— Special City — Seoul Special City transcription(s) – Hangul 서울특별시 – Hanja 서울特別市 – Revised Romanization Seoul Teukbyeolsi – McCune-Reischauer Sŏul T'ŭkpyŏlsi 63 Building, Moonlight Rainbow Fountain, Dongdaemun Fashion District, N Seoul Tower, Downtown Gangnam and Samsung Town, Cheonggye Stream, Gwanghwamun Gate & Plaza with King Sejong's statue and Magic Island in Lotte World
Emblem of Seoul
Coordinates: Coordinates: Country South Korea Region Seoul National Capital Area Districts Government – Type Seoul Metropolitan Government – Mayor Park Won-soon Area – Total 605.25 km2 (233.7 sq mi) Population (2010) – Total 10,464,051 – Density 17,288.8/km2 (44,777.8/sq mi) – Demonym Seoulite,서울시민(Seoul simin) – Dialect Seoul Flower Forsythia Tree Ginkgo Bird Korean Magpie Website seoul.go.kr
Seoul (Korean pronunciation: [sʌ.ul] ( listen)), officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world. The Seoul National Capital Area is the world's second largest metropolitan area with over 25 million inhabitants, which includes the surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province. Over half of South Korea's population live in the Seoul National Capital Area, and nearly a quarter in Seoul itself, making it the country's foremost economic, political, and cultural center.
Seoul has been a major settlement for over 2,000 years, with its foundation dating back to 18 B.C. when Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, established its capital in what is now south-east Seoul. It continued as the capital of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty and the Korean Empire.
Today, Seoul is considered to be a leading global city, ranking among the top ten global cities in the Global Cities Index of 2010. It is one of the world's top ten financial and commercial centers, home to major multinational conglomerates such as Samsung, LG and Hyundai-Kia. In 2008, Seoul was named the world's sixth most economically powerful city by Forbes.
Seoul has a highly technologically advanced infrastructure. Its Digital Media City is the world's first complex for IT and multimedia applications. Seoul was the first city to feature DMB, a digital mobile TV technology and WiBro, a wireless high-speed mobile internet service. It has a fast, high-penetration 100 Mbit/s fibre-optic broadband network, which is being upgraded to 1 Gbit/s by 2012. Seoul Station houses the 350 km/h KTX bullet train and the Seoul Subway is the third largest in the world, with over 200 million passengers every year. Seoul is connected via AREX to Incheon International Airport, rated as the best airport in the world by Airports Council International.
Seoul hosted the 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup and the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2010 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Administrative divisions
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Communication
- 8 Architecture
- 9 Culture
- 10 Sports
- 11 Transportation
- 12 Education
- 13 Cityscape
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 External links
The city has been known in the past by the names Wirye-seong (위례성; 慰禮城, Baekje era), Hanju (한주; 漢州, Silla era), Namgyeong (남경; 南京, Goryeo era), Hanseong (한성; 漢城, Baekje and Joseon era), Hanyang (한양; 漢陽, Joseon era), Gyeongseong (경성; 京城, during colonial era). Its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city," which is believed to be derived from the word, Seorabeol (서라벌; 徐羅伐), which originally referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.
Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja (Chinese characters used in the Korean language). Since simplified Chinese: 首尔; traditional Chinese: 首爾; pinyin: shǒu'ěr was already being used in Chinese speaking countries, on January 18, 2005, Seoul officially adopted it as the official Chinese language name of the city. The use of the old name Hanseong (漢城 or 汉城) is still common, however.
Settlement began in Baekje, Wirye-seong, in 17 BC. The location of that site is thought to be within the boundaries of modern day Seoul, and the remains may be at Pungnap Toseong or Mongchon Toseong. It became the capital of the Joseon Dynasty in 1394. In the Japanese colonial period in the early 20th century, during which time the city was called Gyeongseong (경성, lit. "Capital City"; Japanese: Keijō (京城)). After independence in 1945, Koreans renamed the city Seoul(Which also means Capital City in Korean). In 1949, Seoul was separated from Gyeonggi Province and was granted status as "Seoul Special City". In 1950, during the Korean War, Seoul was occupied by North Korean troops and the city was almost entirely destroyed. The city was retaken by UN Forces on 14 March 1951. Since then, the city boundary has steadily grown into surrounding administrative divisions of Gimpo, Goyang, and Shiheung counties. The current boundaries were established in 1995.
