other_name= Waihōpai (Māori)
image_caption= Looking over central Invercargill
map_caption=Invercargill City's location within the
subdivision_name3= Invercargill City
population_as_of= 2006 Census
postal_code= 9810, 9812
Invercargill ("Waihōpai" in Māori) is the southernmost and westernmost city in
New Zealand, and one of the southernmost cities in the world. It is the commercial centre of the Southland region. It lies in the heart of the wide expanse of the Southland Plainson the Oreti or New River some 18 km north of Bluff, which is the southernmost town in the South Island. It sits amid rich farmland that is bordered by large areas of conservation land and marine reserves, including Fiordland National Parkcovering the south-west corner of the South Island.
Invercargill is home to the
Southern Institute of Technology, which has introduced a free-fees scheme. The scheme was partly responsible for rejuvenating the city when it was in a steady state of population decline.
Invercargill is also the home to New Zealand's only indoor cycling
velodrome. The indoor 250m wooden velodrome is home to Track Cyclingin Southland and is currently the fastest track in the country. The Invercargill Licensing Trustsupports the Velodrome which is situated at Stadium Southland. It promises to become the focal point of track cyclingin New Zealand.
Many streets in the city, especially in the centre and main shopping district, are named after rivers in the
United Kingdom, mainly Scotland. These include Dee, Tyne, Esk, Don, Thames, Mersey, Ness, Yarrow, Spey, Tay, and Eye rivers.
Invercargill is the southernmost city on New Zealand's state highway network and is linked to
Fiordlandand the Catlinsby the Southern Scenic Route.
Invercargill is at the southern end of the
Main South Line railway, which extends up the east coast to Christchurch and Lyttelton via Dunedin. Until the cancellation of The Southerner in 2002, Invercargill had the southernmost passenger railway station in the world. Passenger trains no longer call at Invercargill, except for occasional excursions. The Bluff Branchextends south from Invercargill and has been freight-only since 1967. The Wairio Branchextends northwest from Invercargill to the Solid Energycoalfields near Ohaiand continues to carry freight.
During the mid 1950s,
Invercargill Airportwas used for fuel top-up and final take off by Operation Deep Freeze. Twin-engine propeller-driven planes destined for McMurdo Soundin the Antarcticused the airport, assisted in takeoff by JATOrockets under their wings. Bigger aircraft flew from Christchurchwhere Deep Freeze had a base.
Invercargill Airport's primary traffic currently comprises
Mount Cook Airline, which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Air New Zealand, ATR 72aircraft flying to and from Christchurch, and regular flights to and from Stewart Island.
Southland was a scene of early extended contact between Europeans and Maori, in this case sealers and whalers and missionaries - Wohlers at Ruapuke. From 1848, Otago, of which Southland was itself part, was the subject of planned settlement by the Free Church, an offshoot of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Settlement broadened with the discovery of gold in
Central Otagoin the 1860s.
Even today, traces of Scottish speech persist in Southland voices, with R often pronounced with a rolling burr. This is more noticeable in country people.
In 1856, a petition was put forward to
Thomas Gore Browne, the Governor of New Zealand, for a port at Bluff. Browne agreed to the petition and gave the name Invercargill to the settlement north of the port. "Inver" comes from the Scots Gaelicword "inbhir" meaning "a river's mouth" and "Cargill" is in honour of Captain William Cargill, who was at the time the Superintendent of Otago, of which Southland was then a part.
From 1861 to 1870, Invercargill was the centre of
Southland Province, which separated from Otago Province, but later rejoined it.
In December 1905, Invercargill voted in local
prohibitionof alcohol sales. This lasted for 40 years until voted out by returning servicemen in World War II. Drinking continued meanwhile, thanks to huge volumes of beer, often in kegs, brought to private homes, or sold by the glass by keggers at hiding spots round the City. When prohibition ended, a committee of citizens persuaded the Government to give the monopoly on liquor sales in Invercargill to the specially formed Invercargill Licensing Trust. Based on a scheme in Carlisle, England, it returns profits to city amenities. Even today, alcohol is not sold in supermarkets.
In recent years, publicity has been brought to the southern city by the election of
Tim Shadbolt, a colourful and outspoken former student activist, as mayor. He once appeared on a cheese ad stating "I don't mind where, as long as I'm Mayor". His supporters like the colour he brings to the city. His opponents refer to his controversial mayoral career in the Aucklandsuburbs and to his attitude to veterans during his opposition to the Vietnam War.
