- Slovak nationality law
Slovak nationality law is based on the principles of Jus sanguinis. Slovak citizenship is primarily acquired on the basis of descent from a Slovak parent, rather than birth in the territory of Slovakia.
Acquisition of Slovak citizenship - 1 January 1993
Prior to 1993, the Slovak Republic was part of the former state of Czechoslovakia. However, since 1968 most Slovaks had held citizenship of the Slovak Republic alongside Czechoslovak citizenship.
At the time (and up to 1993), Slovak citizenship was simply an internal distinction within Czechoslovakia. However, at the formation of the independent Slovak Republic on 1 January 1993, this was the basis for conferral of citizenship of the Slovak Republic upon citizens of Czechoslovakia
A citizen of Czechoslovakia as of 31 December 1992 who was not a citizen of the Slovak Republic had one year from that date to apply for Slovak citizenship. This generally caused loss of Czech citizenship.
Citizenship by birth and adoption
Slovak citizenship is acquired based on birth to a Slovak parent, whether the child is born in the Slovak Republic or elsewhere.
Persons born in the Slovak Republic to non-Slovak parents do not acquire Slovak citizenship unless the child would otherwise be stateless.
Children adopted by a Slovak citizen may be granted Slovak citizenship.
Citizenship by naturalisation
A person may be naturalised as a Slovak citizen based on:
- 8 years residence in the Slovak Republic as a permanent resident
- ability to speak the Slovak language
- good character of the individual
- in some circumstances, proof of having lost or renounced any other citizenship may be required
Exceptions to the residence requirements can be made in the case of:
- persons married to a Slovak citizen (after 5 years of marriage); and
- cases where a "great benefit to the Slovak Republic" is at stake
- certain former citizens of Czechoslovakia
Children aged under 18 may be naturalised at the same time as a parent, however consent of both parents is normally required.
Loss of Slovak citizenship
Although the involuntary loss of citizenship is constitutionaly prohibited, it can still occur on voluntary acquisition of another citizenship (with certain exceptions). It is also possible to formally renounce Slovak citizenship.
On 26 May 2010 the Slovak parliament started the fast-track procedure of a rule stating that a Slovak citizen who takes steps to voluntarily obtain citizenship of another country will lose the Slovak citizenship. On 1 June 2010 the President of the Slovak Republic signed an amendment to the Citizenship Act, making a voluntary application for an alternate citizenship (baring specific exceptions below) a cause for Slovak nationals to be stripped of their citizenship. 
Dual citizenship is not generally permitted (with certain exceptions). Dual citizenship is only permitted in cases where a person acquired an additional nationality at birth or through marriage.
The text of this legislation is not intended to act retroactively, therefore those who previously voluntarily acquired a foreign nationality would not suffer the loss of their Slovak nationality.
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