Seoul is in the northwest of South Korea. Seoul proper comprises 605.25 km2, with a radius of approximately 15 km, roughly bisected into northern and southern halves by the Han River. The Han River and its surrounding area played an important role in Korean history. The Three Kingdoms of Korea strove to take control of this land, where the river was used as a trade route to China (via the Yellow Sea). The river is no longer actively used for navigation, because its estuary is located at the borders of the two Koreas, with civilian entry barred. The city is bordered by eight mountains, as well as the more level lands of the Han River plain and western areas.
Seoul lies in the border region between a humid subtropical and humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa/Dwa), depending on the definition. Summers are generally hot and humid, with the East Asian monsoon taking place from June until July. August, the warmest month, has an average temperature of 22.4 to 29.6 °C (72 to 85 °F) with higher temperatures possible. Winters are often relatively cold with an average January temperature of -5.9 to 1.5 °C (21.4 to 34.7 °F) and are generally much drier than summers, with an average of 28 days of snow annually.
Climate data for Seoul (1981−2010) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C (°F) 1.5
17.0 Daily mean °C (°F) −2.4
12.5 Average low °C (°F) −5.9
8.6 Precipitation mm (inches) 20.8
% humidity 59.8 57.9 57.8 56.2 62.7 68.1 78.3 75.6 69.2 64.0 62.0 60.6 64.4 Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 6.5 5.8 7.4 7.8 9.0 9.9 16.3 14.6 9.1 6.3 8.7 7.4 108.8 Sunshine hours 160.3 163.3 189.0 205.0 213.0 182.0 120.0 152.5 176.2 198.8 153.2 152.6 2,066.0 Source: Korea Meteorological Administration 
Seoul is divided into 25 gu (구; 區) (district). The gu vary greatly in area (from 10 to 47 km2) and population (from less than 140,000 to 630,000). Songpa has the most people, while Seocho, the largest area. The government of each gu handles many of the functions that are handled by city governments in other jurisdictions. Each gu is divided into "dong" (동; 洞) or neighbourhoods. Some gu have only a few dong while others like Jongno-gu have a very large number of distinct neighborhoods. Gu of Seoul consist of 522 administrative dongs (행정동) in total. Dong are also sub-divided into 13,787 tong (통; 統), which are further divided into 102,796 ban in total.
- Dobong District (도봉구; 道峰區)
- Dongdaemun District (동대문구; 東大門區)
- Dongjak District (동작구; 銅雀區)
- Eunpyeong District (은평구; 恩平區)
- Gangbuk District (강북구; 江北區)
- Gangdong District (강동구; 江東區)
- Gangnam District (강남구; 江南區)
- Gangseo District (강서구; 江西區)
- Geumcheon District (금천구; 衿川區)
- Guro District (구로구; 九老區)
- Gwanak District (관악구; 冠岳區)
- Gwangjin District (광진구; 廣津區)
- Jongno District (종로구; 鍾路區)
- Jung District (중구; 中區)
- Jungnang District (중랑구; 中浪區)
- Mapo District (마포구; 麻浦區)
- Nowon District (노원구; 蘆原區)
- Seocho District (서초구; 瑞草區)
- Seodaemun District (서대문구; 西大門區)
- Seongbuk District (성북구; 城北區)
- Seongdong District (성동구; 城東區)
- Songpa District (송파구; 松坡區)
- Yangcheon District (양천구; 陽川區)
- Yeongdeungpo District (영등포구; 永登浦區)
- Yongsan District (용산구; 龍山區)
Seoul proper is noted for its population density, which is almost twice as concentrated as New York and eight times greater than Rome, though slightly less than that of Paris. The density of its metropolitan area is the highest in the OECD. Nearly all of Seoul's residents are Korean, with some small Chinese and Japanese minorities. As of 2009, the city’s population is 10,208,302. The number of foreigners living in Seoul is 255,501 in 2010 according to Seoul officials. As of the end of June 2011, 10.29 million Republic of Korea citizens lived in the city. This was a .24% decrease from the end of 2010. As of June 2011, 281,780 foreigners were located in Seoul. Of them, 186,631 foreigners (66%) were People's Republic of China citizens of Korean ethnicity. This was a 8.84% increase from the end of 2010 and a 12.85% increase from June of 2010. The next largest group consisted of PRC citizens who are not of Korean ethnicity; 29,901 of them resided in Seoul. The next highest group consisted of the 9,999 United States citizens. The next highest group were the Republic of China (Taiwan) citizens, at 8,717.
