1990 Commonwealth Games


1990 Commonwealth Games
14th Commonwealth Games
14th Commonwealth Games
Host city Auckland, New Zealand
Motto This is the Moment
Nations participating 55
Athletes participating 2,073
Events 205 events in 10 sports
Opening ceremony 24 January 1990
Closing ceremony 3 February 1990
Officially opened by Prince Edward
Queen's Baton Final Runner Mark Todd and Peter Snell
Main Stadium Mt Smart Stadium

The 1990 Commonwealth Games were held in Auckland, New Zealand from 24 January-3 February 1990. It was the 14th Commonwealth Games, and part of New Zealand's 1990 sesquicentennial celebrations. Participants competed in ten sports: athletics, aquatics, badminton, boxing, cycling, gymnastics, judo, lawn bowls, shooting and weightlifting. The Triathlon was a demonstration event.

The main venue was the Mt Smart Stadium, see New Zealand at the 1990 Commonwealth Games. The Games were awarded to Auckland 27 July 1984 at the Los Angeles Summer Olympics. Perth, Australia had withdrawn from the bid contest leaving New Delhi, India as the sole opponent to Auckland 1990.

Contents

Bidding process

1990 Commonwealth Games bidding results
City Round 1
New Zealand Auckland 20
India New Delhi 11

Opening ceremony

The opening of the games comprised a variety of events, including the arrival of The Queen's representative Prince Edward (her youngest son), the arrival of the Queen's Baton and many Māori ceremonial stories.

The opening ceremony itself started off with the Auckland Commonwealth Games Choir singing the Song of Welcome. Upon the arrival of Prince Edward, the Māori in attendance, gave him a Challenge of a welcome. This is conducted by a Māori placing a wooden batton on the ground. To see if the visitor comes in peace or not, the visitor must pick it up.

The New Zealand national anthem "God Defend New Zealand" was sung during a ceremonial fourteen gun salute from nearby One Tree Hill. This was followed by the New Zealand Army Guard Commander allowing Prince Edward to inspect the guard of honour. After which was the introduction of the participating countries of the Commonwealth. During the introduction of the countries, the choir at attendance would display the flag of the announced country with boards.

When all the athletes finally sat down, the main Māori ceremonies began. First of the Māori ceremonies was all the Māori women performing a "Song of Welcome" for the athletes with the use of Poi. The Māori women then gave some of the athletes a Hongi. Next was the Māori story of how New Zealand was formed, performed by many New Zealanders and organised by Logan Brewer. It involved a narration of how the Polynesians found their way to what was to become New Zealand. In the middle of the performance, a re-enactment was performed of how New Zealand was formed between Rangi and Papa (the sky father and earth mother). The story then moved on to the coming of religion and European migration. This was demonstrated with a formation of the Union Jack, to show the colonisation by the British. Dame Whina Cooper then made a speech about the Treaty of Waitangi signed in 1840 that brought about peace and stability of modern New Zealand.

Introduction of the European communities was next with music and native European dancing from Scotland, Ireland, Austria, Wales and England. From here, many of the neighbouring Pacific Islanders made their entrance with the rhythmic tempo of the Pacific Island drum beat. This was to show the then complete migration of people to New Zealand.

New Zealand performer Howard Morrison then lead New Zealand in singing the folk song Tukua-a-hau. After Howard Morrison, the Queen's Baton arrived at the stadium where Prince Edward announced the opening of the games which was followed by the Athletes Pledge.

Fireworks followed and was capped off with a night time flyover by nine A-4 Skyhawk jets of the Royal New Zealand Air Force. The ceremony was concluded by the singing of the game's motto "This is the moment" as performers and athletes exited the stadium.

Closing ceremony

A more relaxed affair was held for the 14th Commonwealth Games closing ceremony, reflecting that of Christchurch in 1974. Attended by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, formality and respect played their due part in the beginning with formal salute and the acceptance of the Commonwealth Games flag to the next host city, Victoria, Canada. This was followed by a Native American and modern Canadian dancing display.

