the Republic of Ireland. Where the woman was from a non-Commonwealth nation, registration was allowed at the discretion of the Minister of Internal Affairs.
- New Zealand citizenship by descent could be obtained only from a father, not the mother (however those born between 1949 and 1977 to a New Zealand mother may be able to register now as New Zealand citizens). Where the father was a New Zealand citizen by descent, the child normally had to be registered as a New Zealand citizen before age 16.
- Cook Islands nationality
- Australian nationality law
- Special Category Visa
- History of British nationality law
- UK Ancestry Entry Clearance
- Right of Abode (United Kingdom)
- Independence of New Zealand
- ^ a b c d e f g h i 
- ^ a b c d e 
- ^ So'o, Asofou (Spring 2004). "Samoa". The Contemporary Pacific 16 (1): 163–166. doi:10.1353/cp.2004.0030. http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/contemporary_pacific/v016/16.1soo.html. Retrieved 2007-03-14.
- ^ "Samoan rights group to lobby U.N. for New Zealand citizenship". International Herald Tribune: Asia Pacific. 8 March 2007. http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/03/08/asia/AS-GEN-New-Zealand-Samoa-Citizenship.php.
- ^ 
- ^ 
- ^ 
- ^ Electoral Administration Act 2006, Section 18
- ^ Foreign & Commonwealth Office: The new UK Emergency Passport
- ^ Henley & Partners: International Visa Restrictions
- ^ Citizenship Act 1977, Sections 2(1) and 6(2)(b)
- ^ Citizenship Act 1977, Section 6(3)(a)
- ^ Citizenship Act 1977, Section 6(5)
- ^ Citizenship Act 1977, Section 6(3)(b)
- ^ Citizenship Act 1977, Section 6(3)
- ^ http://www.dia.govt.nz/Services-Citizenship-Index Citizenship - Raraunga, Applications for Citizenship Received On or After 21 April 2010
- ^ http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Citizenship-General-Requirements-for-a-Grant-of-New-Zealand-Citizenship?OpenDocument General Requirements for a Grant of New Zealand Citizenship, Presence
- ^ Citizenship Act 1977, Section 8(7)
- ^ Citizenship Act 1977, Section 8(5)
- ^ Citizenship Act 1977, Section 8(6)
- ^ 
- ^ 
- ^ Citizenship Act 1977, Section 9(1)d
- ^ Department of Internal Affairs: Citizenship by reason of statelessness
- ^ 
- ^ British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948, section 22. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- ^ http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1977/0061/latest/whole.html#DLM443889
- ^ British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948 (1948 No 15) Transitional provisions, sections 16-18
- ^ 
- ^ 
- ^ Citizenship Act 1977, Section 17
- ^ Citizenship Act 1977, Section 6(6)
- New Zealand Citizenship Office
- History of New Zealand citizenship
- Nationality and Naturalisation, 1966 Encyclopedia of New Zealand
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