As the headquarters for Samsung, LG, Hyundai, Kia and SK, Seoul has become a major business hub. Although it accounts for only 0.6 percent of South Korea's land area, Seoul generates 21 percent of the country's GDP.
A large concentration of international companies are headquartered in Seoul. International banks with branches in Seoul include Citigroup, Deutsche Bank, HSBC, Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan Chase, Barclays, Grupo Santander, UBS, Credit Suisse, UniCredit, Société Générale, Calyon, BBVA, Macquarie Group, ING Bank and Standard Chartered. The Korea Exchange Bank is also headquartered in the city.
The largest market in South Korea, the Dongdaemun Market, is located in Seoul. Myeongdong is a shopping and entertainment area in downtown Seoul with mid- to high-end stores, fashion boutiques and international brand outlets. The nearby Namdaemun Market, named after the Namdaemun Gate, is the oldest continually running market in Seoul. Sinchon is a shopping area that caters mainly to a younger and university student crowd.
Insadong is the cultural art market of Seoul, where traditional and modern Korean artworks, such as paintings, sculptures and calligraphy are sold. Hwanghak-dong Flea Market and Janganpyeong Antique Market also offer antique products. Some shops for local designers have opened in Samcheong-dong, where numerous small art galleries are located. Itaewon caters mainly to foreign tourists and American soldiers based in the city. The Gangnam district is one of the most affluent areas in Seoul and is noted for the fashionable and upscale Apgujeong-dong and Cheongdam-dong areas and the COEX Mall. Wholesale markets include Noryangjin Fisheries Wholesale Market and Garak Market. The Yongsan Electronics Market is the largest electronics market in Asia. The Gasan Digital Complex also has an extensive variety of electronic products.
June 2011: Seoul will have free wifi in outdoor spaces with cost 47.7 billion won ($44 million) project to give residents and visitors Internet access on 10,430 parks, streets and other public places by 2015.
The traditional heart of Seoul is the old Joseon Dynasty city, now the downtown area, where most palaces, government offices, corporate headquarters, hotels, and traditional markets are located. Cheonggyecheon, a stream that runs from west to east through the valley before emptying into the Han River, was for many years covered with concrete, but was recently restored through an urban revival project in 2005. The most historically significant street in Seoul is Jongno, meaning "Bell Street," on which one can find Bosingak, a pavilion containing a large bell. The bell signaled the different times of the day and therefore controlled the four major gates to the city. The only time it is usually rung now is at midnight on New Year's Eve, when it is rung thirty-three times. It was, however, rung on the day that President Kim Dae-jung took office. To the north of downtown is Bukhan Mountain, and to the south is the smaller Namsan. Further south are the old suburbs of Yongsan-gu and Mapo-gu. Across the Han River are the newer and wealthier areas of Gangnam-gu, Seocho-gu and surrounding neighborhoods.
Urban and civil planning was a key concept when Seoul was first designed to serve as a capital in the late 14th century. The Joseon Dynasty built "Five Grand Palaces" in Seoul: Changdeokgung, Changgyeonggung, Deoksugung, Gyeongbokgung and Gyeonghuigung, all of which are located in the district of Jongno-gu and Jung-gu. Among them, Changdeokgung was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1997 as an "outstanding example of Far Eastern palace architecture and garden design". The main palace, Gyeongbokgung. is currently being restored to its original form. The palaces are considered exemplary architecture of the Joseon period. Beside the palaces, Unhyeongung is known for being the royal residence of Regent Daewongun, the father of Emperor Gojong at the end of the Joseon Dynasty.
Seoul has been surrounded by walls that were built to regulate visitors from other regions and protect the city in case of invasion. Pungnap Toseong is a flat earthen wall built at the edge of the Han River which is widely believed to be the site of Wiryeseong. Mongchon Toseong (몽촌토성; 蒙村土城) is another earthen wall built during the Baekje period which is now located inside the Olympic Park. The Castle Walls of Seoul (서울성곽; 서울城郭) are the remaining walls of Seoul from the Joseon Dynasty.