Then the fun began with thousands of children entering the stadium with a mass jumprope demonstration, followed by the Athletes themselves. The Queen then made the traditional closing speech and called for all the Commonwealth's athletes to assemble in four years time in Victoria BC in 1994. As the evening wore on, opera singer Dame Kiri Te Kanawa sang "Now is the Hour" a favorite New Zealand hymn as the Royal New Zealand Airforce's A4 Skyhawks made one final swooping flyover of Mt Smart Stadium followed by fireworks. It was then Her Majesty, Prince Phillip, and the popular Prince Edward exited the stadium standing in open top vehicles.

Medals

This is the full table of the medal count of the 1990 Commonwealth Games. These rankings sort by the number of gold medals earned by a country. The number of silvers is taken into consideration next and then the number of bronze. If, after the above, countries are still tied, equal ranking is given and they are listed alphabetically. This follows the system used by the IOC, IAAF and BBC.

Figures from Commonwealth Games Foundation website.[1]

 Rank  Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Australia 52 54 56 162
2  England 46 40 42 128
3  Canada 35 41 37 113
4  New Zealand 17 14 27 58
5  India 13 8 11 32
6  Wales 10 3 12 25
7  Kenya 6 9 3 18
8  Nigeria 5 13 7 25
9  Scotland 5 7 10 22
10  Malaysia 2 2 0 4
11  Jamaica 2 0 2 4
 Uganda 2 0 2 4
13  Northern Ireland 1 3 5 9
14  Nauru 1 2 0 3
15  Hong Kong 1 1 3 5
16  Cyprus 1 1 0 2
17  Bangladesh 1 0 1 2
 Jersey 1 0 1 2
19  Bermuda 1 0 0 1
 Guernsey 1 0 0 1
 Papua New Guinea 1 0 0 1
22  Zimbabwe 0 2 1 3
23  Ghana 0 2 0 2
24  Tanzania 0 1 2 3
25  Zambia 0 0 3 3
26  Bahamas 0 0 2 2
 Western Samoa 0 0 2 2
28  Guyana 0 0 1 1
 Malta 0 0 1 1
Total 204 203 231 638

Medals by event

  • At these games, the Triathlon was a demonstration event; won by Erin Baker (women) and Rick Wells (men), both from New Zealand.

Aquatics

Athletics

See also 1990 in athletics (track and field)

Badminton

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Mixed
Mixed Team  England  Canada  Hong Kong
Mixed Doubles  Hong Kong
Chan Chi Choi
Amy Chan
 England
Miles Johnson
Sara Sankey
 England
Andy Goode
Gillian Clark
Men
Men's Singles Rashid Sidek (MAS) Foo Kok Keong (MAS) Darren Hall (ENG)
Men's Doubles  Malaysia
Jalani Sidek
Razif Sidek (MAS)
 Malaysia
Cheah Soon Kit
Rashid Sidek
 Canada
Mike Bitten
Bryan Blanshard
Women
Women's Singles Fiona Smith (Elliott) (ENG) Denyse Julian (CAN) Helen Troke (ENG)
Women's Doubles  England
Sara Sankey
Fiona Smith (Elliott)
 England
Gillian Clark
Gillian Gowers
 Canada
Johanne Falardeau
Denyse Julian

Bowls

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men
Singles Rob Parrella (AUS) Mark McMahon (HKG) Richard Corsie (SCO)
Pairs  Australia
Trevor Morris
Ian Schuback
 Canada
George Boxwell
Alf Wallace
 New Zealand
Rowan Brassey
Maurice Symes
Fours  Scotland  Northern Ireland  New Zealand
Women
Singles Geua Tau (PNG) Millie Khan (NZL) Margaret Johnston (NIR)
Pairs  New Zealand
Judy Howat
Marie Watson
 Australia
Edda Bonutto
Maureen Hobbs
 England
Mary Price
Jayne Roylance
Fours  Australia  New Zealand  Hong Kong