Invercargill has a temperate
oceanic climatesimilar to that of the British Isles. The mean daily temperature ranges from 5.2°C in July to 14°C in January. The yearly mean temperature is 9.9°C. Rainfall averages 1112 mm annually, and measurable snowfall is occasionally seen during the winter months of June to September. It is the cloudiest centre of New Zealand with 1580 hours of sunshine per annum.
The average temperature high ranges from 18.8°C in February to 11°C in August. Owing to its relatively high latitude (46° 42'), the city enjoys nearly 16 hours of daylight at the summer
solsticein late December.
Invercargill is "The City of Water and Light". This refers to the long summer twilights and the
aurora australis(southern lights). The water reference, humorists suggest, comes from notorious horizontal, driving rain in high wind at the corner of the two main streets, Dee and Tay. A recent sign also states "Invercargill, where dreams can come true" with an image from the 2005 film " The World's Fastest Indian".
source =NIWA Climate Datacite web
November 2|accessyear= 2007
accessdate =1971 – 2000
The Invercargill March
This internationally famous tune was written by
Alex Lithgowwho attended Invercargill Grammar School (now Middle School).
In his book 'Invercargill - 150 Years' Lloyd Esler's opening sentence reads ... "Invercargill was done a fine favour by Alex Lithgow who named his famous march after his boyhood home. The Invercargill March is possibly the best advertisement the town has ever had as the work is a brass-band favourite and the word ‘Invercargill’ is whispered amongst audiences worldwide. There is only one Invercargill in the world - this one".
When Invercargill hosted the national Brass band contest in 1909, Alex’s brother Tom asked for a test piece for the contest and Alex offered this piece to the city. On the music he wrote ...
All High Schools in Invercargill are Year 7-13, following a Ministry of Education review in 2004 that made most of Invercargill's primary schools Year 1-6 and closed the Year 7-8 schools Rosedale Intermediate and Collingwood Intermediate and Tweedsmuir Junior High
James Hargest Collegeis in northern Invercargill with about 1800 students.
* [http://www.tki.org.nz/e/schools/display_school_info.php?school_id=548 Aurora College] was established in 2005, after Mount Anglem College was closed in 2004.
Southland Girls' High SchoolIn 2005 became the first state Year 7-13 single-sex female school in New Zealand.
Southland Boys' High SchoolIn 2005 became the first state Year 7-13 single-sex male school in New Zealand.
Verdon Collegeis a co-educational Catholic school with about 620 students.
Most primary schools are Year 1-6.
* New River Primary School, co-ed school for Years 1-6 in South Invercargill area. Formerly Kew, South, Clarendon, and Clifton Schools. (Elizabeth Street)
* St Joseph's, a small co-ed school for Years 1-6, a Catholic school near St Mary's Basilica. (Cnr Eye and Conon Streets)
* St Theresa's, a co-ed Catholic Year 1-6 school in Windsor area (Cnr Leith and King Streets)
* St Patrick's, a co-ed Catholic Year 1-6 school in Newfield area (John Street)
*Ascot Community School, the only public Year 1-8 co-ed school in Hawthorndale area. (Tay Street)
*Fernworth Primary - co-ed school for Years 1-6 in Heidelberg area. Formerly St George and Elston Lea. (Pomona Street)
*Windsor North School, co-ed school for Years 1-6 in Rosedale area. Previously Invercargill North School (Chelmsford Street)
*Waverley Park School, co-ed school for Years 1-6 in Waverley Park area. (Adamson Crescent)
*Waihopai School, co-ed school for Years 1-6 in Waihopai area. (Herbert Street)
*Salford School, co-ed school for Years 1-6 in Rosedale area. (Salford Street)
*St John's Girls' School, small school for Years 1-8. Invercargill's only private school. Christian character. (Dee Street and Avenal Street)
*Sacred Heart Primary School, North Road, Waikiwi. Years 1-6 co-ed Special Character Catholic family school serving the northern suburbs of Waikiwi, Grasmere and Makarewa. (North Road)
*Donovan Primary School, co-ed school for Years 1-6 in Grasmere area. Formerly Grasmere, Waikiwi, West Plains (Drury Lane)
*Otatara Primary School, co-ed school for Years 1-6 in Otatara area - 10 mins out of Invercargill (Dunns Road)