Although many walls and fortresses were demolished, some palace and fortress gates have played a role in the city's heart such as Sungnyemun and Heunginjimun. The gates are more commonly known as Namdaemun (South Great Gate) and Dongdaemun (East Great Gate). Namdaemun was the oldest wooden gate until a 2008 arson attack, and is currently undergoing reconstruction. Situated near the gates are the traditional markets and largest shopping center, Namdaemun Market and Dongdaemun Market.
There are also many buildings constructed with international styles in the late-19th and early-20th centuries. The Independence Gate was built in 1897 to inspire an independent spirit. Seoul Station was opened in 1900 as Gyeongseong Station.
Major modern landmarks in Seoul include the Korea Finance Building, N Seoul Tower, the World Trade Center and the seven-skyscraper residence Tower Palace. These and various high-rise office buildings, like the Seoul Star Tower and Jongno Tower, dominate the city's skyline. Due to its high density, Seoul has a vast array of skyscrapers; the city council is now planning a series of new highrises, including a 640-meter business center in Sangam Digital Media City district and the 523-meter Lotte World 2 Tower in the Jamsil (pronounced "Jam-shil") district of Songpa-gu and Gangdong-gu.
The World Trade Center of Korea, located in Gangnam-gu, hosts various expositions and conferences. Also in Gangnam-gu is the COEX Mall, a large indoor shopping and entertainment complex. Downstream from Gangnam-gu is Yeouido, a island that is home to the National Assembly, major broadcasting studios, and a number of large office buildings, as well as the Korea Finance Building and the world's largest Pentecostal church. The Olympic Stadium, Olympic Park, and Lotte World are located in Songpa-gu, on the south side of the Han River, upstream from Gangnam-gu.
In recognition of all the notable recent buildings erected in the city, in 2010 Seoul was designated the World Design Capital for the year. As of 2011, the Dongdaemun Design Plaza & Park, designed by Zaha Hadid, is still under construction as is the new wave-shaped City Hall.
Seoul is home to over 100 museums, including three national and nine official municipal museums. The National Museum of Korea is the most representative of museums in not only Seoul but all of South Korea. Since its establishment in 1945, the museum has built a collection of 150,000 artifacts. In October 2005, the museum moved to a new building in Yongsan Family Park. The National Folk Museum is situated on the grounds of the Gyeongbokgung Palace in the district of Jongno-gu and uses replicas of historical objects to illustrate the folk history of the Korean people. Bukchon Hanok Village and Namsangol Hanok Village are old residential districts consisting of hanok Korean traditional houses, parks, and museums that allows visitors to experience traditional Korean culture. The War Memorial, one of nine municipal museums in Seoul, offers visitors an educational and emotional experience of various wars in which Korea was involved, including Korean War themes. The Seodaemun Prison is a former prison built during the Japanese occupation, and is currently used as a history museum.
The Seoul Museum of Art and Ilmin Museum of Art have preserved the appearance of the old building that is visually unique from the neighboring tall, modern buildings. The former is operated by Seoul City Council and sits adjacent to Gyeonghuigung Palace, a Joseon dynasty royal palace. For many Korean film lovers from all over the world, the Korean Film Archive is running the Korean Film Museum and Cinematheque KOFA in its main center located in Digital Media City(DMC), Sangam-dong. The Tteok & Kitchen Utensil Museum and Kimchi Field Museum provide information regarding Korean culinary history.
There are also religious buildings that take important roles in Korean society and politics. The Wongudan altar was a sacrificial place where Korean rulers held heavenly rituals since the Three Kingdoms period. Since the Joseon Dynasty adopted Confucianism as its national ideology in the 14th century, the state built many Confucian shrines. The descendants of the Joseon royal family still continue to hold ceremonies to commemorate ancestors at Jongmyo. It is the oldest royal Confucian shrine preserved and the ritual ceremonies continue a tradition established in the 14th century. Munmyo and Dongmyo were built during the same period. Although Buddhism was suppressed by the Joseon state, it has continued its existence. Jogyesa is the headquarters of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism. Hwagyesa and Bongeunsa are also major Buddhist temples in Seoul.
The Myeongdong Cathedral is a landmark of the Myeongdong district and the biggest Catholic church established in Korea. It is a symbol of Christianity in Korea. It was also a focus for political dissent in the late-20th century.