Boxing

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men
Light Flyweight Justin Juuko (UGA) Abdurahaman Ramadhani (KEN) Domenic Figliomeni (CAN)
Dharmendar Yadav (IND)
Flyweight Wayne McCullough (NIR) Nokuthula Tshabangu (ZIM) Born Siwakwi (ZAM)
Maurice Maina (KEN)
Bantamweight Mohammed Sabo (NGR) Geronimo Bie (CAN) Justin Chikwanda (ZAM)
Wesley Christmas (GUY)
Featherweight John Irwin (ENG) Haji Ally (TAN) David Gakuha (KEN)
James Nicolson (AUS)
Lightweight Godfrey Nyakana (UGA) Justin Rowsell (AUS) B. Mambeya (TAN)
David Anderson (SCO)
Light Welterweight Charlie Kane (SCO) Nicodemus Odore (KEN) Stefan Scriggins (AUS)
Duke Chinyadza (ZIM)
Welterweight David Defiagbon (NGR) Greg Johnson (CAN) Anthony Mwaba (ZAM)
Grahame Cheney (AUS)
Light Middleweight Richie Woodhall (ENG) Ray Downey (CAN) Sililo Figota (SAM)
Andy Creary (NZL)
Middleweight Chris Johnson (CAN) Ashiao Joseph Laryea (GHA) Charles Matata (UGA)
Mark Edwards (ENG)
Light Heavyweight Joseph Akhasamba (KEN) Dale Brown (CAN) Nigel Anderson (NZL)
Abdu Kaddu (UGA)
Heavyweight George Onyango (KEN) Pat Jordan (CAN) Kevin Onwuka (NGR)
Emerio Fainuulua (SAM)
Super Heavyweight Michael Kenny (NZL) Liadi Alhassan (GHA) Vernon Linklater (CAN)
Paul Douglas (NIR)

Cycling

Track

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men
Time Trial Martin Vinnicombe (AUS) 00:01:06 Gary Anderson (NZL) 00:01:07 Jon Andrews (NZL) 00:01:07
Sprint Gary Neiwand (AUS) Curt Harnett (CAN) Jon Andrews (NZL)
Individual Pursuit Gary Anderson (NZL) 00:04:45 Mark Kingsland (AUS) 00:04:53 Darren Winter (AUS) 00:04:52
Team Pursuit  New Zealand
Gary Anderson
Nigel Connelly
Glenn McLeay
Stu Williams
00:04:23  Australia
Brett Aitken
Steve McGlede
Shaun O'Brien
Darren Winter
00:04:26  England
Chris Boardman
Simon Lillistone
Bryan Steel
Glen Sword
00:04:27
10 Miles Scratch Gary Anderson (NZL) 00:19:44 Shaun O'Brien (AUS) 00:19:44 Steve McGlede (AUS) 00:19:44
Points Race Robert Burns (AUS) 81 Craig Connell (NZL) 72 Alistair Irvine (NIR) 39
Women
Sprint Louise Jones (WAL) Julie Speight (AUS) Sue Golder (NZL)
Individual Pursuit Madonna Harris (NZL) 00:03:55 Kathy Watt (AUS) 00:03:55 Kelly-Ann Way (CAN) 00:04:00

Road

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men
Road Race Graeme Miller (NZL) 04:34:00 Brian Fowler (NZL) 04:34:00 Scott Goguen (CAN) 04:34:05
Team Time Trial  New Zealand 02:06:47  Canada 02:09:20  England
Chris Boardman
Peter Longbottom
Ben Luckwell
Wayne Randle
02:09:33

Gymnastics

Artistic

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men
All-Around Curtis Hibbert (CAN) 57.95 Alan Nolet (CAN) 57.8 James May (ENG) 57.4
Team  Canada 171.8  England 170.45  Australia 169.5
Horizontal Bar Curtis Hibbert (CAN)
Alan Nolet (CAN)
9.85 Brennon Dowrick (AUS) 9.8
Parallel Bars Curtis Hibbert (CAN) 9.8 Ken Meredith (AUS) 9.675 Peter Hogan (AUS) 9.6
Vault James May (ENG) 9.625 Curtis Hibbert (CAN) 9.575 Tim Lees (AUS) 9.25
Pommel Horse Brennon Dowrick (AUS) 9.825 Tim Lees (AUS) 9.725 James May (ENG) 9.7
Rings Curtis Hibbert (CAN) 9.775 James May (ENG) 9.75 Ken Meredith (AUS) 9.725
Floor Neil Thomas (ENG) 9.75 Alan Nolet (CAN) 9.675 Curtis Hibbert (CAN) 9.6
Women
All-Around Lori Strong (CAN) 38.912 Monique Allen (AUS) 38.687 Kylie Shadbolt (AUS) 38.499
Team  Canada 18:48:58  Australia 06:31:41  England 01:06:14
Asymmetric Bars Monique Allen (AUS) 9.875 Lori Strong (CAN) 9.85 Michelle Telfer (AUS) 9.737
Beam Lori Strong (CAN) 9.85 Larissa Lowing (CAN) 9.762 Kylie Shadbolt (AUS) 9.7
Vault Nikki Jenkins (NZL) 9.712 Lori Strong (CAN) 9.643 Monique Allen (AUS) 9.506
Floor Lori Strong (CAN) 9.887 Larissa Lowing (CAN) 9.762 Kylie Shadbolt (AUS) 9.675