*Seventh Day Adventist. A very small co-ed school for Years 1-6 that follow that particular religion in the Waikiwi area. (Bainfield Road)
Peter Arnett- NBC war correspondent
Johnnie Checketts- Silver Star, Wingco and Spitfire Ace
Bill Crawford-Crompton- Silver Star, Air Vice Marshal and WW2 Commander and Ace
Marton Csokas- actor
Dan Davin- author, editor
Ernest Godward- inventor of the spiral hairpin and the petrol economiser
Joseph Hatch- businessman, oil factor
James Hargest; CBE, DSO & 2 bars, MC, ED, MP - New Zealand chief military officer for Southland and politician
Rowena Jackson- Royal Ballet prima ballerina
Jason Kerrison- Opshopsinger /songwriter
Chris Knox- infamous (in NZ) alternative rock musician
Alex Lithgow- composer, musician, conductor
Bill Manhire- inaugural NZ poet laureate
* Herbert James "Burt" Munro - inventor, motorcycle enthusiast, racer and under-1000 cc land speed record holder
Mils Muliaina- All Black
* Harry Norris - A music director of the
D'Oyly Carte Opera Company
Anton Oliver- All Black
Herbert Pither- aviation legend of Southland,
Lesley Rumball- Former Silver FernsCaptain
Victor Spencer- last soldier to be executed in World War I, pardoned in 2005
Garfield Todd- Prime Minister of Rhodesia
Jeremy Waldron- prominent legal and political philosopher
Joseph Ward- Prime Minister of New Zealand
* Jeff Wilson - All Black and Black Cap ("
Double All Black")
Japan[cite web|url=http://www.icc.govt.nz/icc/index.cfm?010EC38F-D4D7-FEEF-83CE-7FB153C1D979&search=y&word=kumagaya&lan_uuid=010EC38F-D4D7-FEEF-83CE-7FB153C1D979|title=Sister City|publisher=Invercargill City Council]
*cite book | first=A. W. | last=Reed | title=The Reed Dictionary of New Zealand Place Names | publisher=Reed Books | location=Auckland | year=2002 | id=ISBN 0-7900-0761-4
* [http://www.invercargill.org.nz/ City of Invercargill]
* [http://www.icc.govt.nz/ Invercargill City Council]
* [http://www.icc.govt.nz/index.cfm?2EAC5ED5-50BA-1DC3-6551-887F6A60976C ICC Map page]
* [http://www.infocargill.co.nz/ Invercargill Information Center]
* [http://www.zoomin.co.nz/nz/invercargill/ Invercargill Street Map]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Invercargill — City Council Karte Basisdaten Region … Deutsch Wikipedia
Invercargill — Murihiki … Wikipédia en Français
Invercargill — (Waihōpai en maorí) es la ciudad situada más al sur de Nueva Zelanda, en la Isla Sur, siendo además uno de los asentamientos humanos permanentes más meridionales del mundo. Es el centro comercial de la región de Southland. Se encuentra en el… … Wikipedia Español
Invercargill — (spr. inwĕrkārgill), Hafenstadt an der Südküste der Südinsel von Neuseeland, Endpunkt von drei Eisenbahnen, die ihm die Produkte des weidereichen Hinterlandes zuführen (Ausfuhr zur See 1900: 741,750 Pfd. Sterl.), mit (1901) 6213, einschließlich… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Invercargill — Invercargill, Hafenstadt auf der Südinsel von Neuseeland, (1901) 9945 E … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Invercargill — es la ciudad situada más al sur de Nueva Zelanda, en la Isla Sur, y por tanto uno de los asentamientos humanos permanentes más septentrionales del mundo. Es el centro comercial de la región de Southland. Se encuentra en el corazón de las amplias… … Enciclopedia Universal
Invercargill — [ɪnvə kɑːgɪl], Hafenstadt an der Südküste der Südinsel Neuseelands, im Mündungsgebiet des Red River, 49 300 Einwohner; Verwaltungszentrum von Southland; Southland Museum, botanischer und zoologischer Garten; Fleisch und Milchverarbeitung,… … Universal-Lexikon
Invercargill — Original name in latin Invercargill Name in other language IVC, Invercargill, Inverkargilas, Inverkargill, Ostium Cargillense, Waihopai, anfrkarjl, aynwrkargyl, inbakagiru, inbeokagil, xin wexr kharkill, yin fu ka ji er, Інверкаргілл,… … Cities with a population over 1000 database
Invercargill — /in veuhr kahr gil/, n. a city on S South Island, in New Zealand. 53,762. * * * ▪ New Zealand city, Southland regional council, South Island, New Zealand. The city lies along the Waihopai River near its confluence with the New River estuary and… … Universalium
Invercargill — geographical name city New Zealand on S coast of South Island population 56,059 see bluff … New Collegiate Dictionary