There are many Protestant churches in Seoul. The largest number are Presbyterian, but there are also Methodist, Baptist, and Lutheran churches.
Seoul Central Mosque which is located at Hannam-dong, Yongsan-gu was the first Mosque built in Korea after the Korean War. It is still the only mosque in Seoul, and is a tourist attraction for Koreans who visit on weekends to hear talks given on Islam.
Hi! Seoul Festival is a seasonal cultural festival held four times a year every spring, summer, autumn, and winter in Seoul, South Korea since 2003. It is based on the "Seoul Citizens' Day" held on every October since 1994 to commemorate the 600 years history of Seoul as the capital of the country. The festival is arranged under the Seoul Metropolitan Government.
Namsan Park offers hiking, recreation and views of the downtown Seoul skyline. The N Seoul Tower is located here. Seoul Olympic Park is located in Songpa-gu and was built to host the 1988 Summer Olympics. The Wongaksa Pagoda 10 tier pagoda is situated In Tapgol Park, a small public park with an area of 19,599 m2 (210,962 sq ft). Areas around streams serve as public places for relaxation and recreation. Tancheon stream and the nearby area serve as a large park with paths for both walkers and cyclists. Cheonggyecheon, a stream that runs nearly 6 km through downtown Seoul, is popular among both Seoul residents and tourists. The Seoul metropolitan area accommodates six major parks, including the Seoul Forest, which opened in mid-2005. The Seoul National Capital Area also contains a green belt aimed at preventing the city from sprawling out into neighboring Gyeonggi Province. These areas are frequently sought after by people looking to escape from urban life on weekends and during vacations.
Seoul hosted the 1986 Asian Games commonly known as Asiad, 1988 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games. It also served as one of the host cities of the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Seoul World Cup Stadium hosted the opening ceremony and first game of the tournament.
Domestic sports clubs
- Men's Football
Tier League Club Home Stadium Top K-League FC Seoul Seoul World Cup Stadium 2nd National League N/A N/A 3rd Challengers League Seoul United Madeul Stadium Seoul FC Martyrs Gangbuk Public Stadium
- Women's Football
Tier League Club Home Stadium Top WK-League Seoul City Women's FC To be determined
Seoul is the world hub for E-Sports, this competitive sport gained mainstream popularity in Korea with the help of superstars such as Lim Yo-Hwan.
Games like Starcraft are played like a sport and are aired on TV on stations such as GOMTV and MBC.
Seoul's professional volleyball club, Seoul Woori Capital Dream Six, debuted in the 2009–2010 season.
Seoul features one of the world's most advanced transportation infrastructures that is constantly under expansion. Its system dates back to the era of the Korean Empire, when the first streetcar lines were laid and a railroad linking Seoul and Incheon was completed. Seoul's most important streetcar line ran along Jongno until it was replaced by Line 1 of the subway system in the early 1970s. Other notable streets in downtown Seoul include Euljiro, Teheranno, Sejongno, Chungmuro, Yulgongno, and Toegyero. There are nine major subway lines stretching for more than 250 kilometers, with one additional line planned.
Seoul's bus system is operated by the Seoul Metropolitan Government, with four primary bus configurations available servicing most of the city. Seoul has many large intercity/express bus terminals. These buses connect Seoul with cities throughout South Korea. The Seoul Express Bus Terminal, Central City Terminal and Seoul Nambu Terminal are located in the district of Seocho-gu. In addition, East Seoul Bus Terminal in Gwangjin-gu and Sangbong Terminal in Jungnang-gu operate in the east of the city. To reduce air pollution in the metropolitan area, the municipal government is planning to convert over seven thousand of Seoul's diesel engine buses to natural gas by 2010.