Rhythmic

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Women
All-Around Mary Fuzesi (CAN) 37.65 Madonna Gimotea (CAN) 37.25 Angela Walker (NZL) 36.9
Ball Madonna Gimotea (CAN) 9.45 Mary Fuzesi (CAN) 9.4 Angela Walker (NZL) 9.25
Hoop Mary Fuzesi (CAN) 9.4 Madonna Gimotea (CAN) 9.2 Raewyn Jack (NZL)
Alitia Sands (ENG)
Viva Seifert (ENG)
9.1
Ribbon Mary Fuzesi (CAN) 9.4 Madonna Gimotea (CAN) 9.3 Raewyn Jack (NZL)
Viva Seifert (ENG)
Angela Walker (NZL)
9.2
Rope Angela Walker (NZL) 9.3 Madonna Gimotea (CAN) 9.275 Mary Fuzesi (CAN) 9.25

Judo

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men
Extra Lightweight Carl Finney (ENG) Kevin West (CAN) James Charles (WAL)
Narender Singh (IND)
Half Lightweight Brent Cooper (NZL) Mark Preston (SCO) Mark Adshead (ENG)
Jean-Pierre Cantin (CAN)
Lightweight Roy Stone (ENG) Majemite Omagbaluwaje (NGR) William Cusack (SCO)
Colin Savage (NIR)
Half Middleweight David Southby (ENG) Graeme Spinks (NZL) Gavin Kelly (AUS)
Middleweight Densign White (ENG) Winston Sweatman (SCO) Chris Bacon (AUS)
Rajinder Dhanger (IND)
Half Heavyweight Ray Stevens (ENG) Dean Lampkin (AUS) Graham Campbell (SCO)
James Kendrick (CAN)
Heavyweight Elvis Gordon (ENG) Tom Greenway (CAN) Wayne Watson (NZL)
Open Elvis Gordon (ENG) Mario Laroche (CAN) Graham Campbell (SCO)
Majemite Omagbaluwaje (NGR)
Women
Extra Lightweight Karen Briggs (ENG) Helen Duston (WAL) Julie Reardon (AUS)
Donna Robertson (SCO)
Half Lightweight Sharon Rendle (ENG) Claire Shiach (SCO) Catherine Grainger (AUS)
Lisa Griffiths (WAL)
Lightweight Loretta Cusack (SCO) Suzanne Williams (AUS) Ann Hughes (ENG)
Moira Sutton (WAL)
Half Middleweight Diane Bell (ENG) Donna Guy-Halkyard (NZL) Mandy Clayton (CAN)
Laurie Pace (MLT)
Middleweight Sharon Mills (ENG) Karen Hayde (CAN) Narelle Hill (AUS)
Joyce Malley (NIR)
Half Heavyweight Jane Morris (ENG) Alison Webb (CAN) Phillipa Knowles (WAL)
Christy Obekpa (NGR)
Heavyweight Sharon Lee (ENG) Geraldine Dekker (AUS) Ruth Vondy (IOM)
Linda Konkol(CAN)
Open Sharon Lee (ENG) Jane Patterson (CAN) Geraldine Dekker (AUS)
Nicola Morris (NZL)

Shooting

Pistol

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men/Open
Free Pistol Phil Adams (AUS) 554 Bengt Sandstrom (AUS) 549 Gilbert U (HKG) 549
Free Pistol - Pairs  Australia
Phil Adams
Bengt Sandström
1106  New Zealand
Brian Read
Greg Yelavich
1084  Bangladesh
Ateequr Rahman
Abdus Sattar
1078
Centre-Fire Pistol India Ashok Pandit (IND) 583 India Surinder Marwah (IND) 577 Bruce Quick (AUS) 576
Centre-Fire Pistol - Pairs  Australia
Phil Adams
Bruce Quick
1155  New Zealand
Barry O'Neale
Greg Yelavich
1144  India
Ashok Pandit
Surinder Marwah
1142
Rapid-Fire Pistol Adrian Breton (GUE) 583 Pat Murray (AUS) 582 Michael Jay (WAL) 579
Rapid-Fire Pistol - Pairs  Australia
Bruce Favell
Pat Murray
1153  Canada
Stanley Wills
Mark Howkins (CAN)
1138  England
Brian Girling
John Rolfe
1133
Air Pistol Bengt Sandström (AUS) 580 Phil Adams (AUS) 574 David Lowe (ENG) 574
Air Pistol - Pairs  Bangladesh
Ateequr Rahman
Abdus Sattar
1138  Australia
Phil Adams
Bengt Sandström
1138  New Zealand
Julian Lawton
Greg Yelavich
1137

Rifle

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men/Open
Small Bore Rifle, Prone Roger Harvey (NZL) 591 Stephen Petterson (NZL) 590 Philip Scanlan (ENG) 590
Small Bore Rifle, Prone - Pairs  New Zealand
Stephen Pettersson
Roger Harvey
1185  Canada
Barry Sutherland
Michael Ashcroft
1184  England
Bob Jarvis
Philip Scanlan
1180
Small Bore Rifle, Three Positions Mart Klepp (CAN) 1157 Malcolm Cooper (ENG) 1154 India Soma Dutta (IND) 1143
Small Bore Rifle, Three Positions - Pairs  Canada
Jean-François Sénécal
Mart Klepp
2272  England
Malcolm Cooper
Robert Smith
2268  Scotland
William Murray
Robert Law
2258
Full Bore Rifle Colin Mallett (JER) 394 Andrew Tucker (ENG) 390 James Corbett (AUS) 390
Full Bore Rifle - Pairs  England
Simon Belither
Andrew Tucker
580  Australia
James Corbett
Barry Wood
565  Jersey
Clifford Mallett
Colin Mallett
564
Air Rifle Guy Lorion (CAN) 583 Chris Hector (ENG) 578 Mart Klepp (CAN) 577
Air Rifle - Pairs  Canada
Guy Lorion
Mart Klepp
1163  England
Chris Hector
Robert Smith
1155  India
Soma Dutta
Bhagirath Samai
1148
Running Target Colin Robertson (AUS) 539 John Maddison (ENG) 539 Tony Clarke (NZL) 535
Running Target - Pairs  New Zealand
Paul Carmine
Tony Clarke
1091  Canada
David Lee
Mark Bedlington
1070  England
David Chapman
John Maddison
1064

Shotgun

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men/Open
Trap John Maxwell (AUS) 184 Kevin Gill (ENG) 183 Ian Peel (ENG) 179
Trap - Pairs  England
Kevin Gill
Ian Peel
181  Wales
Colin Evans
James Birkett-Evans
178  Australia
Russell Mark
John Maxwell
178
Skeet Ken Harman (ENG) 187 Georgios Sakellis (CYP) 187 Andy Austin (ENG) 184
Skeet - Pairs  Scotland
Ian Marsden
James Dunlop
189  England
Andy Austin
Ken Harman
185  New Zealand
Tim Dodds
John Woolley
183