Seoul has a comprehensive subway network that interconnects every district of the city and the surrounding areas. With more than 8 million passengers per day, Seoul has one of the busiest subway systems in the world. The Seoul Metropolitan Subway has 12 lines which serve Seoul, Incheon, Gyeonggi province, western Gangwon province, and northern Chungnam province. In addition, in order to cope with the various modes of transport, Seoul's metropolitan government employs several mathematicians to coordinate the subway, bus, and traffic schedules into one timetable. The various lines are run by Korail, Seoul Metro, Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation, AREX and Metro 9
Seoul is connected to every major city in Korea by rail. Seoul is also linked to most major Korean cities by the KTX high-speed train, which has a normal operation speed of more than 300 km/h (186 mph). Major railroad stations include:
- Seoul Station, Yongsan-gu: Gyeongbu line (KTX/Saemaul/Mugunghwa-ho), Gyeongui line (Saemaul/Commuter)
- Yongsan Station, Yongsan-gu: Honam line (KTX/Saemaul/Mugunghwa), Jeolla/Janghang lines (Saemaul/Mugunghwa)
- Yeongdeungpo Station, Yeongdeungpo-gu: Gyeongbu/Honam/Janghang lines (Saemaul/Mugunghwa)
- Cheongnyangni Station, Dongdaemun-gu: Gyeongchun/Jungang/Yeongdong/Taebaek lines (Mugunghwa)
Two international airports serve Seoul. Gimpo International Airport, formerly in Gimpo but annexed to Seoul in 1963, was for many years (since its original construction during the Korean War) the only international airport serving Seoul. Other domestic airports were also built around the time of the war, including Yeouido.
When it opened in March 2001, Incheon International Airport on Yeongjong island in Incheon changed the role of Gimpo Airport significantly. Incheon is now responsible for almost all international flights and some domestic flights, while Gimpo serves only domestic flights with the exception of flights to Tokyo International Airport (Haneda) in Tokyo, Osaka Kansai International Airport, Hongqiao Airport in Shanghai, and Beijing Capital International Airport in Beijing. This has led to a significant drop in flights from Gimpo Airport.
Meanwhile, Incheon International Airport has become, along with Hong Kong, a major transportation center for East Asia.
Incheon and Gimpo are linked to Seoul by highways, and to each other by the Incheon International Airport Railroad, which is also linked to Incheon line #1. Gimpo is also linked by subway (line No. 5 and #9). The Incheon International Airport Railroad, connecting the airport directly to Seoul Station in central Seoul, was recently opened. Shuttle buses also transfer passengers between Incheon and Gimpo airports.
Seoul is home to the majority of South Korea's most prestigious universities, including Seoul National University, Yonsei University, Korea University, Hanyang University, Sogang University, Joong Ang University, Sung Kyun Kwan University and Kyung Hee University.
Education from grades 1–10 are compulsory. Students spend six years in elementary school, three years in middle school, and three years in high school. Secondary schools generally require that the students wear uniforms. There is no exit exam for graduating from high school, but many students proceeding to the university level are required to take the Korean SAT exam that is held every November.
Seoul is home to various specialized high schools, including three science high schools (Seoul Science High School, Hansung Science High School, and Sejong Science High School), and six foreign language high schools (Seoul Foreign Language High School, Daewon Foreign Language High School, Daeil Foreign Language High School, Hanyoung Foreign Language High School, Myungdeok Foreign Language High School and Ewha Foreign Language High School). Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education comprises 235 college-preparatory high schools, 80 vocational schools, 377 middle schools, and 33 special education schools as of 2009.
- Geography of South Korea
- Mayor of Seoul
- List of Korea-related topics
- List of twin towns and sister cities in South Korea
- List of cities in South Korea
- ^ Since Seoul has no direct equivalent Hanja, the Hangul instead is used here. However the city government designated the Chinese Hanzi name as (首爾; Su-i in RR Romaja and Shǒu'ěr pinyin).
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- ^  Seoul ranks highest in population density among OECD countries-Source-OECD report
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- ^ Park, Chung-a. "Foreign population in Seoul continue to dwindle". Korea Times. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2010/07/113_66455.html.
- ^ "Korean Chinese account for nearly 70% of foreigners in Seoul." The Korea Times. September 11, 2011. Retrieved on September 19, 2011.
- ^ "Welcome to KTC". Lmg.go.kr. http://www.lmg.go.kr/2006iaescsi/generalinfo/seoul.asp.
- ^ "Global : Cities". CNN. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2008/cities/.
- ^ Wifi in All Public Areas
- ^ "Seoul More Enjoyable For a Day". Retrieved 30 July 2008.
Tourism and living information
- i Tour Seoul – The Official Seoul Tourism Guide Site (English)
- VisitSeoul – The Official Seoul Tourism Guide YouTube Channel (English)
- Seoul travel guide from Wikitravel
Preceded by Capital of Baekje
18 BC–475 AD
Capital of Korea Succeeded by Preceded by Capital of South Korea
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Look at other dictionaries:
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