Weightlifting

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Men
Flyweight - Snatch Chandersekaran Raghavan (IND) 105 Velu Govindraj (IND) 95 Greg Hayman (AUS) 90
Flyweight - Clean and Jerk Chandersekaran Raghavan (IND) 127.5 Greg Hayman (AUS) 117.5 Velu Govindraj (IND) 117.5
Flyweight - Overall Chandersekaran Raghavan (IND) 232.5 Velu Govindraj (IND) 212.5 Greg Hayman (AUS) 207.5
Bantamweight - Snatch Rangaswamy Punnuswamy (IND) 110 Alan Ogilvie (SCO) 107.5 Denis Aumais (CAN) 102.5
Bantamweight - Clean and Jerk Rangaswamy Punnuswamy (IND) 137.5 Gopal Maruthachelam (IND) 125 Alan Ogilvie (SCO) 122.5
Bantamweight - Overall Rangaswamy Punnuswamy (IND) 247.5 Alan Ogilvie (SCO) 230 Gopal Maruthachelam (IND) 227.5
Featherweight - Snatch Marcus Stephen (NRU) 112.5 Parvesh Chandra Sharma (IND) 112.5 Kumarasan Sudalaimani (IND) 110
Featherweight - Clean and Jerk Parvesh Chandra Sharma (IND) 145 Marcus Stephen (NRU) 142.5 Kumarasan Sudalaimani (IND) 142.5
Featherweight - Overall Parvesh Chandra Sharma (IND) 257.5 Marcus Stephen (NRU) 255 Kumarasan Sudalaimani (IND) 252.5
Lightweight - Snatch Paramjit Sharma (IND) 130 Lawrence Iquaibom (NGR) 130 Mark Blair (AUS) 127.5
Lightweight - Clean and Jerk Paramjit Sharma (IND) 165 Lawrence Iquaibom (NGR) 160 Mark Roach (WAL) 155
Lightweight - Overall Paramjit Sharma (IND) 295 Lawrence Iquaibom (NGR) 290 Mark Roach (WAL) 280
Middleweight - Snatch Karnadhar Mondal (IND) 135 Karl Jones (WAL) 135 Ron Laycock (AUS) 132.5
Middleweight - Clean and Jerk Ron Laycock (AUS) 177.5 Karnadhar Mondal (IND) 170 Damian Brown (AUS) 167.5
Middleweight - Overall Ron Laycock (AUS) 310 Karnadhar Mondal (IND) 305 Benoît Gagné (CAN) 292.5
Light Heavyweight - Snatch David Morgan (WAL) 155 Muyiwa Odusanya (NGR) 152.5 Sylvain Leblanc (CAN) 145
Light Heavyweight - Clean and Jerk David Morgan (WAL) 192.5 Soronomathu Ramaswamy (IND) 182.5 Muyiwa Odusanya (NGR) 180
Light Heavyweight - Overall David Morgan (WAL) 347.5 Muyiwa Odusanya (NGR) 332.5 Andy Callard (ENG) 317.5
Middle Heavyweight - Snatch Duncan Dawkins (ENG) 162.5 Keith Boxell (ENG) 152.5 Harvey Goodman (AUS) 150
Middle Heavyweight - Clean and Jerk Duncan Dawkins (ENG) 195 Keith Boxell (ENG) 192.5 Harvey Goodman (AUS) 190
Middle Heavyweight - Overall Duncan Dawkins (ENG) 357.5 Keith Boxell (ENG) 345 Harvey Goodman (AUS) 340
Sub Heavyweight - Snatch Andrew Saxton (ENG) 165 Peter May (ENG) 145 Guy Greavette (CAN) 140
Sub Heavyweight - Clean and Jerk Andrew Saxton (ENG) 197.5 Peter May (ENG) 175 Guy Greavette (CAN) 175
Sub Heavyweight - Overall Andrew Saxton (ENG) 362.5 Peter May (ENG) 320 Guy Greavette (CAN) 315
Heavyweight - Snatch Mark Thomas (ENG) 160 Jason Roberts (AUS) 152.5 Steve Wilson (WAL) 152.5
Heavyweight - Clean and Jerk Mark Thomas (ENG) 197.5 Jason Roberts (AUS) 192.5 Aled Arnold (WAL) 187.5
Heavyweight - Overall Mark Thomas (ENG) 357.5 Jason Roberts (AUS) 345 Aled Arnold (WAL) 335
Super Heavyweight - Snatch Andrew Davies (WAL) 180 Aduche Ojadi (NGR) 177.5 Steven Kettner (AUS) 172.5
Super Heavyweight - Clean and Jerk Andrew Davies (WAL) 222.5 Aduche Ojadi (NGR) 222.5 Steven Kettner (AUS) 205
Super Heavyweight - Overall Andrew Davies (WAL) 402.5 Aduche Ojadi (NGR) 400 Steven Kettner (AUS) 377.5

References

The Bateman New Zealand Encyclopedia

  1. ^ Past Commonwealth Games Commonwealth Games Federation